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Olivia Carlson (Agriculture Resource Conservationist); Brian Trexler (Beef Farmer); Clyde Myers (Technical Support Specialist); Larry Llyod ( Senior Ecologist)

Olivia Carlson (Agriculture Resource Conservationist); Brian Trexler (Beef Farmer); Clyde Myers (Technical Support Specialist); Larry Llyod ( Senior Ecologist)

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  • 1. Working with Public/Private Program Incentives A Farmers Experience
  • 2. “Where to begin” – “Who to Ask” – “ Why is it Important” Olivia Carlson Agriculture Resource Conservationist Berks County Conservation District
  • 3. “Where to begin” • Develop Farm Plan (Ideal Operation) – Commodities • Animals • Crops – Farmstead • Buildings • Manure Storage • Roadways/Walkways • Future Expansion – Cropland – Pastureland – Naturel Resources
  • 4. “Who to Ask” • Discussion with: – Fellow Farmers/Landowners – Agencies/Organizations – Accountant/Banker/Advisor Participants
  • 5. “Who to Ask” • Berks County Conservation District • Natural Resources Conservation Service • Berks County Conservancy • Pen-Vest---Pa. Dept. of Ag. • Game Commission
  • 6. • Install Conservation Practices with the Help of Technical and Financial Support • Eliminate Resource Concerns • Improve Water Quality “ Why is it Important”
  • 7. “My Farm” – “ My Plans” – “Why I Got Involved”
  • 8. “My Farm” • Albany Township-South of Blue Mountain on Bethel Road • 5th Generation Farm • Potatoes-Dairy-Crop Farm • Wife- Works Off Farm, Three Children • 193 Owned Acres • 25 Rented Acres
  • 9. Future  90 Acres-Cropland  78 Acres-Rotational Grazing Land  4 Acres Conservation Land  40 Cow/Calf Pairs on Grass  30 Grass Fed Feeders Past  250 Acres Cropland  23 Acres Continuous Graze Acres  22 Acres Seasonal Pasture  35 Dairy Cows “My Farm”
  • 10. “ My Plans”  Dairy Facility Needed Major Upgrading  Dairy Farming 365 Day Job  Milk Price Determine by Big Companies/Cooperatives Not Supply and Demand  About 50 Acres of Land to Steep and Shale Soil Not Great for Crop Production  Changed from Dairy with Some Continuous Grazing to Beef Cow/Calf with Feeders on Intensive Grazing System  Market Grass Fed Beef Direct
  • 11. “Why I Got Involved”  Had Some Issues with Stream  Family Felt That Someday Conservation Practices Would be Mandatory So Why Not Accept the Technical and Financial Incentives  Move into Intensive Grazing
  • 12. “Why I Got Involved” Concerns  What You Don’t Know, You Think the Worst  Organizations Telling You What to Do and Not Seeing the Farmers’ and Production Side  Lose Pasture Land Because of Meandering Stream  Maintaince Along the Stream with Stream Bank Fencing
  • 13. “Why I Got Involved” Pluses  Financial Incentives for Practices  Grazing Benefits-More Forage, More Milk and More Meat Per Acre  Manure Handling  Improved Stream Quality  Farm Aesthetics Drawbacks  Trash at Crossings  Finding Calves in Grasses in the Stream Buffer  Unwanted Plants in Stream Buffer(will chop down every few years)
  • 14. Larry Lloyd Senior Ecologist Berks County Conservancy “The Conservation Practices”
  • 15. Watershed 1,500 Acres
  • 16. “The Conservation Practices” Forage/Grass/Tree Cover  Prevents Erosion  Consumes Nutrients  Increases Production  Farm Aesthetics
  • 17. “Forage/Grass/Tree Cover”
  • 18. “Forage/Grass/Tree Cover”
  • 19. “The Conservation Practices” Surface Water Mediation  Prevents Erosion  Consumes Nutrients and Surface Runoff  Slows Downstream Runoff Improves Groundwater Recharge  Farm Aesthetics
  • 20. “Surface Water Mediation”
  • 21. “Surface Water Mediation”
  • 22. “The Conservation Practices” Stream Bank Erosion  Soil Loss  Degrades Wildlife Habitat  Detracts from Farm Aesthetics
  • 23. Stream Bank Erosion
  • 24. “The Conservation Practices” Stream Crossings  Prevents Erosion Reduces Animal Contact with Stream  Stabilizes Animal Crossing  Allows More Appropriate Animal Watering Site
  • 25. “Stream Crossings”
  • 26. “Stream Crossings”
  • 27. “Stream Crossings”
  • 28. “Stream Crossings”
  • 29. “The Conservation Practices” Stream Bank Fencing/Riparian Buffer  Prevents Stream Bank Erosion  Filters Nutrients  Reduces Animal Health Problems  Improves Wildlife Habitat  Farm Aesthetics
  • 30. “Stream Bank Fencing”
  • 31. “Stream Bank Fencing”
  • 32. “Stream Bank Fencing”
  • 33. Riparian Buffer
  • 34. “The Production Practices” Clyde Myers Technical Support Specialist Natural Resources Conservation Service In Berks & Schuylkill County’s
  • 35. “The Production Practices” Intensive Grazing System  Basics  Production and/or Exercise  All land that will be used for pasture is divided into paddocks  Animals are rotated around the paddocks, entering when plant species reach a height of eight to ten inches  Removed when plants are grazed to three to four inches
  • 36. “The Production Practices” Intensive Grazing System  Basics  Return after re-growth reaches the 8-10 inch height  Paddock size small enough that all forage consumed in 3 days or less  This period will be as short as 15 days in the spring and as long as 45 days in summer  In spring/fall - ½ to 1 acre/ AU  In summer - 1 1/2 to 2 acres
  • 37. “The Production Practices” Grazing System-Major Parts  Land in Pasture  Fencing  External Fencing  Paddock Fencing  Animal Movement  Walkway  Winter  Water System  Manure Handling
  • 38. Land in Pasture  Minimum  Spring/fall - ½ to 1 acre/ AU  Summer - 1 1/2 to 2 acres/AU  Winter and/or Forage Slow Growth  Rotational Lots  NRCS  2 Acres/ AU “The Production Practices”
  • 39. Land in Pasture
  • 40. Land in Pasture Rotational Heavy Use Area
  • 41. “The Production Practices” Fencing  Animal Species  Electric/Nonelectric  Exterior - Critical Confinement  Exclusion  Walkway  Stream Bank  Paddock  Moveable
  • 42. Fencing
  • 43. Exterior 3 + Electrified Strands
  • 44. Walkway 2 Strands
  • 45. Stream Bank Fencing 2 Strands
  • 46. Animal Movement /Walkways  All Paddocks  Improved  Daily Use  Winter  Equipment  Grass  Weekly Use “The Production Practices”
  • 47. Improved Walkway  Depends on soil  Wet/Equipment  Minimum 10’ wide  2 inches minimum of surface material  2 inches binder  4 inches base  Nonwoven geotextile
  • 48. Animal Walkway
  • 49. “The Production Practices” Water System  Source – (Well-Spring-Surface)  Animal Species  Distance/Topography  Equipment  Pump/Gravity  Pipeline Size (1” – 1 ½”)  Tub Capacity (100 Gal.)  Frost Free  Winter  Extended Grazing
  • 50. Water System - Portable Trough
  • 51. Water System - Crossing Stream
  • 52. Water System - Pipeline Size (1” – 1 ½”)
  • 53. Water System – Frost Free > 30”
  • 54. “The Production Practices” Manure Handling/Storage  Solid/Liquid  Animal Species  Weight, Number, Time in Confinement  Time of Year  Barn/Heavy Use Area (lot) 60% Where Eat & Drink “Keep Clean Water Clean”
  • 55. Manure Storage/ Handling - Preconstruction
  • 56. Manure Storage/Handling  Cemented Barnyard  Sidewalls for Bedded Pack  Covered
  • 57. Manure Storage - Bedded Pack Manure Storage  Roof  Spouting
  • 58. Farm Grazing Map
  • 59. Questions? Please Contact Us At:  Olivia Carlson, Agricultural Resource Conservationist Berks County Conservation District 1238 County Welfare Road | Suite 200 | Leesport, PA 19533 Olivia.Carlson@berkscd.com  Larry Lloyd, Senior Ecologist Berks County Conservancy 25 North 11th Street Reading, PA 19601 610-372-4992 ext. 112 Larry.lloyd@berks-conservancy.org  Clyde Myers, NRCS- Technical Support Specialist Natural Resources Conservation Service 1238 County Welfare Road Leesport, PA 19533-0520 610-372-4655-115 clyde.myers@pa.usda.gov