01 Jas

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  • 01 Jas

    1. 1. J.P.Das Developmental Disabilities Centre, Education Building, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada. J.P.Das@ualberta.ca
    2. 2. PASS Theory and CAS Books 1979 19961982 1994
    3. 3. Invocation Let us learn together Let us enjoy the fruits of knowledge Let us grow capable with learning Let us not be jealous Of each other !
    4. 4. J.P.Das University of Alberta Guru=My Prof
    5. 5. J.P.DasUniversityofAlberta A. R. Luria: My Inspiration
    6. 6. AWARENESS CONSCIOUSNESS D ISABILITY PEDAGOGY DEFICIENT MEDICINE ILL SUB-NORMAL SOCIOLOGY RETARDED PSYCHOLOGY DEFICIT MODEL PEDAGOGY COMPETENCE MEDICINE HEALTH NORMALIZATION SOCIOLOGY DIFFERENCE PSYCHOLOGY COMPETENCE MODEL M. Mellero DIVERSITY
    7. 7. Medical Passive / magical cure Physical Biological / prosthetics Cultural Interactive / social intervention Pedagogical Instruction / modifiability
    8. 8. CognitiveCognitive ProcessesProcesses Planning Attention Simultaneous PhonologicalPhonological ProcessesProcesses Analysis Synthesis Rhyming Memory-Sequential Naming ReadingReading Word Identification Passage Comprehension Knowledge BaseKnowledge Base (specific)
    9. 9. Luria (1972) First Functional Unit - Attention Second Functional Unit - Simultaneous and Successive Third Functional Unit - Planning Luria, A. R. (1970). The Functional organization of the brain. Scientific American, 222, 66-78.
    10. 10. Process letters visually Look at sequence of letters •orthography Understand the meaning of the word Convert the word to sound •phonology Act •articulate the sound
    11. 11. Symbolic is magical Logographic is pictoral Alphabetic has many layers Orthographic/irregular words
    12. 12. First seen in writing Children can write this but cannot read it. •2 daddy I em sry tat u r sic Reading by sight may coexist with sound for a while Regular words pronounced correctly Ability to recognize irregular words may be lost
    13. 13. Read aloud Read silently Read parts of the word & process own voice Generate sound Generate meaning Read whole word •lexical phonology Generate meaning
    14. 14. Can be pronounced as whole •lexical phonology Meaning in store Pronounced part by part •sublexical phonology Meaning is searched •Is it missing? Lave Dape Have Cape
    15. 15. based on Uta Firth, 1992 Biological causes Brain Abnormalities Common pathway Cognitive deficit Core problems experience maturation compensation motivation “gene fault” ?? Other system?“gene fault” ? Phonological Mechanism Speech rateWord memorynamingStroop Col-word Poor nonsense readingSlow object naming Inconsistent spelling No regularity effect
    16. 16. RED BLUE GREEN YELLOW RED YELLOW GREEN RED BLUE YELLOW RED YELLOW YELLOW GREEN BLUE GREEN BLUE GREEN RED BLUE GREEN YELLOW RED YELLOW GREEN RED BLUE RED GREEN YELLOW BLUE GREEN YELLOW RED BLUE YELLOW BLUE RED GREEN BLUE
    17. 17. Word Series The child repeats a series of words in the same order the examiner says them Start: Ages 5-7: Item 1Ages 5-7: Item 1 Ages 8-17: Item 4Ages 8-17: Item 4 Discontinue: AfterAfter four consecutivefour consecutive items faileditems failed 1. Wall-Car 2. Shoe-Key ... 10. Cow-Wall-Car-Girl 11. Dog-Car-Girl-Shoe-Key ... 27. Cow-Dog-Shoe-Wall- Man-Car- Girl-Key-Book
    18. 18. Serial recall 1. cow, hot, wall 2. hot, book, wall, man 3. book, man, hot, wall, cow, box Repeat as fast as you can red green purple red green purple red green purple ... man cow wall man cow wall man cow wall ... Name the color of the ink blue green red yellow green yellow blue red
    19. 19. As Morrison (1993) concluded in his review: “the exact role and relative importance of phonemic awareness in reading acquisition and especially in reading disability have not been pinned down (p 293).” Phonological coding improves vastly with the first year of schooling (Morrison, 1993). Therefore it follows logically that phonemic measure taken early in preschool do not predict how fast the children will acquire reading in the first two years of school.
    20. 20. Simultaneous Processes Successive Processes Visual/Orthographic Coding Phonological Coding Assembling Pronunciation Oral Reading
    21. 21. Planning Attention Simultaneous Successive StandardScores Poor Readers are Low in Successive Good Word Readers Poor Word Readers 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 87.68 91.92 88.84 80.12 91.00 96.42 94.53 92.82
    22. 22. Chinese 1-minute reading
    23. 23. Chinese character recognition Use these characters below to create a 2 or 3-character word. 决 卫 Answer : 决:决定 卫:卫兵
    24. 24. SIMULTANEOUS ONE- MINUTE READING Phonological Awareness SUCCESSIVE .66*** Rapid Naming Short-term Memory Orthographic Knowledge .49*** - .50*** .63*** .47** .40*** - .22* -.44*** .31** STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING FOR CHINESE READING DISTAL PROCESSES PROXIMAL PROCESSES READING - .42*** -.30*
    25. 25. SIMULTANEOUS Chinese Character Recognition DISTAL PROCESSES PROXIMAL PROCESSES READING SUCCESSIVE .67*** STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING FOR CHINESE READING Rapid Naming Orthographic Knowledge - .37** .36*** .61*** -.15* .42*** - .35***
    26. 26. End Shantih! Shantih! Shantih!!Shantih! Shantih! Shantih!!
    27. 27. Approaches for developing word reading skill Phonological awareness vs. cognitive abilities remedial programs The chief difference between the two approaches Reading Skills are taught DIRECTLY through phonological training /or/ applying P A S S processes Phonological Awareness & Phonological Memory Explicitly teach (1) the sound structure of spoken language (2 to recall sequence of sounds and/or words, & to manipulate sounds Cognitive Abilities PASS( processes), apart from phonological processes, are developed before word- recognition skills are introduced
    28. 28. SPEECH RATE RECEPTIVE ATTENTION SPEECH RATE FIGURE MEMORY SOUND ISOLATION PHONEME ELISION READING ACHIEVEMENT .48** -.27** -.63** .32** .40** -.33** CONGITIVE PROCESSES PHONOLOGICAL READING
    29. 29. TrTTT Triangle Model
    30. 30. First, the simulations support the observation that dyslexia is often associated with impairments in the representation of phonological information. Degrading these representations causes our models to learn more slowly and to generalize poorly.
    31. 31. Second, the models suggest that dyslexia can also have other causes. Many dyslexics exhibit a general developmental delay in reading rather than a specific phonological deficit.
    32. 32. The modeling suggests that this delay may arise from constitutional factors (e.g., a learning deficit) or experiential ones (e.g., lack of reading experience). Some of these children may be “instructional dyslexics” who were taught using methods that did not incorporate phonics.<Das 2002>
    33. 33. There are two main brain circuits involved in reading: a phonologically- dominant one that develops earlier and an orthography-semantics pathway that develops with additional experience (Pugh et al., 2000).
    34. 34. (Pugh et al., 2000) demonstrated that on reading tasks that required phonological processing, such as determining if two made-up words rhyme, normal readers showed robust connectivity between the angular gyrus and other areas in the back of the left hemisphere, whereas dyslexics did not.
    35. 35. However, normal readers and dyslexics showed similar connectivity between these areas on reading tasks that did not demand phonological processing.
    36. 36. Such research implies that supporting neural connections that are intact can be utilized by dyslexics if active phonological exercises are not demanded of them. <Das :A better look at intelligence. Current Directions,2002,11,28-32>
    37. 37. Appropriate remediation or intervention programs, such as PREP, that do not teach phonics and do not require oral reading, but still enhance successive processing, can be effective in helping dyslexics become better readers.
    38. 38. Successive processing contributes to understanding printed words and comprehending syntax.
    39. 39. Can the model illuminate the difference between reading disabilities associated with a slow rate of word reading and those characterized by a high rate of phonological errors?
    40. 40. Poor readers who are slow but not inaccurate should do poorly on the CAS successive-processing test that demands articulation, as in Speech Rate. This test requires rapid repetition of two or three simple words 10 times. Slow-but-accurate readers should not perform poorly on other Succc.Tests
    41. 41. successive-processing tests (e.g., serial recall of words and sentences) that do not demand fast articulation. In contrast, people who are both slow and inaccurate readers should do poorly on all successive-processing tests. This prediction is yet to be investigated.

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