Ling 502   non-pulmonic airstream mechanism (presentation)
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Ling 502   non-pulmonic airstream mechanism (presentation) Ling 502 non-pulmonic airstream mechanism (presentation) Document Transcript

  • Philippine Normal University Taft Ave., Manila College of Languages Linguistics, and Literature DEPARTMENT OF LINGUISTICS, BILINGUAL EDUCATION, & LITERATURE Ling 502 (Articulatory Phonetics) Dr. Gina O. Gonong _____________________________________________________________________________________________ NON-PULMONIC AIRSTREAM MECHANISMS I. Things to remember about speech production: - Speech results from the displacement of air through the airways (trachea, larynx, and pharynx) mouth, and nose. - Airstream is the air that we used for speech production. - Most world language’s sounds are produced by pushing the air out of the lungs through the vocal tract. Since the air originates from the lungs, it is pulmonic, and since it is pushed out, it is egressive. II. Different Non-Pulmonic Airstream Mechanisms A. Ejectives a.1 Describing Ejectives o Speech sounds made by when the air in the mouth is pressurized by an upward movement of the closed glottis, and then released suddenly (Fromkin, Rodman, and Hyams, 2003) o These are stops made with a glottalic egressive airstream mechanism (Ladefodge and Maddieson, 2010).
  • o Ejectives are produced when the glottis is completely closed and, at the same time, there is a closure in the oral cavity. When the glottis moves upward, the air between the glottis and the articulators is compressed. As the articulation is released this pressurized air is rapidly expelled from the oral cavity, creating an ejective puff of air. Ejectives are also referred to as explosives or glottalized consonants. o The diacritic indicating an ejective is an apostrophe [ ‘ ] placed after a symbol of a voiceless consonant (for example, [t’], [ts’], or [x’]) (Ladefodge and Johnson, 2010). o Ejectives of different kinds occur in various languages such as Native American languages (e.g. Wintu, South Eastern Pomo, Lakhota, and Navajo); African languages (e.g. Hausa), and languages spoken in Caucasus (e.g. Georgia and Kabardia). (Ladfodge and Maddieson, 1996 and Ladefodge and Johnson, 2010) e.g. Lahkota /p’o/ - foggy /t’uʃǝ/ - at all cost /k’u/ - to give Hausa /k’a:rá/ - increase vs. /ka:rá/- put near /s’a:rá/ - arrange vs. /sa:rá/ - cut o Most ejectives in the languages of the world are ejective stops. Some languages also have ejective affricates, and a few have ejective fricatives. (Cleghorn and Rugg, 2010)
  • a.2 Producing Ejectives o Learning to produce ejectives is relatively easy. Stops are probably the easiest sounds to learn as ejectives. o Remember to practice only with voiceless sounds, as it is not possible to produce a voiced ejective.
  • o In producing ejective stops, the larynx is raise just before the release of the consonant. You can practice this muscle movement by pretending to spit a small bit of grass off the tip of your tongue. Protrude your tongue tip between your lips and draw it in sharply, blowing the imaginary fragment away. If you can produce a glottalic air stream like this, try doing the same with [p], [t], and [k]. o Hold your breath and say [k] several times in a row, loud enough so that someone sitting next to you could hear it. o Another suggestion is to expel all of the air from your lungs and then try to say [k]. This will result in using the glottis to produce the air necessary for this sound. Exercise A.1 : Reproducing Ejectives Repeat the following set of sentences after the recording, pronouncing all of the voiceless stops as ejectives. 1. p’eter p’ip’er p’icked p’ep’ers 2. k’atherine k’ik’ed the k’ing
  • 3. t’ake t’ommy t’o the t’rain 4. s’is’ter s’ue s’its s’ewing s’ocks 5. f’ive f’unny f’oxes f’uss 6. t ’ʃ ew t ’ʃ unky t ’ʃ ocolate t ’ʃ ips a.3Recognizing Ejectives o Ejectives are usually distinguishable by the sharp burst of air that accompanies their release. This burst is a characteristic of the glottalic air stream that produces ejectives. (Cleghorn and Rugg, 2010) Exercise: Recognizing Ejectives
  • Listen carefully to each utterance in the next exercise and respond with “ejective” or “no.” 1. [ t ]ɑ ɑ No 2. [ t’ ]ɑ ɑ Ejective 3. [k’ ]ɑ Ejective 4. [n ko]ɑ No 5. [ap’ ]ɑ Ejective 6. [lope] No 7. [ŋup ]ʊ No 8. [ut’ ]ʊ Ejective B. Implosives b.2 Decription of Implosives o Sounds produced with an ingressive airstream that involves movement of the glottis (Fromkin, Rodman, and Hyams, 2003).
  • o For implosive sounds, the air stream is set in motion by the glottis and moves inward. This is described as ingressive glottalic air. (Cleghorn and Rugg, 2010). o Implosives occur contrastively in approximately 10–15% of the world’s languages. Stops are the most common implosive sounds, but some languages contain implosive and affricates as well. (Reghron and Rugg, 2010). It is found languages such as Sindhi (an Indo-Aryan language spoken in India and Pakistan) and several African (Uduk, Ugandan, and Nilo-Saharan languages) and Native American languages (Ladfoged and Maddieson, 2010) o The IPA indicates that a sound is implosive with an upper right hook on the base symbol (for example [ ]ɓ ). The official symbols for voiceless implosive stops do not correspond with those for egressive voiceless stops. Voiceless implosives are represented by placing an Under-ring [ c] beneath or an Over-ring [ _] above the symbol for the voiced implosive at the same point of articulation (for example, [ c]ɓ or [ _]ɠ ). o In the production of implosives, the downward moving of the larynx is not usually closed. The air in the lungs is still being pushed out, and some of it passes between the vocal folds, keeping them in motion so that the sound is voiced (Ladefoged and Johnson, 2010).
  • b.2 Production of Implosives
  • - Most people find voiced implosives easier to produce than voiceless ones. To start with the voiced velar implosive [ ]ɠ , try to imitate the “glug, glug” of water being poured from a bottle: [ ]ɠəʔ ɠəʔ ɠəʔ ɠəʔ (Cleghorn and Rugg, 2010). - In the same way, you may be able to produce the voiced velar implosive [ ]ɠ by imitating the croaking of a bull frog: [ɠəʔ ɠəʔ ɠəʔ ]ɠəʔ If this helps you to articulate the velar implosive, try the other implosives [ ]ɓ , [ ]ɗ , [ ]ʄ , and [ ]ʛ by analogy. (Cleghorn and Rugg, 2010) - To produce voiceless implosives, try whispering the exercises above. Practice this until you can do it with [ c]ɓ , [ c]ɗ , [ c]ʄ , [ _]ɠ , and [ c]ʛ , then work on using voiced vowels between the voiceless implosives (Cleghorn and Rugg, 2010) Exercise B.1 : Producing Implosives Practice saying the sentences after the recording in the following exercise. Practice these until the implosive sounds. 1. ɓig ɓad ɓoy 2. ɠooey ɠreen ɠrapes 3. ɗoes ɗotty ɗream 4. lɓ eter lɓ i lɓ er lɓ icked lɓ e l lɓ ɓ ers 5. .ɠ atherine .ɠ icked the .ɠ ing 6. lɗ ake lɗ ommy lɗ o the lɗ rain C. Clicks
  • c.1 Describing Clicks o Clicks are speech sounds made by an ingressive airstream mechanism that produces sounds by sucking air into the mouth and forcing it between the articulators to produce a sharp sound. (Fromkin, Rodman, and Hyams, 2003). o Clicks are the only speech sounds produced with a lingual ingressive air stream. Lingual ingressive air is set in motion by the tongue and moves inward ( Cleghorn and Rugg, 2010) o Clicks occur in languages in Southern Africa (Zulu and Xhosa) and East Africa (Dahalo). However, clicks do not occur in any ordinary languages outside Africa although they are used as extralinguistic signals in other societies. (Ladefoged and Maddieson, 1996). o Clicks sometimes occur in English, but not as a part of normal words. They are restricted to special expressions such as to show pity (written as “tsk, tsk, tsk”) or the noise sometimes used to get a horse to quicken its pace (often spelled “tchlick”) (Cleghorn and Rugg, 2010). o
  • c.2 Producing Clicks - Most of the clicks presented in this lesson are rather simple to produce. A bilabial click, for example, is nothing more than a kiss, while the dental click [ ]ǀ is quite similar to the expression “tsk, tsk, tsk.” (Cleghorn and Rugg, 2010) - The action of the tongue that produces the inward air stream for clicks may be thought of as a sucking action similar to that of a baby sucking a bottle. If this action is imitated while saying [t], the result will be the alveolar click [ ]ǃ . Once the proper tongue action is achieved, itvis a simple matter to change the point of articulation to pronounce any of the clicks on the chart above. (Cleghorn and Rugg, 2010) - These are the most common clicks in spoken language:  a.) the bilabial click (symbolized by a Bull’s Eye [ ]ʘ );  b.) the dental click (called Pipe [ ]),ǀ  c.) the alveolar or alveopalatal click (represented by an Exclamation Point [ ]ǃ ),  d.) the palatal or palatalalveolar click (called Double-barred Pipe [ ]ǂ ),  e.) the alveolar lateral click (symbolized by a Double Pipe [ ]ǁ ). - Contrasts involving clicks in Xhosa. (Ladefoged and Johnson, 2010) e.g /ukúk|ola/ - to grind fine /ukúk!o a/ɓ - to break stones /úk||olo/ - peace /ukúŋ|oma/ - to admire /ukúŋ!ola/ - to climb up /ukúŋ||i a/ɓ - to put on clothes
  • Exercise c.1: Producing Voiceless Clicks 1. a) [ ]ʘɑ b) [ ]ɑʘɑ c) [ ŋ_ ]ɑ ʘɑ d) [ x ]ɑʘ ɑ 2. a) [ ]ǀɑ b) [ ]ɑǀɑ c) [ ŋ_ ]ɑ ǀɑ d) [ x ]ɑǀ ɑ 3. a) [ ]ǃɑ b) [ ]ɑǃɑ c) [ ŋ_ ]ɑ ǃɑ d) [ x ]ɑǃ ɑ 4. a) [ ]ǂɑ b) [ ]ɑǂɑ c) [ ŋ_ ]ɑ ǂɑ d) [ x ]ɑǂ ɑ 5. a) [ ]ǁɑ b) [ ]ɑǁɑ c) [ ŋ_ ]ɑ ǁɑ d) [ x ]ɑǁ ɑ Exercise c.2: Producing Voiced Clicks 1. a) [g ]ʘɑ b) [ g ]ɑ ʘɑ c) [ ŋ ]ɑ ʘɑ d) [ g x ]ɑ ʘ ɑ 2. a) [g ]ǀɑ b) [ g ]ɑ ǀɑ c) [ ŋ ]ɑ ǀɑ d) [ g x ]ɑ ǀ ɑ 3. a) [g ]ǃɑ b) [ g ]ɑ ǃɑ c) [ ŋ ]ɑ ǃɑ d) [ g x ]ɑ ǃ ɑ 4. a) [g ]ǂɑ b) [ g ]ɑ ǂɑ c) [ ŋ ]ɑ ǂɑ d) [ g x ]ɑ ǂ ɑ 5. a) [g ]ǁɑ b) [ g ]ɑ ǁɑ c) [ ŋ ]ɑ ǁɑ d) [ g x ]ɑ ǁ ɑ References Cleghorn T.L. and Rugg, N.M. (2010). Comprehensive articulatory phonetics. Retrieved July 11, 2012 from http://www.scribd.com/doc/51737217/Comprehensive-Articulatory-Phonetics-2010 Fromkin, V.; Rodman, R.; and Hyams, N.. (2003). An introduction to language.. United States: Heinle. Ladefodge, P. and Johnon K. (2010) A course in phonetics 6th Edition. Massachusetts: Wadsworth, Cenage Learning. Ladefodge, Peter and Maddieson, Ian. (1996). The sounds of world’s languages. Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing Inc. Prepared by:
  • Jhoana Catiter Bernard Paderes