THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVETHE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE
Reproductive system cont…..Reproductive system cont…..
It produces female reproductive cellsIt produces female reproductive cells
It transports these cells for fertilizationIt transports these cells for fertilization
It aids in conception and implantationIt aids in conception and implantation
IT IS ESSENTIAL FOR PREGNANCYIT IS ESSENTIAL FOR PREGNANCY
AND MENTRUATION TO OCCUR!AND MENTRUATION TO OCCUR!
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVEFEMALE REPRODUCTIVE
ORGANSORGANS THE UTERUS- An organ
also known as the
“womb.” It is a pear
shaped organ that houses
a developing fetus. There
are 2 parts: The lower
part which is the cervix
and the main section
which is called the corpus.
THE CERVIX- The
narrow end of the
uterus that is closest
to the vagina.
Known as the “birth
canal,” this joins the
cervix to the outside
of the body.
THE OVARIES- Oval
shaped glands that
produce eggs and
Attached at the upper part of
the uterus, these tubes function
as a traveling tunnel for
mature egg cells to go from the
ovaries to the uterus.
SEX CELLSSEX CELLS
The female sex cell isThe female sex cell is
known as an egg, it is alsoknown as an egg, it is also
called an ovum or ova forcalled an ovum or ova for
They are produced andThey are produced and
formed in the ovariesformed in the ovaries
during the development ofduring the development of
the embryo. They are thethe embryo. They are the
largest cells in the body.largest cells in the body.
During puberty theyDuring puberty they
mature and are releasedmature and are released
from the ovaries in afrom the ovaries in a
process calledprocess called
Menstruation is a process also referred to as aMenstruation is a process also referred to as a
period. Every month after puberty a woman’speriod. Every month after puberty a woman’s
body prepares for pregnancy. A mature egg isbody prepares for pregnancy. A mature egg is
released from the ovaries and travels down thereleased from the ovaries and travels down the
fallopian tubes. When this egg is not fertilizedfallopian tubes. When this egg is not fertilized
by a male sperm the egg and the built up liningby a male sperm the egg and the built up lining
from the uterus (also known as thefrom the uterus (also known as the
endometrium) sheds and releases in a bleedingendometrium) sheds and releases in a bleeding
process through the vagina. The averageprocess through the vagina. The average
length of a period is between 3-7 days.length of a period is between 3-7 days.
FERTILIZATION ANDFERTILIZATION AND
Fertilization occurs when aFertilization occurs when a
woman has released a maturewoman has released a mature
egg. During intercourse theegg. During intercourse the
male releases sperm into themale releases sperm into the
vagina. This sperm travels upvagina. This sperm travels up
into the uterus into theinto the uterus into the
fallopian tubes where typicallyfallopian tubes where typically
one sperm penetrates an egg.one sperm penetrates an egg.
Once this egg, which is nowOnce this egg, which is now
called a zygote has beencalled a zygote has been
fertilized, it travels down tofertilized, it travels down to
the uterus. At this point thethe uterus. At this point the
endometrium is ready and theendometrium is ready and the
egg implants itself into theegg implants itself into the
uterine lining.uterine lining.
Pregnancy is what occurs afterPregnancy is what occurs after
fertilization (conception). Fertilizationfertilization (conception). Fertilization
begins the developmental process forbegins the developmental process for
the egg. Over a period of about 40the egg. Over a period of about 40
weeks the egg will develop from aweeks the egg will develop from a
zygote to an embryo to a fetus.zygote to an embryo to a fetus.
There are 3 trimesters in pregnancy,There are 3 trimesters in pregnancy,
each lasting about 90 days.each lasting about 90 days.
At the beginning of the first trimesterAt the beginning of the first trimester
the brain, spinal cord and heart beginthe brain, spinal cord and heart begin
to form. Around the 6to form. Around the 6thth
week facialweek facial
features, arms and legs will begin tofeatures, arms and legs will begin to
In the second trimester growth
and development will continue.
Around the middle, fetal
movement can be felt. Due to the
stages of development by week 16
ultrasounds are usually
performed because the baby’s sex
can now be determined.
The last trimester is considered
the home stretch. Most of the
weight gain occurs during this
Toward the end of this trimester
the baby’s head descends into the
pelvic cavity in preparation for
labor and delivery.
LABOR AND DELIVERYLABOR AND DELIVERY
There are 3 stages ofThere are 3 stages of
The first stage is known as
early labor. It is the longest
stage, lasting anywhere from
hours to days long. The
contractions are 5 to 20
minutes apart and last until
the cervix is dilated to 3
centimeters. The cervix should
be 100% effaced and the
woman should be at the
birthing center of her choice.
Stage 2 is known as active labor. It can last from 1 to 5 hours.
During this phase cervix dilation occurs faster. The mother will
dilate from 4 to 7 centimeters. Contractions come every 2 to 5
minutes and last from 45 to 60 seconds long. It is the most intense
stage of labor.
The third stage is known as the “transition” stage. Contractions
are every 2 to 3 minutes, and last from 60 to 90 seconds long. This
phase last about 30 to 90 minutes. The cervix goes from 7 to 10
After stage 3 the woman will begin to push with each contraction
she has. In a normal delivery there is no time frame on how long
she will push. The baby’s head is usually the hardest part to push
out. Once this is done the rest of the body will be delivered. Once
the umbilical cord is cut, the delivery of the baby is complete. A
few minutes later the mother will deliver the placenta.