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  • 1. 2009EXPERTREPORTPublic Ideas CompetitionWorld Sustainability Centre Afsluitdijk
  • 2. EXPERTREPORT Public Ideas Competition World Sustainability Centre AfsluitdijkNovember 2nd 2009 Background Disclaimer The Public Ideas Competition World Sustainability This expert report is independent from the work 01Authors: Centre Afsluitdijk resulted in 80 design proposals, done by the International Jury of the competition.Han Brezet which contained a wealth of information, inspiring All entries are taken into consideration becauseMarcel Crul ideas and creative solutions. In this expert report each of them may have unique positive aspectsMark Andrik we will be elaborating on relevant aspects regar- without being nominated or among the prize ding sustainability emerging from this entries. winners. No communication has taken place withTU Delft, Faculty Industrial Design Engineering, INTRODUCTION We aim to contribute to the development of a pro- the Jury on their selection or opinions. Not allDesign for Sustainability Programme gramme of requirements for the World Sustaina- entries were assessed by each expert, therefore bility Centre on the Afsluitdijk. the results of this report are indicative.Editor: The expert opinions summarized in this report This report does not intend to cover all aspects:Tineke van der Schoor are meant as recommendations for the “Stich- Legal requirements for instance such as the lawsHanze University of Applied Sciences, Groningen ting Duurzaamheidscentrum Afsluitdijk” and it’s on heritage preservation and nature conservation future designers and builders, in order to foster are not taken into account. the sustainability profile of the Sustainability Centre, once the decision making process is Experts and their disciplines: completed. The insights can underpin the criteria Han Brezet // Sustainable design the building and the location has to comply with, Klaas Hoekstra // Sustainable energy and also supply additional aspects to be taken Henk Seinen // Sustainable building into account. Han Vrijling // Hydraulic engineering, climate change and coastal defense Assignment Henk Folmer // Nature and landscape The experts were asked to assess a selection of Pier Vellinga // Climate change and sustainability entries, based on their expertise. Three experts Cees Buisman // Water technology assessed all entries. In this way all entries were Tineke van der Schoor // Integral Sustainable assessed on several important aspects of sustai- development nability. Furthermore the experts were asked to Nynke-Rixt Jukema // Integration into existing give suggestions for improvement. landscape and environmental values Next, a workshop was held in which the experts Hans van Meerendonk & Anne de Vries // Fryslân exchanged and discussed their ideas. This report Marketing perspective summarizes the findings of this creative process.2 3
  • 3. EXPERTREPORT Public Ideas Competition World Sustainability Centre AfsluitdijkThe following persons participated as observers A. Fit into surrounding landscape and close these typologies, such as a dike, viaduct orin the workshop: environment sluice. Furthermore a surrounding typology can 02 The buildings and dike of the Afsluitdijk show a be used in the design. (Figure 1 & 2)Sonja Busch // Province of Fryslân strong coherence, being built in the same period in-between conditions LXXVIIEric Regeling // Rijkswaterstaat and style. It is unique for The Netherlands and Located alongside the Afsluitdijk, a small piece of headland is set to be the location for the new World poster 1 Sustainability Centre Afsluitdijk (WSCA). This former construction site and its harbor are situated on theHenk Kroes // Chairman of the Sustainability leading in the world. Waddenzee-side of Breezanddijk, near to Friesland, and were part of the work island during the con- struction of the dike. Nowadays, Breezanddijk is a popular stopover for tourists that come to see the dike. On the other side of the dike, at the IJsselmeer-side of Breezanddijk, there’s a petrol station, a large parking lot, a trailer park and another small harbor that is currently used by the Dutch military. A turning point connects the programme on both sides of the dike and the road that goes over it.Centre Foundation Therefore, the WSC should be based on an The conditions at the construction site are very much different from what one experiences on the dike ELEMENTS itself; even harder winds, strong tidal streams and the ever-present raging of the sea. Also, as it is one of the few places on the Afsluitdijk where one can actually get off the dike to have a full overview of the inspiring and realistic vision, with respect for the Waddenzee, it is here that you can feel the absence of the predominant, monotonous view the Afsluit- dijk offers as you travel along it. It is a place even more isolated than the dike itself. Along with these conditions, it is also its specific shape, texture and structure that emphasizes what the site is used for nowadays, what its actual meaning has become; a place where ships can harbor during aThe following aspects are presented in this openness, scale, measure, profile and buildings storm, an off coast shelter against the rough elements of this extraordinary landscape. This connotation seamlessly fits the notion of what we think the WSCA at this specific location -or even more generally, any building at any given location- also should be in the first place; not only just fit to endure the local OF A conditions, but also to continuously derive its very meaning, its purpose and physique from these condi- tions. A place in-between conditions.report: of the Afsluitdijk, either by emphasizing the Situation The WSCA’s programme is accommodated by a lightweight, self-supporting structure; a configuration of cone-shaped harmony with it, or expressing a well-balanced elements that act as conciliator between inside and out- side conditions and the programme underneath. Each of these elements has its own specific role in doing so. On the upper side, the cones have been excised according PROGRAMME to their specific function and orientation, either or both to catch sunlight, warmth, wind and rain. On the lower side they have been excised either or both to direct sunlight, accumulate warmth, muffle sounds and to give- Landscape and environmental values contrast. Also, the materials used as well as the shape to the enclosed space. The landscape has also been used in both directions: to mo- derate and accumulate inside and outside conditions and to articulate the different levels in the programme. The landscape, its programme and environmental dyna- mics are involved in a synergetic relation.- Application of sustainable energy energy and water use should be such that they Climatological diagrams- Application of sustainable water technology OF deliver a positive contribution to the landscape,- Integral sustainable development at the same time being a showcase for sustaina-- Hydraulic engineering, climate change and REQUIREMENTS bility. coastal defence- Mobility and accessibility The straight line of the Afsluitdijk is a very impor- Aerial View from IJsselmeer-side Approaching the World Sustainability Centre Waddenzee-facade- Potential for Promotion tant characteristic. Many of the proposals consist- Services and customer interaction of complex solutions across or askew the dyke, affecting this prominent characteristic.Remark: The proposals in the competition aremostly very general, thus it is very difficult to es- It should be mentioned however that this is alsotimate the specifics regarding energy, technical, depending on the final plan for the Afsluitdijk ashydraulics and other feasibility aspects. a whole. Several of the consortium proposals Figure 1 (the Dutch Cockle bed is a typical surrounding for the dike do alter this linear aspect to a large typology) extent. In that case buildings that breach this linearity can be a good fit. Another aspect to be taken into account is the typologies of the family of buildings and construc- tions along the Afsluitdijk - Some proposals stay4 5
  • 4. EXPERTREPORT Public Ideas Competition World Sustainability Centre Afsluitdijk DNUORA THE TURN VOID Soms Atoll There is an uncanny conflict between the two main terms that define the main agenda of this project, sustainability icon, and the instrumentality of an appropriate architecture. When addressing sustainability, architecture has been caught in the obligation of utilizing sophisticated and expensive technological post-attached devices. Paradoxically, the very notion of an icon in architecture has mainly triggered buildings that are fundamentally inefficient. an idea for the World Sustainability Centre We propose an alternative to this cultural phenomenon: Nothing. A void. N The history of the Netherlands is based on the negotiation of natural forces (and most importantly their impact on the threshold between land and water). The Dutch have mastered a certain control of these environmental factors and there are numerous museums in the Netherlands which document these technological accomplishments. However, there are few institutions devoted to demonstrating how contemporary society could become more in tune with natural cycles rather than defending against them. Would it be possible for the initiation of the World Sustainability Centre in Friesland to create a new LOCATION : KORNWERDERZAND SECTION interpretation of the role of the man-made versus the natural? Landform The Soms Atoll creates a condition where the man-made interacts intimately with the cycles of nature. While the ‘building’ incorporates climate control technologies, its impact on the environment is more profound – asking the public and specialists alike to anticipate and respond to the environment on a daily, hourly basis. As building Requested Footprint Proposed Footprint Bilbao Mont Saint-Michel Soms Atoll technologies will improve and newer techniques become available, the infrastructure 3,000 m2 6,000 m2 12,000 m2 100,000 m2 420,000 m2 of the Soms Atoll quietly accepts retrofit. Rather than using green technologies to ‘solve’ the problems of the environment, this strategy aims to create a more fluid system of real-time feedback with nature. Therefore, rather than a display of technology, the entire center becomes an index of the cycles of nature. restaurant Great Blue Hole Atoll Atoll Polder under construction Man-made island depot, Celestial Vault, James Turrell Spiral Jetty, Robert Smithson Mont Saint-Michel (low tide) Mont Saint-Michel (high tide) Wadlopers on the Waddenzee Belize Ketelmeer Ketelmeer Kijkduin, Den Haag Great Salt Lake, Utah Normandie Normandie 300 300 d days A Scale to Match Cycles of Anticipation a ys One of the fundamental challenges of the context is the scale of the natural Every winter when the temperature dips below freezing, everyone in the Netherlands and manmade environment in which it is situated and how it could significantly begin talking about the cold, often in frustration. However, if it stays cold enough, the expo expo Labs Labs Labs Labs impact development in this region. The Guggenheim museum in Bilbao feels frustration turns to anticipation as conversations start to shift to the possibility of Work space Work space Work space Work space significant in that city due to its size in relationship to the smaller historic whether or not this might be the year for the next Elfstedentocht (the Journey of etc. etc. etc. etc. buildings in its immediate context. However, the Afsluitdijk connects two major Eleven Cities). The Elfstedentocht is significant in its actuality but it is potential more land masses across a stretch over 30km wide with only vast expanses of sky important so in its anticipation. If the race occurred every year would it capture the and water to either side. Any discrete object building located on the dijk risks imagination of so many, turning the coldest winters into the most memorable? Could serving as an easy rest stop on the way to some other final destination – too the development associated with the World Sustainability Centre generate the same easily an opportunity for a quick tourist photo before heading on. magical respect for the cycles of nature? The Soms Atoll operates at the scale of its context, becoming a destination [Wild] The Soms Atoll offers postcard picture perfect silhouettes on the Waddenzee – but Landscape ay s 0 d ay landscape unto itself. While the building footprint remains close to the not upon demand. Visitors may arrive to find they need to wait two hours in s 2000 d requested 3,000 m 2, the proposed landscape of activities operates at a scale Urban Form anticipation for that perfect island to appear. Although there would always be a ferry 2 which would truly impact the revitalization of its regional context. The World boat from Kornwerderzand, for those who want to walk across the land bridge they Sustainability Centre serves as an anchor of intensity and focus within the may find that the need to get their feet wet in the hours around high tide. Some may Soms Atoll as does the Kröller-Müller inside the Hoge Veluwe. The Soms Atoll [Manicured] wait to see the perfect crescent of the lagoon form in the Atoll while others may be raises the potential for the Centre’s impact on both tourists and its local Landscape more interested in the tidal pools once the lagoon recedes. For all who visit, they context by allowing it to operate as a terrain of discovery rather than a point of must start to align their desires with the rhythm of nature’s cycles. explanation. Architecture Landform Lodging Sustainability Centre Parking Kyoto Protocol enforced Re-Routing Intensities: Kyoto Protocol worldwide adopted The Berlin Marrakesh Bali Mandate Accords Action 400 days 4 Plan 00 days Water Connections and Elfstedentocht 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 Tourist ferries during the summer would connect UNFCCC: Implementing Climate Change expo expo the Texel islands for day trips to the Soms Atoll where the lodging facilities offer the opportunity to stay overnight and extend trips further into Friesland. At a more monumental temporal scale, the route of the Elfstedentocht could be altered to 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 pass between the Soms Atoll and Zurich, creating 100-Year Flood an intense animation of the terrain between the two. These new links would completely reprogram spoonbill Makkumer the site and invigorate the daily life of locals and geese Kornwerderzand warbler Kornwerderzand warbler specialists based at the Centre. breeding Texel migration Texel Existing Tidal Flats geese Friesland The Soms Atoll grows out of its context and Jan Feb Mar April May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec reorganizes material flows and local connections. Bird Watching summer bad - boats and tourists Dredging of sand and mud would provide the bulk of the mass for the land bridge. While its profile s ay 0d would change over time, the till gathered from 10 ys dredging would be anchored by a more permanent da 10 0 infrastructure which would ensure there would 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 always be a connection from the Atoll to land. Elfstedentocht GROUND FLOOR FIRST FLOOR SECOND FLOOR TIRTH FLOOR FOURTH FLOOR FIFTH FLOOR 5500 3m 00 dday a ys sunrise s sunset 2m 1m 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Daily Tidal Change (From Kornwerdersand on June 24, 2009) 2m 2012 1m 1900 2000 2100 2200 Sea Level SOUTH FACADE WEST FACADE Land Bridge Tide Cycle: EAST FACADE NORTH FACADE SCALE 1/500 0 50m 100m 250m 500m 1000m 2000m 500 day location cycle High Tide 1-Hour before High Tide Intermediate Tide Low TideFigure 2 (Centre with the shape of a fish: Typical sur- Figure 3 (Design with an alien building-typology)rounding typology) Figure 4 (design with a big contrast) Figure 5 (A design that fits into the surrounding lands- cape and environment.)It is difficult to integrate building-typologies The current asymmetric profile of the Afsluitdijkwhich are alien to this family but on the other results in an openness towards the IJsselmeer The rhythm and scale of the Afsluitdijk is anotherhand it can lead to interesting designs. side of the dike which should be preserved. Solu- very important aspect to be taken into account.(see figure 3 & 4). tions on the Waddenzee side are less disruptive, The key elements of this rhythm - Den Oever, although in that case there will be additional Monument, Breezanddijk, Kornwerderzand and constructive and ecological requirements. Zurich – are located 5-10 kilometres from each (See figure 5) other and are experienced in a very concrete way while travelling the dike. The WCS as an6 7
  • 5. EXPERTREPORT Public Ideas Competition World Sustainability Centre Afsluitdijk SITE LOCATIONicon should be consistent with this rhythm and Proposals that use – in an innovative way – SITEpreferable be closely connected to one of the five existing locations and infrastructure should be 2 3 4elements. (Figure 6 & 7) preferred over those on completely newly built 1 10 9 7 locations. Again, it should be noted that some 8 11  6  of the consortium plans include new locations 5 In the era before the Industrial Revolution people got their energy from water and wind. Their houses But long before the beginning of the Indus- were built in harmony with nature; turned to the wind for shelter and open to the sun, to profit from trial Revolution that head start was lost. its warmth. The Industrial Revolution caused an in- which if implemented could be used for the WSC crease in the use of fossil fuels. Where en- By using wind energy and windmills the Dutch were able to develop delta wasteland into a habitable ergy from water and wind used to be environment. The Dutchman Cornelis Corneliszoon invented the crankshaft, that proved to be a tre- enough, with the invention of the steam mendous innovation for that time. Because of that invention, wind energy could be used for other engine, fossil fuels became more and more purposes than impolder. Especially for sawing wood it gave a lot of advantages. It caused the produc- important. Today with fossil fuels running -in harmony with the elements- tion of wood to increase dramatically and ships to be built more rapidly. out, mankind needs to make a new start, as well. To us, the crankshaft is an inspiring invention, because it was a break-through that, in cooperation and will have to rely on sustainable energy with the forces of nature, resulted in an enormous amount of prosperity. to secure the current amount of prosper- ity. Because of this mechanical innovation the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands became one of the major seafaring and economic powers of the seventeenth century, also called the Dutch Golden   Age. This gave the Dutch a head start on trade and exploring and much prosperity. -in the wind- De Afsluitdijk De bus rijdt als een kamer door de nacht LEGEND Next to this the Centre has a strong social aspect, de weg is recht, de dijk is eindeloos, n links ligt de zee, getemd maar rusteloos, ge 1 Water basin 7 Bridge over pond rlin wij kijken uit, een kleine maan schijnt zacht. 2 Truck route to loading zone 8 Gazebo Ha 3 Guest residence 9 Straw bale playhouse -prosperity- M. Vasalis 4 Greenhouse/SAS 10 Salt marsh 5 Parking for approx. 350 cars 11 Visitor centre r 6 Theme gardens ve Oe SITE PLAN bringing people together to communicate and BZ-01 exposition/conference and cinema (2320 m ) 2 Den BZ-02 expertisecentre and offices (1180 m2) y BZ-03 restaurant and lounge (510m2) ferr BZ-04 hotel 40 rooms, restaurant Visitors centre for joggers, roller bladers, 1a parking space Sustainabilitycentre , 250 places bicyclists using the salt marsh inside, there 1b parking hotel, 110 places are areas for bicycle storage, and areas 2 pier for picnic innovate on the road to sustainability. Symboli- 3 floating pier Equalization and blending 4 nodal point 5 road for suppliers Solar Tanks 6 aqua playground/interactive test facilities Solar Pond 7 belvedere 8 beaken Clarifier 9 picknick Rammed earth walls and sing this vision of connectivity, its location should 10 gasstation Compost Sand Filter 11 antenna concrete floors Vegetable Garden m ku Mak preferably be at the crossing of the existing land Vegetable Garden y ferr To constructed Wetland ferr y and water routes. The Centre must emit sustai- GREENHOUSE / SOLAR AQUATIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT GUEST RESIDENCE APPROACH FROM SALT MARSH ferr y nable elegance and at the same time exhibit new Orchard Winter garden Autumn garden Below grade observation Summer garden Spring garden sustainable developments. (Figure 8) Marsh Bamboo garden Half-size straw bales for Flower garden kids to assemble with poles for dowels to con- Water fountain nect straw bale Romantic garden Rock garden Used tires, poles, nets to construct r ve Oe 0m 200m 800m Den -changing current situation- Afsluitdijk Waddenzee noorderhaven zuiderhaven The Afsluitdijk is an icon of Dutch water management. It is an empty and long dike, the view does not Developments in the field of sustainable energy tumble over each other. Each new vision is better VIEW FROM EAST SIDE STRAW BALE PLAYHOUSE THEME GARDENS change for almost the entire route. This gives a certain quality and feeling to the dike that should not than the previous, and so on. The question what sustainability is, is a question that tantalizes a lot of be touched. There are few places that are worthwhile to stop for. But between the former work is- people. land Kornwerderzand and the Monument nothing really exciting is happening. Exactly in the middle, The ultimate answer still cannot be found, because there is not one answer. In the field of sustainabil- DRAWING TITLE MOTTO still on the Frisian side, lies Breezanddijk. Currently an area that does not invite to stop. That is actu- ally a pity, because the location is very central, between the urban area of the Randstad and the ity there might be even more than one answer. W O R L D S U S TA I N A B I L I T Y C E N T R E A F S L U I T D I J K 1 SITE AND SURROUNDINGS CITIUS, ALTIUS, FORTIUS openness of the Northern Netherlands. With this design resistance is offered to plunge into, or answer, the topic of the day. Our submission Breezanddijk has been a forgotten and neglected area for many years, but this design aims to give the is meant to create a new mindset on sustainability. This centre should be the inspiring environment location a thorough clean-up and bring it back to her former glory. where questions can be asked and answers can be found. It should be a place where inventions and -innovation zone- Here on Breezanddijk you are almost one with the elements, Breezand, a former island, is a quiet spot innovations can be developed. It should be a place for academics, researchers and students, to ex- between the busy rest of the world. Visiting or working here makes you forget your daily problems, periment, and to bring ideas in all their simplicity to a higher standard. empties your head and opens your mind to fresh thoughts. The centre is the place where people are given the facilities to invent the ‘crankshaft’ of the twenty- Figure 7 (Design that is closely connect with one of the Figure 8 (A design that emits sustainable elegance) first century in terms of sustainability. The route to the centre can be reached sustainably, in multiple ways. In Makkum and Den Oever you board the solar boat, and in Zurich and Den Oever you can board the solar bus. Of course you can also choose to cycle or walk. 5 elements) -left ships- -the elements- `- solarboat - -superbus Wubbo Ockels- -drift ashore- -energy- -nature force- -topic of the day- B. Applying sustainable energy The WCS should also respect the scale and height In the proposals a lot of attention is given toFigure 6 (Design that is closely connected with one of of the existing constructions. The monument (25 sustainable energy production, there is far lessthe 5 elements.) m) is the tallest building on the dike, and a Centre attention for the reduction of energy demand. in its vicinity should not be higher. Further away Minimizing the energy demand of the Centre from the monument the Centre could be taller. should be the first priority. This can be achieved Also, the monumental value of the constructions by a combination of measures, such as optimal on the dyke (like the Lorentz sluices complex at insulation of the outer shell; energy manage- Kornwerderzand) should be respected. ment systems, smart metering; the application8 9
  • 6. EXPERTREPORT Public Ideas Competition World Sustainability Centre Afsluitdijkof low-energy products and systems; low voltage 9) For the coming 10-15 years this should be in will be necessary. Technology of battery systemssystems to reduce energy loss by transformers; the form of a flexible and modular demonstration is improving very fast, which will make electricityoptimisation of climate control (cooling); dayligh- system. We do not expect this technology will storage more and more feasible. Self-sufficiencyting. significantly contribute to the energy supply of the or autarky with respect to its energy need will Centre. then be within reach. Currently, a rule-of-thumbAfter energy demand reduction, a number of is that for each Watt of storage an investmentadvanced sustainable energy generating systems of 150 Euro is needed. This emphasizes againshould be integrated in the Centre to reach ener- the need to minimize the energy demand of thegy neutrality within the preconditions of technical Centre as a first necessary step.and economic feasibility. The selection of energytechnologies should be based on best-practice Integrating sustainable energy systems in theexperiences. design of a building in the current fast pace ofProven technologies should be applied in the development also means that technologies willbuilding itself, new technologies should be be outdated by the time the building is finished.demonstrated for the visitors of the Centre and To counter this problem the experts suggest tocan be studied in the research and development design a flexible building, with the possibility toprogrammes of the Centre. Figure 9 (Techniques like Blue Energy can be integra- replace technologies in different ‘shells’ of theIn the current proposals, this combination and in- ted as a demonstration system) building. The outer shell of the building, showingtegration of feasible systems is not yet elaborated the newest energy systems, should be replace-to a satisfactory extent. In general, the use of less efficient wind turbines able for instance every five years, a process which Figure 10 (New technologies can be integrated as as proposed several times should be avoided. can be compared to an insects’ metamorphosis.In several entries hydropower systems based on display window) Styling of the building as well as placement oftidal movement are proposed. We doubt whether the turbines has to be done extremely careful andthis option is realistic in light of the volumes and However, these types of technologies are typically only after detailed studies on the optimal location. C. Application of sustainable waterheight differences available on location. suitable as showcases in the Centre. technologyThe proposed application of electrostatic energy, Energy storage will have to play a crucial role The proposed solutions for sustainable waterand also the current proposals for wind walls From the perspective of important developments in an integrated system of sustainable energy, technology are not well developed in most propo-are revolutionary but not feasible in its proposed on R&D in Fryslân and in the framework of because the energy output is variable (sun, wind, sals. Many entries do not mention anything at allform. (Figure 10) ‘Netherlands Innovation land’ the application of tidal). There is very little attention for this aspect on this topic. Some proposals mention the use of Blue Energy systems (salinity gradient power) in in the current proposals. rain water, compost toilets, reversed osmosis or the Centre should certainly be stimulated. (Figure Next to heat/cold storage, also electricity storage the use of wetlands for purification. The feasi-10 11
  • 7. EXPERTREPORT Public Ideas Competition World Sustainability Centre Afsluitdijkbility of the proposed water technology is often s-cube super sustainable transforming snub-cube D. Integral Sustainability surroundingsdoubtful. As a general principle, the WSC should be For materials, locally available building materialsAs a starting point, it must be made clear how self-sufficient as much as possible in its use of should be used as much as possible. The cyclemuch water is needed for the design proposed, energy, water and materials, and make use of management of materials for the building and inand subsequently the need of energy to produce what is available in the direct surroundings. For the building should be done in such a way thatand recycle this. energy and water, this principle has already been as much as possible of these materials is kept explained in more detail in earlier sections of in technological or ecological cycles (Cradle-to-As a general concept for the water use of the this report. From the education point of view it is cradle approach).Centre, the building should be self sufficient in its desirable to show the energy and water streams Next to this systematic and integral use of eco-water production and use. Neither drinking wa- building concept location to the visitors. (Figure 12) nomical and technical feasible technologies inter, nor source connections will be present at the the construction and maintenance of the Centre S-Cube is a building which is completely self-sufficient The new WSC is located to the east of Kornwerderzand, on water. The floating WSC is able to withstand all weather because of its extremely low energy requirements and its the salt water side of the Afsluitdijk. The building lies at some conditions and will not suffer from the rise in sea level in the ability to generate and store sustainable energy. The building distance from the dike like an island in the water. Its location coming decades. has a divisible and flexible external skin that, depending on close to Kornwerderzand means that it can profit from exist- the seasons and type of weather, creates optimal conditions ing, sustainable structures near to the sluices, such as a sec- The building is connected to the dike by means of a wide, for the total energy management and natural ventilation. The tion of the longitudinal dikes and existing parking facilities. floating jetty. Boats and pedal boats can moor at certain external skin is also covered with PV cells for generating en- places on the jetty. The sandbank on one side of the building ergy. Electrical energy is generated and stored through the S-cube floats on the edge of a large basin formed by an stands clear of the water at low tide, so that additional routes clever use of tidal effects and the building’s ability to float. existing longitudinal dike and a new dam. At high tide the to the building are created by walking across the mud flats.Centre. Similar to the Trias Energetica concept itself, new and innovative technologies can be ex- building is completely surrounded by water, while at low tide At such moments the entrance jetty is also partly clear of the a large part of the surrounding sandbank stands clear of the water. marinafor energy, the first step to obtain self suffici- hibited as showcases in the Centre. Furthermore Wadden Seaency for water is to reduce as much as possible advanced, intelligent climate control can be inte- geodesic sphere from the sixties ↕ basin mudhiking possibilitiesthe demand for water by using separate water grated in the Centre, based on a good insulation superbus-stop biosphere montreal ↓fractions for different types of use, water saving of the building’s shell. (Figure 13)technologies, smart products and behavioural SITE LOCATIONchanges. The second step is to keep the different SITE S-cube 2 3 4 1 10wastewater fractions separate and reuse and 9 7 8 11recycle them as much as possible. Thirdly, water 6 mudhiking 5treatment will be needed on the premises to be Figure 11 (A design with integrated water technology)able to reach surface water quality of the remai- LEGENDning effluent. Fourthly, the Centre will produce its Additional to being a showcase itself for water 1 Water basin 7 Bridge over pond 2 Truck route to loading zone 8 Gazebo 3 Guest residence 9 Straw bale playhouse 4 Greenhouse/SAS 10 Salt marsh 5 Parking for approx. 350 cars 11 Visitor centre 6 Theme gardens SITE PLANown drinking water from the “IJsselmeer”. self-sufficiency, the WSC can also show the deve- Visitors centre for joggers, roller bladers, bicyclists using the salt marsh inside, there are areas for bicycle storage, and areas for picnic Equalization and blending Solar Tanks Solar Pond ClarifierIt should be noted that with these principles, wa- lopment of new water technologies in exhibitions Rammed earth walls and Compost Sand Filter concrete floors Vegetable Garden Vegetable Gardenter self sufficiency of the Centre will be feasible and as a part of the research and demonstration To constructed Wetland GREENHOUSE / SOLAR AQUATIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT GUEST RESIDENCE APPROACH FROM SALT MARSHfor relatively low costs compared to energy self activities. Orchard Marsh Winter garden Autumn garden Below grade observation Summer garden Spring gardensufficiency. The WSC can be an example to the Bamboo garden Half-size straw bales for Flower garden kids to assemble with poles for dowels to con- Water fountain nect straw bale Romantic garden Rock garden Used tires, poles, nets to constructworld on this aspect. (Figure 11) VIEW FROM EAST SIDE STRAW BALE PLAYHOUSE THEME GARDENS DRAWING TITLE MOTTO W O R L D S U S TA I N A B I L I T Y C E N T R E A F S L U I T D I J K 1 SITE AND SURROUNDINGS CITIUS, ALTIUS, FORTIUS Figure 12 (Water streams are visible to the visitor) Figure 13 (Shell of a building with a good insulation)12 13
  • 8. EXPERTREPORT Public Ideas Competition World Sustainability Centre Afsluitdijk Some important sustainable building aspects are Little attention is given in most of the proposals generation of packaging and transport materials Size, form and location should be adapted to this the following: to the accessibility of the WSC by land and water. waste. All remaining waste materials should be requirement. For this reason, a location which - The WSC should make optimal use of daylight The Centre should be easy to reach by sustai- composted or used for biogas production at the is completely open towards the IJsselmeer, or and energy saving light systems, (figure 14) nable (public) transport, as well as by car and site of the WSC. towards the Waddenzee is not preferable. If a - Light on the outside of the building should be boat. It needs sufficient parking space either location on the Waddenzee side is chosen, in bird-friendly, (green light) to avoid unnecessary at the Centre or at a location with good shuttle Summarizing, for overall sustainability aspects of addition to this requirement it should also be able attraction for birds at night. transport. the WSC, the design should have a high score on: to withstand wave heights of up to three metres - The building has to be designed for an optimal In the short term, public transport ferries over - Sustainable energy use (IJsselmeer side: 2 metres). Besides this the acoustic quality. water are not expected to be economically - Sustainable water use Centre must be able to withstand extreme water - The building materials used are Radon-free. feasible. However, private and chartered boats - Sustainable materials use levels of 5 metres above Amsterdam Ordnance - The building should at least comply with the should be able to reach the Centre easily also in - Minimizing waste generation in the building, Datum. (Ijsselmeer side: 2 metres) So together BREEAM guidelines of the Dutch Green Building more adverse weather conditions, especially from and reuse and recycling of the remaining waste (extreme water levels + wave heights) the Centre Council. Fryslân. (Figure 15) - Attention for sustainable transport means and must be build on 8 metres above Amsterdam parking space Ordnance Datum. (Ijsselmeer side: +4 metres). - Healthy indoor climate Some kind of elevated construction will then be Connected Program Wind (W) WADDENZEE Storm Arrival Movement by wind View on the watersides Movement by wind Offices max. sun needed. Construction on the Waddenzee side E. Hydraulic engineering, Climate IJSSELMEER for that reason is expected to be 2 -3 times as View on the watersides Arrival exhibitions spaces max. sun Sun (Z) Private knowledge center and offices Structure Elevators Elevators change and Coastal defence. expensive as a construction at the IJsselmeer Concepts Public entrance Seperate Private/Public side. (Figure 17) Public catering Improve contact between Waddenzee - IJsselmeer SPORES A better option is to locate the Centre in an area Figure 14 (Design combines Recover view Waddenzee - IJsselmeer OF The WSC should be able to withstand storms and protected from water and wave influence. A very Use tide effect STREAMSdaylight with the generation of anticipating on the raising of the afsluitdijk other adverse weather conditions. (Figure 16) TRACKS good location in this respect is Kornwerderzand, Spores of Streams represent the correlation between human behaviour and the which has harbours on both sides and is located power of nature. Men leave traces in nature, and in turn nature influences the energy) Using the present weather influences life of mankind. Although mankind is dependent on nature, due to spilling it has destroyed the natural balance, which now needs to be reconstructed. 1 2 BALANCE Figure 15 (Entrance can be reached by boat) at the crossroads of water and land. Sustainability finds itself in the middle of this lost balance: A point where the interests of nature and mankind support and amplify each other. Natural pro- cesses can be inspiring for men, and mankind can create new changes in natu- re. Cooperation with nature is the basic rule of the Afsluitdijk. The former sym- bol for the battle against water is, as of today, the synergy between the power of nature and human inventiveness. The new sustainability centre offers space, recollects knowledge, and spreads and inspires projects, developments and re- search in the field of sustainable worlds. The production of all food for the WCS on the STREAMERS OF SEAWEED The Afsluitdijk is an example par excellence of human tracks in nature, which is influenced daily by the sea, the wind and light. Simple organisms like seaweed and lichens form the palette. SELF-SUSTAINING On the outside of the building large pennants indicate the direction of the wind where integrated wind turbines produce energy. A sun energy park is located on shore of the IJsselmeer where new technologies can be te- The design seems defined by seaweed washed ashore on the dike, some sted. location of the Afsluitdijk, as is proposed in one even stretched over to the other side of the dike where they meet nature made by man: The fresh water basin IJsselmeer. The outer shell of the Inside, an energy station is fed by the energy derived from the differing building literally absorbs the tracks of time and nature. The lichens, which natural rhythms of high and low tide in basins that have a direct connec- grow on the cover, unifie the building with nature. tion with the Waddenzee. Another energy station (osmoses station) draws its energy from the tensions between fresh and salt water. Last but not least, underlying layers of earth, as well as seawater, is used to warm and cool the building by a heat pump technology. SLICE OF DIKE entry, will remain an illusion in light of the local LABORATORY A trench in the dike from North to South houses an exposition space. Visitors can see how energy stations function and how sun and wind is The centre has the ambition of influencing human behaviour in the future transformed into useable energy. The visitors can also learn about current on energy production and consumption. The centre itself is self-sustai- technologies as well as the experimental technologies of the future. ning for its energy: energy is derived from wind, sun and tide. The ten- sion between fresh and salt water is integrated in the design and there The trench itself shows a geological section, which reveals a great deal is ample space for future inventions. In fact, its ambition is to become a about natural development and the influence of mankind. Outside the leading energy centre where research, experiment, and testing will result ‘streams of seaweed’ offers the young ones a lovely playground where possibilities. However, the promotion of sustai- in usable products for everyday life. they can observe what tracks do in this environment. nable, regional food products at the WSC should Figure 16 (The WSC should withstand storms.) be promoted, as well as a minimisation in the 14 15
  • 9. EXPERTREPORT Public Ideas Competition World Sustainability Centre Afsluitdijk quirements can lead to technical changes of the rise and/or rise ofCENTRE AFSLUITDIJK IJsselmeer. A WORLD SUSTAINABILITY the level of the KA336 that is envisioned. dike (higher, broader); the design of the Centre resilient and flexible design with regard to this Man & Nature The World Sustainability Centre explores a fundamental Some of the designs typically refer to Fryslân question: what is the relationship between man and nature? In our opinion there is no better place to explore should allow for these adaptations. In some of requirement is therefore preferred. (Figure 18) this question than the Afsluitdijk. It offers a wide range of contrasts, dynamics, paradoxes and extremes in this relationship. Around the Afsluitdijk you physically feel the effects of the struggle and joy of man with nature. Changing (terps, ‘pompebled’, lapwings’ egg), (Figure 19) perspectives, aims to involve people in this relationship. the proposals, this will be very difficult. Proposals other give it a more ‘North-Netherlands’ image It embodies the change, diversity and movements of the cultural historical and natural Frisian phenomena, which can be regarded as exemplary to the global challenges that lay before us. To change perspective, see it from a different angle, is for the Centre that would require adaptation of (boat, safe haven, ‘behouden huys’, ark). (Figure more important to scientists than in any other profession. The WSC Afsluitdijk will provide the scientist and students with an unprecedented environment to study, discover and invent. Changing perspectives consists of five floating boxes (vessels) and a connecting floating jetty. The the dike profile over a large part of the coastal 20) connections are flexible so tides, waves and wind will have an influence on the configuration. A multiplicity of configurations and locations is possible always optimalizing the presentation of the current exhibition, research or congress. The WSC Afsluitdijk is easy movable by just sailing the vessels to a new location and it is easily extendable with new vessels or extra jetty elements. The WSC will use the already existing parking and infrastructural facilities plus those that will be created in the future developments. From certain fixed locations small ferries will sail to the centre offering a tour and information to the visitors on the way. Furthermore the WSC Afsluitdijk will become a popular stopover for yachts. Each vessel consists of about 1000m2. To create maximum flexibility all technical installations and defence do not have a good and realistic fit and storages are concentrated in the hull at level minus 1. This creates two free floors of 400 square meters Although elements of this identity of course can and a third of 150 squared meters. The inclining roof gives the boxes direction and creates diversity both in the interior space as in the possible configurations in relation to the wind, sun and tides. The vessels will invoke an analogy with the farms, boats and dikes that offer protection in the sometimes-harsh Frisian landscape. The jetty serves as the connection between the vessels. People can walk over it, it produces electricity through wave-energy and it forms the infrastructure for the exchange of heat, electricity and water between the vessels. are not flexible enough. Objects in emptiness, the poetics of the north Frisian landscape be included, a too strong connection should be Is it a boat? - Is it a building? - Is it a landscape? - Is it alive? ...no... it’s all! Why choose only one location if you can have all? avoided. More important is that images should The richness and complexity of the area cannot be experienced from only one location. Especially with changing In general, designs that will require extremely fit within the landscape of the Afsluitdijk (see exhibitions the location, and the route towards that location, should be essential part of the experience and the story that will be told. man vulnerable to man in dynamic mutual (re-)claiming technology con- man inspired by nature balance with nature of territory trasting nature nature inclined roofsurface flexible connections generating energy from waves high investments are not realistic and feasible. section A on this aspect). P skin installation space in hull space for electrical, water and heat exchange P floating element P Additional remarks: Sustainability: The World’s Tomorrow World Sustainability Campus Island: P The hottest sustainable By means of transparent tubes (for instance in P technologies a comprehensive concept based upon an heat production / storage Introduction Below technologies are to be used. And can be found in the World Sustainability Centre as well as existing integral plan. on the Island and it’s surroundings * The island forms a brackish estuary, warning freshwater fish from salt electricity by waves The Afsluitdijk (IJsselmeer Dam) is an impressive landmark as well as a representation water in time and preventing huge quantities of fish to die when water the sluice systems) the transition from river to water cleaning/storage electricity by tides of innovative and historical engineering. Its value, however, remains undiscovered by is drained via the sluice into the Wadden Sea. exchange Produced Blue Energy - electricity by windpower many people. The world sustainability campus, that we hereby present to you, brings Experimental Power Station habitat/food the Afsluitdijk to the attention of a wide variety of people, whereas at the same time it * The Afsluitdijk (IJsselmeer Dam) as a piece of art will be kept in tact, forms a focal point in the field of sustainability and will offer valuable knowledge to the Heatpump + as no windmills will be installed. The island itself however will be an Aquifer world. >32° C opaque colloidial - icon of sustainability. reflecting sunlight sea water can be presented. solar powered electricity What if the WSC existed 80 years ago? Adaptability, movability and flexibility Network-based Sustainability The Afsluitdijk is an icon of the engineering capability of mankind. These characteristics form the point of departure for changing perspectives. The developments around the af- Not every vessel is self-sufficient, they are interdependent. Together they form a completely self-sufficient, Our World Sustainability Campus pays homage to this inherent feature * Creation of deep freshwater fish hibernating grounds west of the sluitdijk in the upcoming 50 years will be of extreme interest. The changing perspectives vessels can be moved balanced system, like in complex ecosystems. In order to achieve that, the vessels are specialized in producing by harbouring: Cool - Clear - Transparent island, improves survival of young fish and thus benefiting birdlife and to the most interesting location at that moment in time. The developments themselves will be part of the exhi- heat, electricity, clean water or providing habitat and food for the ecosystem around. They protect their users ‘Smart Skin’ Technology bition. The Frisians have excelled for centuries in maritime technology. With our proposal we want to challenge against the wind sun and rain. The specialized vessels exchange their produces by means of the jetty. The jetty fisheries. Sand stemming from these creeks will be used to construct and stimulate the local industry to rethink the concept of buildings and boats. We aim at a hybrid solution, itself will generate electricity by transforming the movements caused by waves, wind and people walking on The jetty will offer a route architecturale along the different * a building that will capture the imagination of the people from Fryslân, using the Frisian high-tech know-how of sail making, boat construction and sustainable energy production as it into electricity. To be able to form a year-round self-sufficient system, generation is not enough. Storage is GC- Elements - a new the island. vessels of the centre. At the same time it forms an ever-chan- innovative state of the art Accessibility of the Centre should be implemen- well as the potential of the landscape and nature. The vessels have a width of maximum 12 meters to be able to go through the existing docks at Kornwerderzand. The floating vessels provide great flexibility, not only by equally important. All vessels have reserved space in the hull for technical installations, sustainable technologies and storage. Energy will be stored in innovative ways like phase changing materials for heat and hydrogen for the Netherlands and the rest of the world material in shoreline protec- changing locations but also by changing the orientation. The vessels can turn towards, or away from, the sun or electricity. All waste and water will be purified and the used materials will recyclable or degradable, a cradle-to ging route naturelle, moved by the winds, tides and waves. tion developed by Anome the wind to adapt to climatologically conditions. cradle micro-cosmos. * a campus with down to earth science centres on sustainable and water related * A focal point of scientific development in the Frisian area with a global Airflow technologies (e.g. blue energy, solar energy, ecology etc.) Fine wire heat exchanger reach and significance. Focal points may be found in the areas of sus- very low temperature * an impressive landscape that draws visitors into its realm, whilst being an technology - new - tainable energy, ecology, hydrology and water sciences. Not every vessel is self-sufficient, the vessels are specialized. The vessels can safely group together or disperse around The configuration of the WSC Afsluitdijk will adapt to the integral part of a research environment on an unprecedented scale the site, intensifying the relative impact of currents, waves ted in a realistic way. In several of the current Together they form a stable self-sufficient network. aesthetics and conditions of the site it currently inhabits and winds. Breathing Window - Balance ventilation * The concept faces present problems and at the same time creates an environment where new developments and technological research can flourish. Wadden Sea water release Sun tracking parabolic mirror ideas, accessibility and parking space is proposed * Accommodating areas for botanical and birdlife research, combined SEA WATER new sluice with the World Sustainability Campus also offering recreation and Fish, education. water release Oyster & enlarged plan view Crab Pond view line Makkum blue energy - * A sharp gradient between saline water (Wadden Sea) and fresh water in such a way, that local adaptations to the dike experimental power station tourist boatroute New Building Materials: (Lake IJssel) optimising possibilities for Blue Energy techniques. Light Weight large Span Double Concrete Slabs saltish water threshold * The location offers the possibility for education and recreation outside Algae Pond the World Sustainability Centre. Activities such as mudflat walking, Afsluitdijk in Layers searching soap glands, shrimps and enjoying the sheer environmentFigure 17 (A design placed on an elevated construction) profile are necessary. For instance for the actual Figure 18 (Flexible design that can take potential concentrating of the location. A harbour area will also attract water based recreation. BRACKISH WATER solarcollector * The inside and outside area of the Campus will be a showcase for FRESH WATER companies and researchers to test and present the latest less saltish water Electrical Cars & Photovoltaic threshold sustainable technologies. It will be a gateway of knowledge transfer position of the Centre, for broad access roads, Carportroof future adaptations) boatroute to lodges from scientists to scientists, to politicians and to the general public. new islands “The lapwings egg (kievitsei) not only fits into the natural environment, 20 m deep gullies / hibernating fish in fresh water it also refers to the Friesian’s traditional search for the first egg eachFloating objects as proposed in several of the etc. These types of local adaptations can be very almost fresh water Hindeloopen spring. Symbolically, it represents the breeding ground for exciting threshold IJsselmeer new technologies” floating lodgesentries bring there own requirement: In principle expensive, and economic feasibility therefore has F. Potential for promotion boat passage fresh water Stavoren brackish water thresholdsome kind of harbour must be constructed to to be taken into account in an early stage. It is the opinion of the Expert group that it shouldprotect the object, which will be expensive. Free Management and maintenance of the coastal de- be avoided to give the Centre a typical Frisian 1 : 100.000 “The Afsluitdijk as a piece of art will be kept in tact” 100 m 500 mfloating from the Dike will be too vulnerable. fence has to remain possible in the design of the image. The image should have an internationalConstruction on a fixed land location is preferred. Centre with relation to space, access, connections allure. Positioning the Centre with a primary and surface of the design. focus on the region will diminish the internatio-The design of the Centre should not jeopardize The design of the WSC should take potential fu- nal character and prevent it from becoming thedike stability and integrity in any way. Stricter re- ture adaptations into account because of sea level international icon for sustainability and innovation Figure 19 (Design which refers to Fryslân)16 17
  • 10. EXPERTREPORT Public Ideas Competition World Sustainability Centre Afsluitdijkideas competition_world sustainability centre afsluitdijk expected interaction between exposed objects Han Brezet // Professor at the Delft Univer- Henk Seinen // Real estate developer in and visitors for nature & sustainability Centers. sity of Technology. Faculty Industrial Design Engi- sustainable building. www.seinenprojectontwik- The outcomes of such studies could be explored, neering. (Design for Sustainability) www.tudelft.nl keling.nl valuated, adapted and taken into account in the programme of requirements for the WSC. Prof. Dr. Han Brezet since 1992 is heading the Henk Seinen is over 30 years active in the market Design for Sustainability research program at of real estate. He has introduced energyk neutral An integral –life cycle- approach of the energy, the Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering at housing concepts. water and materials cycles in most design propo- the Delft University of Technology in the Nether- `If an idea appears not first absurd, it is not suited to anything…` A. Einstein sals is missing which should include the impact lands. In addition he is part-time professor at Recently developed is the PPM-Formula. PPM of the products and services used and offered the International Institute for Industrial Environ- stands for Perpetuum Mobiler which is everlas- the world sustainability centercenter is located at the the windmill is an icon for the merge of technologie livinglabs, shared communites of artist, scientist, engineers the tidewalk has its surface exact at ±000 saltmarshes are being developed on the waddenside a seaside park of regional fauna and surfaces the sunsetgallery inside the future WSC, as well as embodied in the mental Economics (IIIEE) of the Lund University ting movement without added energy: The link bend of the dijk, marking one of and nature and symbolises and visiors live and work and allows people of the dyke. they provide a prsents the ecologic diversity transport of goods and persons to and from the in Sweden. Besides he is a visiting lecturer at the is that the houses of Seinen are self supporting its entrances as a landmark for the history of developing ideas together, to resaerch on earth to expereience the natural barrier to improve of the waddensee nature planned research and for a sustainable use of matters such as natural energy change of tides the dyk for the next centurys producton of sustainable natural energy and give place for a uniqe energy such as osmotic power piece of nature for men an animals. navl navlabk abk Centre. University of Melbourne, Australia. Currently he is in their energy needs without additional costs navl research abk navl New and innovative concepts for ‘green building’, coordinating the collaborative Sustainability Re- for the house owner. Due to this, radical energy industry ab fluid power as well as plans on sustainable mobility in the search Program of Delft University of Technology. saving measures are now affordable. osmotic power visitors kb + recreation vlakmark vlakmark vlakmark 27.6 ab hot air ballon abk research labs 27.6 ab 27.5 pier with shared accomodations ab province of Fryslân should be taken into account His current research is focused on Design for saltmarsh for scientists and artist and visitors tidewalk ps seascape park ab with maritime plants and topics coaches The company Seinen. pier as well. Sustainability, Sustainable Energy Technologies, parking saltmarsh Sustainable Regional Development and Sustai- Already 25 years Seinen is an advice/development nable Product Service Systems. He is actively company. The number of implemented innovati- don quixote involved in business networks and a wide range of ons by Seinen gives the company a big influenceFigure 20 (Design which refers to Holland) national and international industries are involved in the building society. in the Design for Sustainability research program.G. Services and customer interaction He is also part of several International commis- The company is located in Leeuwarden and hasVery little attention is given in most of the propo- sions, expert panels, and working groups on over 34 years of experience in project develop-sals to the interaction between future objects and Design for Sustainability. He is author of several ment. The main activities of Seinen are:services of the WSC and the user. This aspect Ecodesign standards and books. • Development of energy-neutral houses.should be developed further; insight in this can • Development of financial products for banking,be gained from several studies on this topic which pertain to the selling of climate en energymade for other (visitor) Centres. For instance, TU measures in the house building.Delft’s Faculty on Industrial Design Engineering/ • District renovation.DfS Program has executed several studies on the • Development of efficiency in the building sector.18 19
  • 11. EXPERTREPORT Public Ideas Competition World Sustainability Centre AfsluitdijkThis approach resulted in the “National Energy Pier Vellinga // Professor in Climate position which he held from 1991 to 2001) with a sulfate or zinc) These applications are now ap-prize 2004, the NET-Trophy 2005 and a nomina- Change at Wageningen University and Vrije Uni- part-time position at the World Bank, United Na- plied in diverse installations all over the world.tion for the Net-Trophy 2006 and finalist for the versiteit. Chairman of the Knowledge for Climate tions Environmental Program (UNEP) and United Currently he combines his job as scientificNET-Trophy 2007. research program www.ess.wur.nl Nations Development Programme (UNDP) as director of Wetsus with a academic position at He was among the first scientists to publish on Chairman of the Scientific and Technical Advisory Wageningen University and Research. His chair isHenk Folmer // Professor of General Eco- climate change and its implications regarding Panel (STAP) of the Global Environmental Facility biological recycling technology.nomics at Wageningen University and Research water and energy in the eighties. His education (GEF). Since 1991, he has been a professor of ea-Centre and Professor of Spatial Econometrics and training includes a Fullbright scholarship in rth sciences at the Vrije Universiteit. Joyeeta Gup- His research is based on new technologies forand Research Methodology at the University of the USA in 1967-68, an Msc (1976) and doctor’s ta, Richard Tol, Robert Swart and Hasse Goossen sustainable water- and energy solutions, basedGroningen www.ech.wur.nl degree at Delft University of technology (1984). were among his first PhD students. on biologic and chemical disciplines. Examples His 1986 PhD on Beach Erosion and Dune Erosion In 2009 he initiated the international Delta Al- are alternative biodiesel, bio crystallization andHenk Folmer is professor of research methodo- During Storm provided the basis for the coastal liance, a collaboration among low lying coastal black/grey water treatment.logy and spatial econometrics at the University of safety evaluation (the Dutch Delta Plan). areas in the world vulnerable to climate change.Groningen and of general economics at Wagen- In 1988, in a newly created position, he became Wetsus, centre of excellence for sustainableingen University. Among his research interests advisor to the Minister of Housing, Spatial Plan- Cees Buisman // Professor in biologically water technology, is a facilitating intermediary forare microeconomics, environmental and resource ning and the Environment on the issue of Climate sustainable technology at Wageningen Univer- trendsetting knowledge development in the fieldeconomics and econometrics. He is editor in chief Change and the development of international sity and Research centre & Scientific director of of sustainable water treating technologies.(with Tom Tietenberg) of the International Review CO2 policies. In this role he was key negoti- Wetsus. www.wetsus.nl & www.wur.nlof Environmental and Resource Economics and ator during the Netherlands EU-presidency of Klaas Hoekstra // Owner of The Sunfac-coordinating editor in chief of Letters in Spatial 1988. In 1991/1992 he was one of the architects Cees J.N. Buisman studied water purification tory www.thesunfactory.infoand Resource Sciences. His book publications of the United Nations Framework Convention on and obtained his doctorate in Wageningen. In hisinclude Land and Forest Economics (with Kees Climate Change and in 1989 was actively involved research he studied sulfur bacteria to remove After 12 years been active as consultant in thevan Kooten). He is doctor honoris causa at the in setting up the Inter Governmental Panel on sulfide from gas and water. This pointed out to be renewable energy business, Klaas started inUniversity of gothenburg, Sweden. Climate Change (IPCC) as vice chairman in the possible to produce sulfur. 2001 his own consultancy company All4Solar BV. first bureau of IPCC. He has acted as an author of With this company as the base of knowledge, he various IPCC chapters. In 2007 with all his IPCC Cees Buisman was employed at Pacques B.V. as started a few months later together with another colleagues and Al Gore he was honored with the director technology and business development. At company a new company The Sun Factory BV. Nobel Peace Prize. first he got the opportunity to develop the sulfur The Sun Factory is acting as a system house for From 1995 to 1998 he combined his work as process, find new applications for this technique renewable energy systems with the goal to sell director of the Institute for Environmental Studies and commercialize it. Applications were found in complete standardized solar systems in projects (IVM) at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (a a number of techniques. (for example removing for private consumers, project developers and20 21
  • 12. EXPERTREPORT Public Ideas Competition World Sustainability Centre Afsluitdijkother companies worldwide. The drive for The Han Vrijling // Professor in Probabilistic Tineke van der Schoor // Resear- Nynke-Rixt Jukema // Owner/director ofSun Factory and Klaas is to build a solar future Design and Hydraulic Structures. Chairman of the cher Sustainable Building at Hanzehogeschool NRJ architectuur www.nrjarchitectuur.nlconcerning the energy and environment problems Delft University Department of Hydraulic Engi- Groningen and general secretary at Stichtingat this moment. By using the possibilities of my neering. www.tudelft.nl Duurzaamheidscentrum. www.duurzaamheids- Architect Nynke Rixt Jukema in mainly involvedcompany he can take his responsibilities and to centrum.nl in what she calls ‘environmental design in thegive a small contribution for the environment and Professor Vrijling finished his master study at context’. Some years after graduating as MSc inthe health of the world. By using solar energy we Delft University of Technology in 1974. in 1980 he Tineke van der Schoor started her career in Architecture (Delft University of Technology) shecan reduce the pollution of CO2 and create a new received his masters degree in Economics at the sustainable development as assistant-coordinator returned back to her roots in Fryslân.energy source for now and in the future while the Erasmus University. After a short period at the of the Alliance for Sustainable Development In 2007 she was asked by the National Advisor forfossil energy sources are reducing. By installing, engineering office of the Adriaan Volker Group he in 1989. In the first years she focused on the the Infrastructure to provide a future vision fordeveloping new solar and wind energy systems was seconded to the Easternscheldt storm surge United Nations Conference on Environment and the Afsluitdijk. The design Stil(l) Afsluitdijk washe can convince people to be aware of renewable barrier project. In this project mr. Vrijling deve- Development, held in Rio in 1992. The agreements concerned with the replacement of the existingenergy. loped the probabilistic approach to the design of signed on UNCED had to be implemented in local cycle/foot path by tow path on both sides of the the barrier. After the completion of the barrier in and national practice in the Netherlands. So dike. She added several stil(l) elements next toSpecialisation Renewable Energy, specialised in 1986 he became deputy head of the Hydraulic en- after Unced, Tineke was involved in the National the existing elements monument, camp site,Photo Voltaic energy systems gineering branch of the Civil Engineering Division Sustainability Debates, where she conducted the sluices and the constructions at Kornwerderzand.• Sales of Photo Voltaic and wind energy systems of Rijkswaterstaat. In 1989 he was responsible for research and preparation of the debates for a These elements were implemented as ‘weather and products the research and computer activities of the Civil broad range of sustainability issues. The adagium houses’, each symbolizing one aspect of weather:• Product development of innovative RE products Engineering Division. In 1989 he became profes- ‘Think Global, Act Local’ led to a range of acti- temperature, wind, clouds, precipitation and air• Training and education of installers sor in Hydraulic Engineering in Delft. Since 1995 vities and publications for municipalities in the pressure. Nynke-Rixt made a conscious choice• Advice on grid connected Photo Voltaic systems he is full professor in Delft, and advisor to the Netherlands. for ‘civil engineering’ and ‘plasticity’ in her form• Installation, commissioning and maintenance of Civil Engineering Division. Sustainable development was also a leading semantics to find a relation with the existing ar- grid connected and autonomous Photo Voltaic Professor Vrijling was recently appointed as a theme when Tineke was ‘wethouder VROM’ in chitectural typology and thus strengthening unity systems member of the Veerman committee that studied Winsum. Landscape planning, sustainable buil- on the Afsluitdijk.• Design of grid connected Photo Voltaic the future of the new metro line in Amsterdam. ding, environment and energy where key issues in The weather houses are influenced by ever chan- systems Construction of this ‘North-South line’ was her local policies. ging weather conditions. The visitors• Design of hybrid autonomous PV, wind and stopped because of new financial prognoses as At the moment Tineke is a researcher with the have no control over the conditions and have to diesel systems a result of damage to adjoining houses. The com- Hanzehogeschool Groningen and works on experience what is happening in the weather mittee presented its advice to the Amsterdam city ‘energy transition’, ‘consumers and sustainability’ house. The design was received very positive board on 4 July 2009. and sustainable building. and will be used in the follow-up studies for the Afsluitdijk.22 23
  • 13. EXPERTREPORT Public Ideas Competition World Sustainability Centre Afsluitdijk24 25