Future of the broadcasting spectrum


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An overview of the future of the Broadcast spectrum and of new Broadcasting applications.

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  • Los Angeles existing DTV station KMEX-TV, ch. 35, was selected. Tx2 and Tx3 are hypothetical. Transmitter parameters: KMEX-TV: 400 kW ERP, 98 m AGL, dir antenna pointing South-West ° Tx2: 10 kW ERP, 50 m AGL, dir antenna pointing West Tx3: 5 kW ERP, 50 m AGL, dir antenna pointing North-East Receiver parameters: Fixed: Field strength 41 dBuV/m, 90% service availability, antenna height 10 m Mobile: C/N+I = 15 dB, 90% service availability, antenna height 1.5 m Path Loss: CRC-PREDICT v3.21, elevation and Land cover data using Computamaps (500 m resolution) Echo cancelation: The equalizer values used for echo cancelation were -10 to 45 usec and 3 dB C/N+I diff., these values may need to be reviewed and would consequently affect the coverage slightly. Low power transmitter, combined with directional antennas and the terrain elevation (mountains) were used to limit self-interference. Addition of gap filler or coverage extender in the SFN needs to be done carefully, it is easy to cause self-interference, need for advance simulation tool for planning.
  • Red : Completed Orange: LPTV underway Yellow: In progress Green: not started
  • Future of the broadcasting spectrum

    1. 1. Technologies and the Future of the Broadcast Spectrum Communications Research Centre Bernard Caron, Vice-President, Broadcast Technologies Research Warning: The views presented are those of the author only.
    2. 2. Broadcasting Technologies at CRC <ul><li>CRC is the primary technical centre of excellence in broadcasting technologies in Canada, and the only organization with a R&D program and unique facilities dedicated to Broadcasting. </li></ul><ul><li>CRC provides supports for Spectrum Management to the Canadian Department of Industry. </li></ul><ul><li>CRC works with Private Industry and other Research organizations through collaborations, Service Contracts and IP licencing in Canada and around the world </li></ul>
    3. 3. The Future of the Broadcast Spectrum <ul><li>Spectrum for : </li></ul><ul><li>1-OTA digital Broadcasting stations </li></ul><ul><li>2-New Broadcasting Services </li></ul><ul><li>3-Other telecommunication systems </li></ul>
    4. 4. 1-Spectrum for OTA Digital broadcasting stations <ul><li>Scenarios for Digital TV </li></ul><ul><li>Scenarios for Digital Radio </li></ul><ul><li>More Efficient Use of Spectrum for OTA </li></ul><ul><li>Improving Broadcasting Coverage </li></ul>
    5. 5. Possible Scenarios for OTA DTV <ul><li>Full transition from analog to digital (HDTV) services (e.g. USA) </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replicate analog coverage with DTV in major centres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free (or low cost) Satellite or cable services elsewhere </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiplex Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HDTV services OTA in large cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SDTV services (Shared DTV multiplex) elsewhere </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Switch off OTA TV. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replaced by cable, IPTV, satellite, Internet and Wi-Max distribution </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Possible Scenarios for Radio <ul><li>Full transition from analog to digital radio in the AM and FM bands (e.g.All-digital HD Radio,DRM+, DRM) </li></ul><ul><li>Backward FM compatible Digital Radio (e.g. HD-Radio) </li></ul><ul><li>Continuation of analog services in the FM band on </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of radio to the TV band </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer of AM radio services to another band </li></ul><ul><li>New digital radio/multimedia services  in dense urban areas only  (e.g. DMB on L-band) </li></ul><ul><li>Radio distribution using ATSC M/H, 3-4G, Wi-Fi, WIMAX… </li></ul>
    7. 7. Efficient use of spectrum by OTA DTV <ul><li>Distributed Transmitters Networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A number of low-power transmitters replace one centrally located high-power station </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coverage can be shaped to reach only populated areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential for reduced construction and operating costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential for spectrum saving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs for new tower sites may be problematic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Replace off-channel repeaters by a Single Frequency Network (SFN) for regional, provincial or national coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple SD TV stations on the same channel </li></ul><ul><li>More efficient compression techniques: H.264/AVC (toward 1080P) </li></ul><ul><li>More efficient transmission techniques: Modulation, Smart Antenna… </li></ul>
    8. 8. Possible Distributed Transmitters Network: TV Ontario
    9. 9. Need to Improve Broadcasting Coverage <ul><li>Mobile-Handheld reception </li></ul><ul><li>Portable reception </li></ul><ul><li>Indoor reception </li></ul><ul><li>Subway reception </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Replication of Analog Reception area in FM,VHF and UHF </li></ul><ul><li>More uniform and better coverage </li></ul><ul><li>More targeted coverage </li></ul>
    10. 10. Improv ing Coverage <ul><li>Distributed transmitters networks (DTN) </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive and directional antenna performance. </li></ul><ul><li>VHF DTV Reception </li></ul><ul><li> In Québec City on Channel 12 </li></ul><ul><li> Poor performance with ‘’HDTV Ready’’ antenna </li></ul><ul><li>Rabbit ears better at VHF </li></ul><ul><li>Coverage Prediction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CRC-COVLAB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used with Distributed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmitters networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Try it free on-line at Lrcov.crc.ca. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See Demo in CRC Booth at NAB </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Improvements to ATSC DTV Coverage : Prediction of SFN Coverage Example of CRC-COVLAB prediction for Mobile/Fixed Fixed Mobile
    12. 12. 2-Spectrum for New Broadcast Services <ul><li>Mobile Television </li></ul><ul><li>Radio services using DTV Transmitters </li></ul><ul><li>3-D TV </li></ul><ul><li>New Applications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligent Transportation Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Alerting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Datacasting </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Mobile Television <ul><li>Various distribution technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ATSC Mobile DTV -- DVB-H </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wi-Fi/WiMax -- DMB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualcom/MediaFlo -- 3-4G wireless networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Broadcasters advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spectrum availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dual Transmission Mode: Mobile-Fixed (ATSC-M/H DVB-T/H, ISDB-T) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Own Content. Local content in particular. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spectrum Efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One problem: Lack of built-in receivers in handheld devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Wi-Fi Hot Spot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External receivers connected to devices (USB) </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Technologies for Mobile Broadcasting <ul><li>Mobile Broadcasting transmission systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HD-Radio, DAB, T-DMB,DRM, DRM+ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ATSC Mobile DTV , MediaFlo, DVB-H, ISDB-T </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More efficient Audio/Video compression technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wavelet-based codec </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frame rate conversion (CRC-FRC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-frame motion estimation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bio-inspired audio coding algorithms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Investigations on Multimedia Broadcasting using DAB-DMB, Wi-Fi, Wi-MAX technologies in the VHF-UHF Band </li></ul><ul><li>Smart Mobile UHF-VHF Antenna </li></ul>
    15. 15. Radio Services using DTV Transmitters <ul><li>Use ATSC Mobile DTV transmissions for radio services instead </li></ul><ul><li>Radio (24-48 kbps/program) and Mobile TV service (400 kbps/program) </li></ul><ul><li>10-20 Radio stations in one Mobile Channel </li></ul><ul><li>Could include images: Album Cover, Publicity... </li></ul><ul><li>Text information: Traffic , Weather, Headlines </li></ul><ul><li>Needs receivers </li></ul>
    16. 16. 3-D Video <ul><li>Popularity of 3-D Cinema </li></ul><ul><li>Future Upgrade to HDTV standard </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of glass-based 3-D Display </li></ul><ul><li>No standard distribution format yet. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Spectrum Efficient 3-D Video <ul><li>Investigation on compression technologies for 3-D video </li></ul><ul><li>Small increase in data requirement </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion of 2-D video </li></ul><ul><li>programs to 3-D (Demo in NAB International Research Park) </li></ul>
    18. 18. New Applications for Broadcasting Technologies <ul><li>Intelligent Transportation Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Public Alerting </li></ul><ul><li>Datacasting (e.g. Tagging) </li></ul><ul><li>Non-real time data </li></ul><ul><li>Smart Appliances (FM-RDS) </li></ul>
    19. 19. 3-Spectrum to be shared with Others <ul><li>Digital dividend after the analog transmissions switch off </li></ul><ul><ul><li>United States 12-6-2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canada 31-8-2011 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UK end of 2012 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan 24-7-2011 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia 2015 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European Community Recommendation: 1-1-2012 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Various systems could share the spectrum currently allocated to broadcast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE 802.22 Wireless Regional Area Networks (Unlicenced Devices) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rural and Remote Broadband Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MediaFlo, ATSC Mobile DTV, DVB-H, DMB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wi-Fi, LTE or WIMAX in the Broadcast Band </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. The Broadcasting Systems of T omor r ow <ul><li>Large Local Area </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless </li></ul><ul><li>Broadband </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible: Audio, Mobile TV, HDTV, 3-D, Data </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated with other telecommunication systems to provide two-way interactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal for mass distribution of multimedia content. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Viewers Production An example of integration Distribution Place shifting Distribution Rights Cable TV IPTV Broadcast transmitters Satellite WI-FI Internet Cellular
    22. 22. A possible scenario for the spectrum (…technically) <ul><li>UHF-28 (Distributed Transmitters for ATSC Mobile DTV) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 HDTV Program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Mobile TV Programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 Radio Stations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UHF-32 (Distributed Transmitters for ATSC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SDTV Programs from 5 local stations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UHF-63-64/68-69 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allocated to Public Safety Telecommunication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UHF-52 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadband Wi-Fi </li></ul></ul><ul><li>VHF-6 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital radio stations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Radio Mondiale </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HD-Radio (IBOC) </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. A challenge: Broadcast Compatible Users Device <ul><li>Multi-standard receivers </li></ul><ul><li>USB Connections </li></ul><ul><li>Bluetooth Connections </li></ul><ul><li>Wi-Fi Repeaters </li></ul><ul><li>Software Defined Radio (SDR) </li></ul><ul><li>Open Devices: e.g. Android </li></ul><ul><li>See CRC Demo in the CRC Booth </li></ul><ul><li>at the NAB International Research Park </li></ul>
    24. 24. Conclusions <ul><li>OTA Broadcasting continue to evolve and to play a major role. </li></ul><ul><li>Radio and Television will be one part of an interactive immersive multimedia experience . </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimate goal is to get anything, anytime, anywhere … on a variety of devices. </li></ul><ul><li>spectrum currently allocated to broadcast will be used around the world by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital OTA broadcast stations to distribute fixed and mobile TV, Radio and Data services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Broadcast services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others telecommunication systems and services </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Expected Achievement Thank you Communications Research Centre Bernard Caron, Vice-President Broadcast Technologies Research 613-998-2869, bernard.caron@crc.ca www.crc.ca