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  1. 1. Phonetics:Study ofIndividual Sounds
  2. 2. OverviewO PhoneticsO Articulatory PhoneticsO Vocal OrgansO International Phonetic AlphabetO Consonants and VowelsO Diphthongs and Triphthongs
  3. 3. What is Phonetics?O Study of human speech as a physical phenomenon1. Articulation2. Acoustics
  4. 4. Articulatory PhoneticsO Study of how speech sounds are produced by human vocal apparatus1. Anatomy of Vocal Organs2. Air Stream Mechanism3. Voicing4. Articulation
  5. 5. Anatomy of Vocal Organs
  6. 6. Air-stream Mechanisms 1.Pulmonic 2.Glottic 3.Velaric
  7. 7. Pulmonic Sounds Air flow is directed outwards the oral cavity Pressure built by compression of lungs
  8. 8. Glottalic SoundsO There are two types of Glottalic Airstream MechanismO Glottalic Egressive AirstreamO Glottalic Ingressive Airstream
  9. 9. Glottalic Egressive SoundsO Air flow is directed outwards towards the oral cavityO Pressure built by pushing up closed glottisO Glottalic egressive sound [k]O These sounds are also called EJECTIVES
  10. 10. Glottalic Ingressive SoundsO Air flow is directed inwards from the oral cavityO Pressure reduced by pulling down closed glottisO Sindhi is an example of a language with implosives
  11. 11. Velaric SoundsO This is the mechanism used to make click!!O Air flow is directed inwards from the oral cavityO Pressure reduced by forming velaric and alveolar closure and pulling down tongue
  12. 12. Articulatory Phonetics Anatomy of Vocal Organs Air Stream Mechanism Voicing Articulation
  13. 13. VoicingVoicelessness p sVoice b zAspirated [ph]Breathy Voice [bh]
  14. 14. ArticulationO Manners of ArticulationO Places of Articulation
  15. 15. Consonants-Manners of ArticulationStop t pFricative s fAffricate ʧ dʒApproximant r jNasal n mLateral lTrill B
  16. 16. StopsO Stops are sounds /p/palm /t/tight /k/key produced as the /b/ball /d/dry /g/girl airflow in oral cavity is bocked compressed and then released.
  17. 17. FRICATIVESO They are sounds that experience some kind of friction either against lips,teeth or tongue as they leave the oral cavity. /f/ /θ/ /s/ /ʃ/ /h/ Fight Than Sleep Shark Hakan ks /v/ /ð/ /z/ /ʒ/ Very This zoo viSİon
  18. 18. AffricatesO They appear to be /ʧ/ /dʒ/ matCH Judge more complicated than others since they involve both blocking as well as friction.
  19. 19. NASALO Nasals resemble /m/ /n/ /ŋ/ Mother Night thiNG plosives,except that there is a complete closure in the mouth,but as the velum is lowered the air can escape through the nasal cavity.
  20. 20. LATERALO Consonant /l/is /l/ Low produced with the tip of the tongue touching the alveolar ridge blocking the airflow while slides of the tongue are down to let the air escape over the slides of tongue.
  21. 21. APPROXIMANTSO Are sounds where /w/ /r/ /j/ Water Rain Yes the tongue only approaches the roof of the mouth,so that there is not enough obstruction to create any friction.
  22. 22. Places of Articulation
  23. 23. Consonants-Places of ArticulationBilabial p bLabio-dental f vInter-dental ð θAlveolar t dPalato-Alveolar dʒ ʧPalatal jVelar k gGlottal h
  24. 24. BILABIALO Sounds are /p/ Pay /b/ Bye /m/ May produced when the lips are brought together
  25. 25. LABIO-DENTALO These occur with /f/Flight /v/ Value the involvement of lower lip and upper teeth.
  26. 26. INTERDENTALO Sounds are /θ/ /ð/ THree THe articulated with the coorperation of upper and lower teeth.
  27. 27. ALVEOLARO Sounds are made by raising the tip of the tongue towards /t/ Trip /d/ Do the ridge that is /s/ Sue /z/ Zoo right behind the /n/Nook /l/ Look upper front teeth,called alveolar ridge
  28. 28. PALATO-ALVEOLARO Sounds are made by raising the blade /ʃ/preSSure /ʒ/pleaSUre of the tongue /ʧ/batCH /dʒ/baDGe towards the part of /r/ Run the palate just behid the aveolar ridge.
  29. 29. PALATALO Sound is very /j/ Yellow similar to palato- alveolar ones,they are just produced further back towards the velum.
  30. 30. VELARO Sounds are /k/ King /g/ Green produced as the /w/ Wife /ŋ/ kiNG back of tongue touches velar,an area between the palate and the soft palate.
  31. 31. GLOTTALO Sound is produced /h/ Hole at the very back of the mouth.
  32. 32. Consonantal Sounds
  33. 33. Vowel-FeaturesO Low/HighO Back/FrontO RoundO Diphthongs/Triphthongs
  35. 35. DIPHTONGS and TRIPHTONGSO Diphtongs are produced as a result of a gliding movement of tongue from one location to another in mouth.O The difference between diphtongs and long vowels,however,is that the former contains two different vowels while the latter involves the lengthening of the original vowelO Triphtongs:A combination of three vowel sounds in a single syllable,forming a simple or compound sound.
  36. 36. DIPHTONGS/TRIPHTONGS /aʊ̯ə̯/ /aɪ̯ə̯/ /uə̯u̯/ /ɔɪ̯ə̯/ /u̯ai̯/ hour higher school loir Urugu ay
  37. 37. ACOUSTICS PHONETICS Examines the physical properties of speech sounds as well as the physical conditions through which sounds travel.
  38. 38. Periodic Sine WaveO Period: Time to complete one cycle (sec)O Frequency: Number of cycles per seconds(Hertz)O Amplitude: Maximum displacement of a periodic wave (dB)
  39. 39. Spectrogram O Spectrogram is used to identify phonetic sounds. O The most common format is a graph wtih two geometric dimensions:the horizontal axis represents time,the vertical axis is frequency. O A spectrogram produced by a spectrograph illustrates a time- frequency-ampitude presentation of a sound signal.