A. R. Luria: My Inspiration
First Functional Unit
Luria, A. R. (1970). The Functional
organization of the brain.
Scientific American, 222, 66-78.
Process letters visually
Look at sequence of letters
Understand the meaning of the word
Convert the word to sound
•articulate the sound
Symbolic is magical
Logographic is pictoral
Alphabetic has many layers
First seen in writing
Children can write this but cannot read it.
•2 daddy I em sry tat u r sic
Reading by sight may coexist with sound for a
Regular words pronounced correctly
Ability to recognize irregular words may be
Read aloud Read silently
Read parts of the word &
process own voice
Read whole word
Can be pronounced as whole
Meaning in store
Pronounced part by part
Meaning is searched
•Is it missing?
based on Uta Firth, 1992
experience maturation compensation motivation
“gene fault” ??
Other system?“gene fault”
Speech rateWord memorynamingStroop Col-word
Poor nonsense readingSlow object naming Inconsistent spelling No regularity effect
RED BLUE GREEN YELLOW RED
YELLOW GREEN RED BLUE YELLOW
RED YELLOW YELLOW GREEN BLUE
GREEN BLUE GREEN RED BLUE
GREEN YELLOW RED YELLOW GREEN
RED BLUE RED GREEN YELLOW
BLUE GREEN YELLOW RED BLUE
YELLOW BLUE RED GREEN BLUE
The child repeats a series of words in the
same order the examiner says them
Ages 5-7: Item 1Ages 5-7: Item 1
Ages 8-17: Item 4Ages 8-17: Item 4
four consecutivefour consecutive
items faileditems failed
1. cow, hot, wall
2. hot, book, wall, man
3. book, man, hot, wall, cow, box
Repeat as fast as you can
red green purple red green purple red green purple ...
man cow wall man cow wall man cow wall ...
Name the color of the ink
blue green red yellow
green yellow blue red
As Morrison (1993) concluded in his review: “the exact role
and relative importance of phonemic awareness in reading
acquisition and especially in reading disability have not been
pinned down (p 293).”
Phonological coding improves vastly with the first year
of schooling (Morrison, 1993).
Therefore it follows logically that phonemic measure taken
early in preschool do not predict how fast the children will
acquire reading in the first two years of school.
DISTAL PROCESSES PROXIMAL PROCESSES READING
STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING FOR CHINESE READING
Shantih! Shantih! Shantih!!Shantih! Shantih! Shantih!!
Approaches for developing word reading skill
Phonological awareness vs. cognitive abilities remedial programs
The chief difference between the two approaches
Reading Skills are taught DIRECTLY through
phonological training /or/ applying P A S S processes
Phonological Awareness &
(1) the sound structure of
(2 to recall sequence of
sounds and/or words, & to
PASS( processes), apart from
phonological processes, are
developed before word-
recognition skills are introduced
First, the simulations support the
observation that dyslexia is often
associated with impairments in the
representation of phonological
information. Degrading these
representations causes our models to
learn more slowly and to generalize
Second, the models suggest that
dyslexia can also have other causes.
Many dyslexics exhibit a general
developmental delay in reading rather
than a specific phonological deficit.
The modeling suggests that this delay
may arise from constitutional factors
(e.g., a learning deficit) or experiential
ones (e.g., lack of reading experience).
Some of these children may be
“instructional dyslexics” who were
taught using methods that did not
incorporate phonics.<Das 2002>
There are two main brain circuits
involved in reading: a phonologically-
dominant one that develops earlier and
an orthography-semantics pathway that
develops with additional experience
(Pugh et al., 2000).
(Pugh et al., 2000) demonstrated that
on reading tasks that required
phonological processing, such as
determining if two made-up words
rhyme, normal readers showed robust
connectivity between the angular gyrus
and other areas in the back of the left
hemisphere, whereas dyslexics did not.
However, normal readers and dyslexics
showed similar connectivity between
these areas on reading tasks that did
not demand phonological processing.
Such research implies that supporting
neural connections that are intact can
be utilized by dyslexics if active
phonological exercises are not
demanded of them.
<Das :A better look at intelligence.
Appropriate remediation or intervention
programs, such as PREP, that do not
teach phonics and do not require oral
reading, but still enhance successive
processing, can be effective in helping
dyslexics become better readers.
Successive processing contributes to
understanding printed words and
Can the model illuminate the difference
between reading disabilities associated
with a slow rate of word reading and
those characterized by a high rate of
Poor readers who are slow but not
inaccurate should do poorly on the CAS
successive-processing test that
demands articulation, as in Speech
Rate. This test requires rapid repetition
of two or three simple words 10 times.
Slow-but-accurate readers should not
perform poorly on other Succc.Tests
successive-processing tests (e.g., serial
recall of words and sentences) that do
not demand fast articulation. In
contrast, people who are both slow and
inaccurate readers should do poorly on
all successive-processing tests. This
prediction is yet to be investigated.