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Proclamation no.1 1995
Proclamation no.1 1995
Proclamation no.1 1995
Proclamation no.1 1995
Proclamation no.1 1995
Proclamation no.1 1995
Proclamation no.1 1995
Proclamation no.1 1995
Proclamation no.1 1995
Proclamation no.1 1995
Proclamation no.1 1995
Proclamation no.1 1995
Proclamation no.1 1995
Proclamation no.1 1995
Proclamation no.1 1995
Proclamation no.1 1995
Proclamation no.1 1995
Proclamation no.1 1995
Proclamation no.1 1995
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Proclamation no.1 1995

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Ethiopia After the Constitution Proclamation no.1 1995.

Have therefore ratified, on 8 December 1994 this constitution through representatives we ... structure the Ethiopian state shall be known as The Federal Democratic Republic of. Ethiopia. Article 2 ... Amharic shall be the working language of the ...

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Proclamation no.1 1995

  1. 1. , . " ~~ ~~ fh.:"r-kf 4..J?.t-I'e JllfPht-f.f'e ~Tflt.h &..Yo &.IA ",;J ~ T ,;JIt fI) FEDERAL NEGARIT GAZET A OF THE FEDERAL DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF ETHIOPIA h'1.~ 'lID"" 4c'l'C Ii hJlia hnq - ~m(a. Hi +,liifn 1'1Year No.1 ADDIS ABABA - 21sl August, 1995 Oh.""f-A'.f ~1v~"f£ Jl'fPh~l1..ff£ ~TllA.h f ih1l1l "'fDt]f-:f ,..he 0."" II1q<t~"" ffDlI) CONTENTS Of/{&65J. l't'P~ ~1"C Ii/Iiifit1 ,.9". fh.:"fkf 4..1.t-I'e Jl'fDht-f.f'e ~Tflt.h :11., 00'","":" l't'P~ .,'" Ii Proclamation No. 1/1995 Proclamation of the Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia """"""'"'''' Page 1 l'tCP~ck1"CIi/Iiifit1 fh.:,.r-kf 4..1.t-I'e JllfPht-f.f'e ~Tflt.h ih., 00'","":" o"..t- If, ooCPI-, "",I1mc}> fmll) l'tCP~ fh.:"r-kf flth.C':f . flth.~{tP:f1j" ihllP:f OOCmm- :Ol:fm- .,.mi]r-;F:fm- l't",i]f,~:" ..,~C flit.,., Iitfft ,.9". fh.:"r-kf 4..J?.t-I'e Jl 'fDht-f.f'e ~Tflt.h :11100'","":'" f~"~ OOOtl'). f"th"'"m- '+m-~A II i1. l't6f.1'CC6it f,tJ l't'P~ "fh.:"r-kf 4..J?.t-I'e JllfPht-f.f'e ~Tflt.h ih., 00'","":" l't'P~ 'h1"C Ii/Iiifit1" .,.flt- t.m.,.it f,:flA II 2. ih1 00'",,,..-1: O"..t- If, it"ooCPI- fh.:"r-kf 4..1.t-I'e JllfPht-f.f'e ~Tflt.h ih., 00'","":" h~"''''' I~ .,., Iiifit1 ,.9"'1.9"C' 00-1-000-1- 0".. t- If, m-~A I: 3. l't'P:( f"'J~Ij"O:" 1.H. f,tJ l't'P~ h~"''''' I~ .,., Iiifif1 ,.9". 1.9"C' f~1j" 3. f,tI'lj" All l'tJlit l't01) ~"'lI. I~ .,., Iiifif1 ,.9". p./C ~;J(t 1.~~ fh.:"r-kf 4..1.t-I'e JllfPht-f.f'e ~Tflt.h T~H.~':" , n~ ., ;J }. . . 9'00 Dmt Pnce PROCLAMA nON NO. 1/1995 A PROCLAMATION TO PRONOUNCE THE COMING INTO EFFECT OF THE CONSTITUTION OF THE FEDERAL DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF ETHIOPIA WHEREAS, the Nations, Nationalities and Peoples of Ethiopia have, through their elected Representatives, ratified the Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, on the 8thday of December, 1994; it is hereby proclaimed as follows: 1. Short Title This Proclamation may be cited as the' 'Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Proclamation No. 1/1995". 2. Coming into Effect of the Constitution The Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia has come into full force and effect as of the 21sl day of August, 1995. Effective Date This Proclamation shall enter into force as of the 21sl day of August, 1995. Done at Addis Ababa, this 21stday of August, 1995. NEGASO GIDADA (DR.) . PRESIDENT OF THE FEDERAL DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF ETHIOPIA t..1..t-A ~;Jt"', ;JH.1fJ T'''''+'' ii'a:;i Federal Negarit a.p.G.Box 80,001
  2. 2. 1Jt I 1..1.~A ~;M"" ;JII."., cfc-rCIi ~"'( I~ +') IIJ"'~- "Federal Negarit Gazeta - No.1 2111August 1995 - Page 2 OP"Iflf ,,~ fkTf"kl -oth.C"~f -oth.~"'P~ f th1fP~ ,- OV1&-~1kTf"kl m-h1' Ult M,. f "iaT'i lAm- l.'fPh&-f "'.&L"'t;:' f ki''r''tlC£'i "7~R&-C£"I:1;J-~1 "'.&L4.m' f f&-it~11 /)1:/. O&-it'f1 fODID"" OD-o;J- ~11 -tm~OD1 f 0" t;:11;J-~1 f Oth., fOI"~T "'i 0&-it~1 ~:1»1: 1" f+OD"'~-t 111: f?"A"t11 "7~O~"'-o O;J&-1t"""T "Cm1 OOD~itT ! "U1 '1"7 h.,-o A"71:~ia f f.,,, o'i f-oth.C/. lIth.~(a-o OD"'~;J-C£ OD.f1+~ -ho&-=fm- f f1;to "h-/. ~T OD~;J1m- f I1thA-~ """7''r+~' I1A11JC~ /.'~T ~1.&L&-ODJJ.f"71:~-" 1ia~I1.~TW)' "9"~;J-~1 OOD")' J kTf"kl V1&-~1 ff&-it~1 1h-~ l1ihA lA1 f ff/,.4T1 OD/.h, 9"1:C 1(a';'~C'~f1~1'i lA1' -om.c -o","~(afl~'i th"p~ O+Al' ODiai'~ f"'~~T 1.~1{"~ -titia~1 1-o~1 f'rC1I1T'i fM'iCI1:" V1C OOD."" ! lA.&-'1m- ';J~1'~,fD'i lODAl1h:"1A1 oftA1 hA~M; ODtJ.1.m-';J&- /)~I ~1 ODODia~""lAOT h~~11~1 flD~h'1m-1 ,-t,,11 ",)~'1T I1"7t9"';,f;J&-/1'tc'7~11 ' O"7it,.., ",. (10"),1 OOD+O~ I PREAMBLE We, the Nations, Nationalities and Peoples of Ethiopia: Strongly committed, in full and free exercise of our right to self-detennination, to building a political community foun- ded on the rule of law and capable of ensuring a lasting peace, guaranteeing a democratic order, and advancing our economic and social development; Firmly convincedthat the fulfilment of this objective requires full respect of individual and people'_sfundamental freedoms and rights, ~olive together o~ the basis of equality' and without any sexual, religious or cultUraldiscrimination; Further convinced that by continuing to live with our rich ,and proud cultural legacies in territories we have long inhabited, have, through continuous interaction on various levels and forms of life,. built up common interests and have also contributed to the emergence of a common outlook; Fully cognizant that our common destiny can best be served by rectifing historically unjust reltionships and by further promoting our shared interests; Convinced that to live as one economic community is necessary in order to create sustainable and mutually suppor- tive conditions for ensuring respect for our rights and freedoms and for the collective promotion of our interests;1'''''''''~1't . ODlI;J-~1'i' ~if~;JwT11 O;J&- "Ij 0-t1.,:1 .;J.f,'~+ ,,-,it~.., 111::fl.i''t''t "'I~Ot(allfOD11. . 11..J:1"hA.I1.'1"" 0",-, ; Determined to consolidate, as a lasting legacy, the peace and the prospect of a democratic order which our struggles and sacrifices have brought about;n~"1~1«; Ob~/. '1m-0014'1'/):",'1:"'-t1T(Df-11.'fP h&-f'i itl9" Ult~i:1 A"'I~;J11'! "U ~1(ID1""'T 'hff.UO",. A1A"'i:r:".. '1"7 ,,~ "9"~+~ ~Ml ~1.&L"'~'''').&LlDhI-1ODCm1 OltJ'i:fm--t1D11f";J=~')""711"~:" flat1 -1.,,.,:,, -,.11" Ill. ~;&:CID+1 liUn"* t"+~,,/. II Have therefore adopted, on 8 December 1994 this Cons- titutionthroughrepresentativeswe haveduly elected forthis purpose as an instrument that,binds us in a mutual commit-' ment to fulfill the obj~tives and the principl~s set forth above.
  3. 3. 1Jt r A..1.~.A ~;J&.1' .7fL") <~TC ji ~Ihc!~ 4>1lilfn ,.,... Federal Negarit Gazeta - No. I 21st August 1995 - Page 3 Ethiopian Territorial Jurisdiction The territorial jurisdiction of Ethiopia shall comprise the territory of the members of the Federation and its boundaries fh,:t-f-kf f"'.':" fD"'} ft..Yo~t-'} 1l1foT fD"'} fD7.fm shall be as determined by international agreements. ft'A A If Ii 0 ~t 9" 1"'tt: il9"9"H'" T 00 "l:" f"'fD" ~fD" ~fD":: 9" iJ (,..C': 1 ') ~" m:""" ~,,'};J1.9'T 1,}"'1 ~ fh..:"f- k f oo'}..,/"':,. ilfll7. .e.U ih1 oo'}.., /"':,. t..Y..~" 1£Cj Y..'l"h ~"-fl£ f oo'}.., /"':,. 1fD:J>.,.Cf,f,~'?;JA :: O'LU oo"l:" fh..:"f-kf oo'}'?/"':,. fh..:"f-kf t..Y..~I1£ Y..'l"h~"-fl£ ~T11t..h OD7.A il9" .e.m~A :: 1,}"'1 ~ fh..TV"kf f'?':" fD"'} 1,}"'1 f f h..:"V"k f ,,'} ~:,. ~"DIJ ~, fh..:"f-A'f "'}~:,. ~"DIJh"f, 1l,}~Y.. t hoothA 0. 6IiiJ.t h.+T "'f, (rli 0 ooth t" 'Oth.~1£ ~CDIJ f,Cj llfJA :: Y'il1:9" .,. tDIJ:" ~ h- A (r ~fD"0 1'? ~9" f,"'oo lIJf- :: h,,') ~:,. ~IDIJfD" 1f, fDIJ".,. 00 mfD"11th.~1£ ~CDIJ f h.. :"f-kf 11th.C'Tt 11th.l"flT t ihllflT ~Cj 'If,DlJCj.y.T O~ h-A ~''''Cj 01'} ~,~..,. tooliC f"TfD"'} .,.il4. fDIJ.f'}R I1Ce} f,tfCjA :: f t..Y..~"" 111foT ff ~i}TfD" ,,'} ~:,. ~"DlJCj ~CDIJ t.. Cj ~TfD" f,T"A :: 1fC1f~,} Of~i}TfD" 9"hC 0.:" f,fDilCj "":: I' [. 1'}.,. 1 ii - fh..:"f-kf 'Oth.~1£ oollllO"C fh.. :"f-k f 11th.~1£ OOllllO"C f ih1 oo'}'?/"'1:,} ~"DlJ9'TCj fh..:"f-kf ihllflT Oy"'l"ht,.."- /"'C~:,. 111lfD" tooCjC f"TfD"'} ~9"~:" f ~'}Jto-9" ffD~L:" f;J~ iJ~ITfD"'} fDIJ.f'}RI1C:" (rCj Oih'? f,fD"CjA :: 1') .,. 1 ?; ili *'}* ~, DlJCjTfD"9"fh..:"f-kf *,}*9'T O~h-A~:" foo'},?/",:" ~fD":"Cj f,Cj ~TIfJ A :: ~, 1DlJC~ ft..Y..~'" oo'},?/",..,. f/"'~ *'}* f,lfCjA :: [, ft..Y..I..7i).. 1l1foT ff(,..i}TfD"'} f/"'~ *'}* Oih'? f,fD il Cj "" :: 11.,. R" 7: iIi ,L'? ~:,. ~, fD"~:t:/fD"~:e fDf,9" hfD"~:t:/hfD"~:e 11~~TfD" h..:"f-k!I£/h..:"f-k!l£:" flf~/flf~T fh..:"f-k! tL;J ~fD"/Cj:" :: ~, ffD"6J!' U1C tL1T fh..:"f-k! tI.'?~:" t..f11- f,TIf- :: [, 't'?~:"1 ODIJ"ooih:" lfClf~ Oih'? f,fD(aCjA :: CHAPTER ONE GENERAL PROVISIONS Article 1 Nomenclature of the State This Constitution establishes a Federal and Democratic State structure. Accordingly, the Ethiopian state.shall be known as The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Article 2 Article 3 The Ethiopian Flag 1. The Ethiopian flag shall consist of green at the top, yellow in the middle and red at the bottom, and shall have a national emblem at the centre. The three colours shall be set horizontally in equal dimension. 2. The national emblem on the flag shall reflect the hope of the Nations, Nationalities, Peoples as well as religious communities of Ethiopia to live together in equality and unity. 3. Members of the Federation may have their respective flags and emblems and shall determine the details thereof through their respective legislatures. Article 4 National Anthem of Ethiopia The national anthem of Ethiopia, to be determined by law, shall reflect the ideals of the Constitution, the commitment of the Peoples of Ethiopia to live together in a democratic ord~r and of their common destiny. Article 5 Languages 1. All Ethiopian languages shall enjoy equal state recog- nition. 2. Amharic shall be the working language of the Federal Government. 3. Members of the Federation may by law determine their respective working languages. Article 6 Nationality 1. Any person of either sex shall be an Ethiopian national where both or either parent is Ethiopian. 2. Foreign nationals may acquire Ethiopian nationality. 3. Particulars relating to nationality shall be determined by law.
  4. 4. 1~!! t.,Y.,t..t ~;JI.-r ;Jlf.ffJ~'I'C:li ~(hl'l.I?i 4>1Ii!fit% '}.9". Federal Negarit Gazeta -No.1 21 st August 1995 - Page 4 h 1.,.", 'k ff;J- h11t'" Article 7 Gender Reference OtttJ ih1 001..,P':" CD-il'l' oon ~ f;J- fi'1. "11 CD-'1(1.:"19" Provisions of this Constitution set out in the masculine gender f;J- !iI:";J-A :: shall also apply to the feminine gender. 9" iJ/r.lf. ll' t :,. 'I ih1 001"'P'i: oo(}~;J-ce ooClfsP"f h 1.,. '" :!; 'Iihll11 trqlCC":" Ii- fh.:,.r-k! 11m.~"f : 11m.~(}P"f : ihllP"f fh.:,.r-k! trqlCC P'A1l)1 flto..y."f 'i"TCD-:: ~- ,etJ ih 1 001.., P':" 'Itrql CC.,;J-TCD-00'" t6liJ..,CD-:: r- trqlCC";J-TW-9" f0l/.1tRCD-OtttJ ih1 001..,P':" oo(}~:" OOl/.ooC{{l.TW-i'roiIr-;FTCD-'i" O"''I';J- OOl/.!1.C.,.:" YolJP h/r.l1.!CC i''':''';: hDl/iI,e.,:,. ,e1f'i"A :: h 1.,.", j1 'Iih1 OO1..,P':" fOl,e.,:,. Ii- ih1 001°1P'i: fU1~i: fOl,e ih.., "CD-:: 0'/1?fCD-9" ih.., : AO'/'&;CChlP/r.C : h1Jtll'9" f001..,P':" hiIA ro,e9" fltP'AIl)1 CD-"~ htttJ ih1 001..,P':" ;JC fOl/.:J>~1 hlf., i'&.1t0l/.":" h,eif~CD-9" :: ~- 0'/1?fCD-9" tI.;J : f001..,P':" hiII:" : f7'ti:iI ~C~.y."f: f.f<>"f0'/'" 0 /r.:" h 1 Jt ll'9" fItP' A Il)if ;FTW- : ih 1 001.., P'i:1 fO'/ilhOC'i" tih1 001"'P'i: i'11( fOOlf1 ;}Ik":" htflTCD- :: r- OtttJ ih1 001..,P':" hi'Y."11CD- W-6f!>OO'/'i"TW-9" h ~1 f001..,P':" P'A1l)1 00!1I fi'htht .,w- :: ~- h.:,.r-k! !R1..,.;FTCD- qt9" h.,.lf. il9"9".,.y."f fU1~i: ih.., hiIA 'i"TCD-:: h1.,.'" I ()11qCC'i"YolJPh/r.l1.!CC 0011.y."f Ii- (}11qCC0011.y."f'i" .,.,.,.y."f h(}CD-A~ i'&.'1'~ fOl/.oo"a;c: fO'/,eIl)(}-'i" fDl/,e1&.f. 'i"rCD- :: ~- f'L1"f h'i" fihllP"f(}-OqCC'i" YolJPh/r.l1.!CC OO11.y."f ,eh O/r.tr :: h 1.,. '" "Ii f001..,P':"'i" f'/,eO'/if:" oot!f:" CHAPTER TWO FUNDAMENTALPIDNCWLESOFTHE CONSTITUTION Article 8 Sovereignty of the People 1. All sovereign power resides in the Nations, Nationalities and Peoples of Ethiopia. 2. This Constitution is an expression of their sovereignty. 3. Their sovereignty shallbe expressed through their represen- tatives elected in accordance with this Constituion and through their direct democratic participation. Article 9 Supremacy of the Constitution 1. The Constitution is the supreme law ofthe land. Any law, customary practice or a decision of an organ of state or a public official which contravenes this Constitution shall be of no effect. 2. All citizens, organs of state, political organizations, other associations as well as their officials have the duty to ensure observance of the Constitution and to obey it. 3. It is prohibited to assume state power in any manner other than that provided under the Constitution. . 4. All intenational agreements ratified by Ethiopia are an integral part of the law of the land. Article 10 Human and Democratic Rights 1. Human rights and freedoms, emanating from the nature of mankind, are inviolable and inalienable. 2. Human and democratic rights of citizens and peoples shall be respected. Article 11 Separation of State and Religion 1. State and religion are separate. Ii- 001..,P':"'i" '/ ,eDl/if-"t fi't!f. 'i"rCD- :: 2. There shall be no state religion. ~- 001"'P';J-CC '/,eO'/if:" h,eifC9" :: jIi r- 001..,P':" O'/,eO'/if:" .,..&;.eIl)A:J> h.e1f19" :: '/.eO'/if:"9" 3. The state shall not interfere in religious matters and 0001..,P':" .,..&;.eIl)A:J> h.e1f19" :: religion shall not interfere in state affairs.
  5. 5. 1K"f. A..,.,t./A ~:M'1' ;JIL"' 'h1'C:fi ~,M. It .,., IP.fn ~.,... Federal Negarit Gazeta - No.1 21't August 1995 - Page 5 n1.,.", Ul fOD1"lJP:t- nlP(,.Ctj +m'<I:~:t- (!. fOD1"lJP:t- nlPt-C I"'11-{1 °IA'" O(f~ OD11f: ODhtj(JJ1 nlO:t- :: I' 0IJ1~ID-9'" ~"Ltj f ih11-{1+ODt-6f!' ~"L H:1 r't.'~f:A '''m'<I: ~trtj A :: f' ih1f'0 nOD~mID- +(JJt)~ ,,~ h9'"~:t- fill) 1.H. hP:J'ID- I0IJ1""" ~'f"A :: 1fC1f?o Oih"l ~(JJlttjA :: 9'"~ t-tt: Y' it:t- ODlt~:t'tf OD-{1.y.'ftj ~., ~.y.'f n1.,.'" If '''L'''OIJ.~:t-tj n+~~19'" (!. 00lJ1~ID-9'",.~~ fOlJ.1'r. f~Yot-A OD1"lJP:t-tjfhAA ihOl nID-(;""'. t ih"l nit~'-"'OIJ. htj f,&;~~:t- nt}fo'f OH.U 9'"~(,.r,: f.,.t}+rf::t-1 1.:1;J1.sP'f fOlJhOctj fOlJithOC :""~. ~..,.,; °IYo:" nl fI:':ID- :: ~. O'LU 9'"~(,.r,: f'''H~H?o')' ODlt~:t'tf fOD-{1.y.'ftjf~"~.y.'f 1:1 ;J1.sP'f h. 'rf' k, hi'''' 0 I:FTID- 'i 19'" n 4>tt:f It-(1'itf OD.n.y.'f ihol;J'r t 'il9'" n"'c,: flt-{1'itf OD-{1.y.'fit9'"9'"~ .y::;.tj 'il9'" n"'~ 1P~f.'f ODC(fsP'f ;JC O+ll)ll)OD OD111: ~"'~101J/- :: hr':A n 1f: It.n'itf OD.n.y.'f Article 12 Conduct and Accountability of Government 1. The conduct of affairs of government shall be transparent. 2. Any public official or an elected representative is accoun- table for any failure in official duties. 3. In case of loss of confidence, the people may recall an elected representative. The particulars of recall shall be determined by law. CHAPTER THREE FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS Article 13 Scope of Application and Interpretation 1. All Federal and State legislative, executive and judicial organs at all levels shall have the responsibility and duty to respect and enforce the provisions of this Chapter. 2. The fundamental rights and freedoms specified in this Chapter shall be interpreted in a manner conforming to the principles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, International Covenants on Human Rights and international instruments adopted by Ethiopia. PART ONE HUMAN RIGHTS Article 14 Rights to life, the Security of .Person and Liberty Every person has the inviolable and inalienable right to life, 0IJ1i1ID-9'" ltID- It-{1'itf nOD(f). fOlJ~'.LCtj fOlJ~1ltit the security of person and liberty. Oih~(JJ:t- fOD'iC t fnt}A '.U1~:t-tj t f~.,~:t- OD-{1:t-nlID- :: Article 17 Right to Liberty 1. No one shall be deprived of his or her liberty except on such grounds and in accordance with such procedure as {!. nih"l hi'~~11ID- JPC'i:t- ID-1iJ.h0IJ1~ID-9'" ltID- (JJ1f:9'" are established by law. (f~ ,. ~"~rf:1!:t1 n'll)9'"!n:t'll)9'" :: 2. No person may be subjected to arbitrary arrest, and no I' 0IJ1~ID-9'"ltID- Oih"l h',.,. ~11ID-JPC'i:t-ID-1iJ.h1.'11 t l1it person may be detained without a charge or conviction "~4>c'on')' (JJ~9'" ",e.~.~y.'n:t- I.:t'ltc n~'fA9'" :: against him. n1.,.'" 'i!! fih~(JJ:t- t fnt}A ~U1~:t-tj f~.,~:t- OD-{1:t- n1.,.'" 11:- f ih~(JJ:t- OD-{1:t- 0IJ1i1ID-9'" ltID- nih~(JJ:t- fOD'i'C OD-{1:t-nlID- :: 0IJ1~ID-9'" ltID- nih"l n.,.,. ~11 hflY.' ftD1l'A :"ll):t- t}A(f~ Oit+4>C ih~(JJ'f:1 n'(lI9'" :: 1',1"'''' Ii- fnt}A '.tJ1~:t- OD-{1:t- 0IJ1~ID-9'"ltID- nnt}l:' ,,~ 1.'&;'r h1,&;~~Cito:t- fODmO:" OD-{1""nlID- :: n 1.,. '" 1'i. f~.,~:t- OD-{1:t- Article 15 Right to Life Every person has the right to life. No person may be deprived of his life except as a punishment for a serious criminal offence determined by law. Article 16 The Right of the Security of Person Every one has the right to protection against bodily harm.
  6. 6. 'J~} t"Yo&.& ~;M"" ;J1f.(fJ <hTC!! ~ch'" Xli <1>1Hifif% 'i.f". Federal Negarit Gazeta - No.1 21st August 1995 - Page 6 n'}~? 1:1:-- n.(allq,£ nf fll iltoohAh~ 11 . OI/"} ~lD-?" (alD- 6f-t)~ h +qol n'-" . n.(a1l q'£ h If ~ CDf,?" hll ~"} hDl/.fCP C.(' nf fll CDf,?" :"tlJ'-" f 00 m n:" 0011'-" ntlD- :: ~. 0I/"}~lD-?" (alD- nI1C~'-" CD~?" n..,Yo:" n1A;J~~'-" il.fll n~"fA?" :: t0I/"}~lD-?" qlOI/ n(alD- foo~1.(' +..,I1C f+htht ~lD- :: ;:. OI/")~ lD-?" (alD- n~~ A +1 p.. CDf,?" ..,Yo:"") t OI/o:t.1.-,. 0I/"}~lD-"}?" P'&. ""}"tlP(~ 01/.('1..., f+htht ~lD- :: ~. mUJ n"}~? "}o-iln"}~? ;: "n~f,A +1p.. CDf,?"..,Yo:""} t01/o:t.1'-"" fDl/.t lD- £ItI..., fDi/.h+ ~.-,."} V-~:"sP"f nft} '-"'-"?,,; U) OI/"}~ lD-?" "ill. ~ n" il &..-,. I~ 11t n'-" 1.H. n ih.., oo(al.'-" ""}"tlP&' f+CD(a~lD-"} CD~r n11.l1 h"ilC n+ t ~~ n'-" 1. H. fDl/.lP &,lD-"}OI/"}~lD-?" P' &. t t) 0I/"}~lD-?" CD:"1.&.'£ n1A..,tr>'-" tooilm'-" ihil. CjlD-fOl/f,L:" .('t'-" (alD- n?,,'-"h fDl/.(amlD-") n1A °, tr>'-" t rh) f0l/1 nl. (a{}-") ih~CD'-" CD~?" 1.tJ"}~.-,. fD?f (a;J f n ilTI),f, 1. H. lJ-~:" CDf,?" n1.;J n D?f ;J1'?" n'-" 1. II. fDi/. (al' OI/")~ lD-"}?" n1 A.., tr>'-" : (0) nOl/.ooth+lD- ihllll L~.(' nnt}l1fllD- fD?LK 00 lD-"} OI/"} ~ lD-?"n. 1fj"D?f'£Cj 01/1 n &.'£ fA 01/'-" P'&. :: n"}~? Ii! f+ flf- (asP"f0011'-" 11' . CD"}~A &.?oocpA nool1A f+ flf- (asP"f f~l.nI1TCD- hilCj ?"h"}f+:fi n1lClIC CD"tflD-~ nD?1I1TlD- *")* ""}"t~1 &.TlD- oo.n'-" nlTlD- :: ~. f+ flf- (asP"f ItooCj1C 0011'-" nlTlD- ; fD?(am-'-" 0I/"}~lD-?" ~A If:CX' 0.'-" nOl/ill.~~'-" il.~ClII1TCD- " ") 1. DI/."f A 00 l..&;'-" n D? "f~'-" *"} * " "}1. + f If- CD"tf CD-~ OI/il1"}"flf ""}"t(atlJTlD- 0011'-" nlTlD- :: ;:. f + f If- (asP"f n n C11 il ?"") .-,. (aq :".-,. lD-il1' If:C.(' 0.'-" f 00:"1.11 0011'-" n 1TlD- :: ~tJ?" 1.H. (asP:t:h + f If-n'-" {1:" CDY.~CX' 0.'-" too?"tlJ'-" n..,l1l1 11tlD- ..,?".-,. fD?mf, ~lD-"} 1.11. nf,t;IJ.?"C?" :: CD"tflD-~ If:C.(' 0.'-" ""}1.~~{1- n1'ml.m~n'-" CD"}~A too:"(aC fDl/.fn~ ?"h"}f'-" ft oolf~ 1.tf,+ ""}"t 1t?ITlD- 0011'-" nlTCD-:: ~. f ftlTlD- f Til.il 001"}"} CD~?" f ih.., nilhl1~ n1.H.CD-11.11 c~C X' 0...,. nOl/ :"1.11 f + .f If-n.r"} ?"h"} f'-" t}1ill.,&;t If: C.(' 0.-1: fnt}A ~'~:"TlD-") ""}"tfilhllCITCD- foomf:" il.tlJil fOl/~"fA 0011"" nlrlD- :: Iffj"?" If:'-''ih ""}'&;~:-}1.A lJ-~:"CD-fOl/.m~:" hlf~ If:CX' 0.-1: f+ f"lD- (aCD-n1'n~ il C " ")"t.y. f, t01/"11 CDf,?" ?"C 00 &. t OI/t}'t.(' + (;iJ.0I/~ 1.H. It.mf:'' 1',il&.I1. nlf~ oom") .ngF il.&.:".(' ~"flA :: fOl/.fil&.A1lD-"} +t;1J.0I/~ f?"coo&.1.tl.lf:C.(' 0.-1: It.CDil"} :~It.. f (n.'-" f ih °, nil h 11~ 11tP' A tlJfj""f ?"C 00 &,CD-") nll) C +lD- f + f" lD- (a lD- n+ gFt If: l' ~.-,. If: C.(' 0.'-" ,,") "t ~c-n .ftlD-"} 0011'-" fDl/.filhllC 001f"} ntn'-" :: Article 18 Prohibition against Inhuman Treatment 1. Everyone has the right to protection against cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. 2. No one shall be held in slavery or servitude. Trafficking in human beings for whatever purpose is prohibited. 3. Noone shall be required to perform forced or compulsQI)' labour. 4. For the purpose of sub-Article 3 of this Article the phrase "forced or compulsory labour" shall not include: (a) Any work or service normally required of a person who is under detention in consequence of a lawful order, or of a person during conditional release from such detention; (b) In the case of conscientious objectors, any service exacted in lieu of compulsory military service; (c) Any serviceexacted in cases of emergency or calamity threatening the life or well-being of the community; (d) Any economic and social development activity volun- tarily performed by a community within its locality. Article 19 Right of Persons Arrested 1. Persons arrested have the right to be informed promptly, in a language they understand, of the reasons for their arrest and of any charge against them. 2. Persons, arrested have the right to remain silent. Upon arrest, they have the right to be informed promptly, in a language they understand, that any statement they make may be used as evidence against them in court. 3. Persons arrested have the right to be brought before a court within 48 hours of their arrest. Such time shall not include the time reasonably required for the journey from the place of arrest to the court. On appearing before a court, they have the right to be given prompt and specific explanaltion of the reasons for their arrest due to the alleged crime committed. 4. All persons have an inalienable right to petition the court to order their physical release where the arresting police officer or the law enforcer fails to bring them before a court within the prescribed time and to provide reasons for their arrest. Where the interest of justice requires, the court may order the arrested person to remain in custody or, when requested, remand him for a time strictly required to carry out the necessary investigation. In determining the additional time necessary for inves- tigation, the court shall ensure that the responsible law enforcement authorities carry out the investigation res- pecing the arrested person's right to a speedy trial.
  7. 7. 1X-:£ ~1.t.1A ~;M"" ,?u.1IJ ~1'C A ~m(.!?; 4>, !itIft ,.,... Federal Negarit Gazeta - No.1 2151August 1995 - Page 7 ~. f+ 1~ (}?Jr O~"'Tl& If. O"'hl:(~"" t.+C1I f"7.rA f"r~"" :1>/."'Jl(}m- tDf.r "''''Tl&1r ",hl){ "'Jl lr.,. 1'f.1f,.~r II 0",h1f,.1: f+1" ",hl:( ++I1f.~"" "'f.'i ll&'r II I' f+ 1~ (}?Jr O'Ph fOll~;J-"" 01111"""'ITl& II1f'i9'" Oib.., 0 + f,.~1'" A ~ 0-~;J-?Jr C;:C1: 0."" 'Ph""'" 1"011+OA tDf.r 01f,.11 OIIC;:;J-""') ta'rC> oct flf~ f'Ph""'" "'l~165J. "'Jl+C1I "",H1I f.rl/. II '" ') + '" t) f+h(} (}?Jr 01111"" Ii' f+h(} (}?Jr hh h+lOI1Tl& O~I +1ft Olf~ "'~C 1.tJ. l&h,- 00llf,.0;;: C;:C1: 0."" "ib1l1l "'A'" Olf~ rfto"" fOll(}"''''' 01111""1'ITl& II If'ir f+h~I1~?J:t:') f..,A ibf.tD"" t fib1l1l1 f'l"~A o-~;J-'" ff}1~i:1 f,.tJ,)~"" "OIImO.}>I.I1A 1I;F hCh~ 011.., rfto"" t.(}", f.rl/. II I' h oct Olf~ 1IC1IC"')Jl~1~Tl& ",.. h , 0"',h.C;: f",..,,.,,,, 01111"""'ITl& II f' OC;:C1:'£f,."" 111-0"" 1.tJ. O+h(} O"" tD11:A "'f,. ,-4- +;;: '''OII~mC . Orhhc~"" "'Jl+Clt9'" '''0II1f,.1: 01111"" "'ITl& II ~. f+lOflTl&') "''''Tl&1'r ",hl:( fOllOllAh"" t f+lltl1 Tl&1 rhhc>r fOllmf.}> t "OIIhlhA f"7.1hrlTl&') ",hl:( f",.}>l1l tDf.'r f",h+l1l "'Jlo-r 'rhhC' ;FTl& +COl& "'Jl(}~ITl& fOllmf.}> 01111"""'ITl& II ~. OOlllm-"" fib.., mO:1> fOlltDhA tDf.r mO:1> "",I/>r ",.}>r 0"'11) :.t'Tl& C;:..,.ib t.:}f,.A f"7. rA 0"" o-~;J- 1., ;J,-r h0ll1..,P''''' mO:1> f",..,,.,,,, 01111"" "'ITl& II I' hCh~ 0"7.;J-f.0"" C;:C1: 0."" O+(}mI1Tl& """tf1l tDf.r c;:C~ If. P'AII)1 I"l& C;:C1: 0."" f."'I1~ f",.}>l1l 01111"" "'ITCf)- II ~. fC;:C~ 'If..'''' 0"'f.1I1Tl& *,* 0"7.11~1:0"" o-~;J-0011') .., P''''' tDIJJ. h Ch~ ,,') -'l+ l-) 9'"ITl& fOIlmf.}>01111"" "'ITl& II '" ')+'" ~b 0,-0:1> hC 11-,.. OC;:C1:f ;J-(}~ (}?Jr 01111"" Ii' 0,-0:1> hC 11-,.. OC;:C1:f;J-()~ (}?Jr (}1I'ice h1l~Tl&') 0"7.m1lch o-~;J-?Jr fOIl111 01111"" "'ITl& II I' h..,..-;C :}f,.7'f;FTl& t h""C1I HOIIf.;FTl& . h:}f,.7'f;FTl& t h?f.",tj"" "''''I1~?J;FTl& t hthtL'I";FTl& ",.. hib.., "''''I1~?J;FTl& ~C "OIl""'''''''''' "'-'l-)O~Tl&'r "1:A f",..,,.,,,, 0011"" "'ITl& II "'')+'" ~e ftD,)~A ib.., tDf,.~I +ooA(t f"'f.IP~ h" oolf'" Ii' ",');;: l&r (}l& f tD11:A h h I.+C1I 0"" f +h()(} 0"" 1:C 1."" O+~~OIIO"" 1.tJ. 1:C1.i:') oo~~~ tDf.'r "'''00 ~~~ tD')1:A 0II1f'" Oib.., f+f,.~.,., 11/.1f~ Oh++C t. +11) "'f.rA'r II "')Jlo-r tD')1:I-') 0&.~000"" 1.tJ. "tD')1:1- +~1."7. h~Oll& f.}>I1)"" 1I)~1 Olf. fhOf,. .}>II)"" o"'');;:l&r (}l& If. "'f.tD(}19'" II 5. Persons arrested shall not be compelled to make confes- sions or admissions which could be used in evidence against them. Any evidence obtained under coercion shall not be admissible. 6. Persons arrested have the right to be released on bail. In exceptional circumstances prescribed by law, the court may deny bail or demand adequate guarantee for the conditional release of the arrested person. Article 20 Rights of Persons Accused 1. Accused persons have the right to a public trial by an ordinary court of law within a reasonable time after having been charged. The court may hear cases in a closed session only with a view to protecting the right to privacy of the parties concerned, public morals and national security. 2. Accused persons have the right to be informed with sufficient particulars of the charge brought against them and to be given the charge in writing. 3. During proceedings accused persons have the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law and not to be compelled to testify against themselves. 4. Accused persons have the right to full access to any evidence presented against them, to examine witnesses testifying against them, to adduce or to have evidence produced in their own defence, and to obtain the attendance of and examination of witnesses on their behalf before the court. 5. Accused persons have the right to be represented by legal counsel of their choice, and, if they do not have sufficient means to pay for it and miscarriage of justice would result, to be provided with legal representation at state expense. 6. All persons have the right of appeal to the competent court against an order or a judgement of the court which first heard the case. 7. They have the right to request for the assistance of an interpreter at state expense where the court proceedings are conducted in a language they do not understand. Article 21 The Rights of Persons Held in Custody and Convicted Prisoners . 1. All persons held in custody and persons imprisoned upon conviction and sentencing have the right to treatments respecting their human dignity. 2. All persons shall have the opportunity to communicate with, and to be visited by, their spouses or partners, close. relatives, friends, religious councillors, medical doctors and their legal counsel. Article 22 Non-retroactivity of Criminal Law 1. No one shall be held guilty of any criminal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a criminal offence at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed on any person than the one that was applicable at the time when the criminal offence was committed.
  8. 8. 1K" t t..1..t./. ";J~"" ;Jtl.ffJ<h1'C{i ",h/ l?i .,.1 lillY?; Ii."" Federal Negarit Gazeta - No.1 21 ,( August 1995 - Page 8 ~. ftLU h'}+1 '}D-/1 h'}+1 li fi.'iC9" f J.':C1.i: h+LRoo 0: 1 f fDtf) ~ "I 1+h Itif. fD f,9" 1++ tf}lD- 11lD- iIl:J> O?. 1T'i h+11 hJ.':C1.i: 0:1 ffDtf}lD-~"I +LRO?.~'-'" f,'il'PA:: h'}+1 7;f 0 h'} J.':fD'}:lA J.':;JO?.~tf}'-'" /11oohA hit- 0?'}~lD-9" 11lD- OfD'}:lA ~"Ili r~ rCq.-,.. ool1l'-'" +h{ f 00 QJ,l7i' OIT~ lD-It~ '1'4-+ ~ ~i: O+l;J 1ill 0'-'" fDf,9" 0 ~, 0+1 ++ 0'-'" fD'}1: A 'h'}1.1li hf, h 11/19" fDf, 9" h f,+ tf}9" :: h'} + 1 7;0-fhllCli fOOAit9" /19" 0011'-'" li' 0?'}~lD-9" 11lD- 1111q'C hll';'li OOAit9" {}oo- foohOC 0011'-'" hllD- :: ~. O?,}~lD-9" 11lD- f t.l1-,} /111 ()li ht.fto:y. It"':y. 001l.y.:y. ;J C O+tf}tf}oo o-~~ O~' fO?lt1. "I 0011'-'" hllD- :: [. 0?'}~lD-9" 11lD- 00?'}~lD-9" /1CJ:t. Ol1l1q'C~i: 'hlD-~li fO?"Il'-'" 0011'-'" hllD- :: h') + 1 7;i: - - f'h IrA~'-'" 0011'-'" 0-1t-9" 119':y. 0 ~ "I ~.-,.. ~ irA liTlD- ; 0 ooith ITlD-9" O?,}~ lD-9" q f, ~.-,..A ~ ~.-,..1tf,1.l"l 0 ~ "I 'hirA l' O:J>f,1. l"l 1 T'PA :: OtLU l1J.': OHCf 01lth.C f lIth.ll1l1 f 0+19" f OP~f O*'}* f OYf,O?'i'-'" f OTI-tit f 00?'"r0t.'C hOOtf}'I' f OVlI'-'" f O'-"'lD-A J.': fD f, 9" 0 1.1 h * 9" 9"h '}1'-'" A ~ ~.-,..Itf, 1.l"l 119':y. o-It- 'hlrAli r"QJ,l1'T' f~"I 'P/1'-"'li fO?"Il'-'" 0011'-'" hlTlD- :: h'} + 1 ?}':& f"lA ~f,fD'-'" foohOCli fooillO~ 0011'-'" li' 0?'}~lD-9" 11lD-f"lA ~f,fDi: f "II'C~i: . foohOC 0011'-'" hllD- :: f,U 0011'-'" oo'i ~1 f1.i: ~ l1lD-~i:li ,}lIli: h00 00 Coo C 'h'},It 0-9" 0"1 A f,tt ~lD- 11 '}lIl'-'" h 00 1"H f 00 ill 0 ~ 001l'-"''} 1it'-'" ~ A :: ~. 0?'}~lD-9" 11lD-O"lA fO?.14-TlD-li fO?.RR4-TlD- . OT{}~ f O?.A it TlD- 1.11~ f1.9':y. f 'h '} ,It 0- 9" 0-1: t. c;:'} f 0-1: t. t100- ~ h. 7i,}li Oh.t.h'-"'C'~h ooUf~19':y. f0?.11.C;JTlD- "ITf. ~.y.:y.hf,1.L';'9" :: [. foo,}"Ir'-'" l1lrAtf}'i:y. 'h~tLU'} 001l.y.:y. fO?hOCli fO?/1hOc "I1..~ hll1TlD- :: h{}1~~ o-~~9':y.l1.LiIl';'li 1Ith.t.'C 1.U,}~'-"''}f f ~"H1I,} 1119" f fD'}1:A'} Oooh IhA' mS'}li f~"HlI,} flfPt.A o-~~ OOOillO~ fDf,9" f t.fto:y.'} OOll'-"'li ~, ~.-,.. OO?{}hOC ql 0?9':y. If, 0+00 l1li: "HC"HC ~..,:y. ool1l'-'" itAIT~ O{}++C f'h HlU 001l.y.:y. hill:J>+9" t.11.'O hf,:y.A9" :: li' h'} + 1 7;1. fYf,0?'i'-'" f f'h 9"~'-"'li f h 001ith'-'" ~, ~.-,.. O?'} ~lD-9" 11lD- fO? 1111 : f ~ t.li 'hli fYf,0? 'i'-'" ~, ~.-,.. hl lD-:: f,U 0011'-'" O?'}~lD-9" 11lD-f 00 lilllD-'} Yf,0?'i .-,.. fDf,9" 'h9"~'-'" f00111 fDf,9" foo+OA f Yf,O?'ii:'}li 2. Notwithstanding the provisions of sub-Article 1 of this Article, a law promulgated subsequent to the commission of the offence shall apply if it is advantageous to the accused or convicted person. Article 23 Prohibition of Double Jeopardy No person shall be liable to be tried or punished again for an offence for which he has already been finally convicted or acquitted in accordance with the criminal law and procedure. Article 24 Right to Honour and Reputation 1. Everyone has the right to respect for his human dignity, reputation and honour. 2. Everyone has the right to the free development of his personality in a manner compatible with the rights of other citizens. 3. Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person. Article 25 Right to Equality All persons are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to the equal protection of the law. In this respect, the law shall guarantee to all persons equal and effective protection without discrimination on grounds of race, nation, nationality, or other social origin, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, property, birth or other status. Article 26 Right to Privacy 1. Everyone has the right to privacy. This right shall include the right not to be subjected to searches of his home, person or property, or the seizure of any property under / his personal possession. 2. Everyone has the right to the inviolability of his notes and correspondence including postal letters, and com- munications made by means of telephone, telecom- munications and electronic devices. 3. Public officials shall respect and protect these rights. No restrictions may be placed on the enjoyment of such rights except in compelling circumstances and in accor- dance with specific laws whose purposes shall be the safeguarding of national security or public peace, the prevention of crimes or the protection of helath, public morality or the rights and freedoms of others. Article 27 , Freedom of Religion, Belief and Opinion 1. Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. This right shall include the freedom to hold or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice, and the
  9. 9. 1K" ii tofot.fA ~;M-r ;JltfIJ -hTl: li ~Ih~ Ili IUfn Ii,"', Federal Negarit Gazeta - No.1 21st August 1995 - Page 9 h9"~i:1 t1I3F CD~9" ht.for ;JC Ooolf1 O~~ CD~9" O..,A fOl/9"th f foohr"A t foo+..,OC J f"7it+"7C CD~9" f 00'" t R' 0011""1 1t}"":t' A II e. Oh1+R' ~ 1o-it h1+R' e f+m+ltlD- h1f.+mO+ If'i~ ~ - f'/~"7'i"" +h:t'r-r '/~"7'i:t'TlD-1 t"7it~~""tj t"7f. t.1:"" fD?1 itr!l, TlD- f'/ ~"7'i"" ""9"tJC""tj f hit +.&;f.C +1:"7"" "71:1:9" ~rih- II r' "71'1 lD-1 9" ItlD- fD?LA 1lD-1 h 9"~"" t 00 111 1 t lD-1 ~,~..,. O;~~A CD~9" ot.i u-~:t' O"7it1f.'(- OO1f.1I CD~9" oohAhA h~3FA9" II !!. CDi}!rtj :I1;J'C 1f""'H.+r Oh9"~:t'TlD- ooltl"" f'/~"7'i :t'TlD-1 tj f 00 A t}9" P' ~ 9"'" 'l C ""9"U c:f 000 it m"" A}! 3FTlD-1 f"7Itf.'" 0011"" h iTlD- II ~. '/~'i""1tj h9"~""1 foo..,tR' 0011"" fL1f.1I fD?rtlD- f:l111111 f.tJ1~"" t lti9"1 : m.tj"1 t ""9"tJC""1 t f:l111111 flf"t.A u-~:t' t ft.for tl.1r1 ooltl:t''C ooll+r t ~'~+r htj 001..,P''''' h'/~"7'i"" ~, 001f~1 t"7l;J1T OD?CDm. :111r ~lftj A II t,1+R' i)'i Oitll,)tj i~ ittD?LROO-CD1~for j). i...,.r-*1 'lRf.+3FTlD- f}t9" h+~ it9"9"~+r htj Ot.for~ fi...,.r-*1 :I11r OltlD- A"f: i~ f+LROO- CD11:for +1ItlD- f+CDlt~""1 CD11:for ; fltlD- HC f"7T~"" : 1 t lJ'.C'(- flf""" ~fIJ"" h C9"~ f oolD-lt.(- t 0 hit1.&;"f: ItlD-1 fooltCDC : CD~9" i.ltrOf}'C f'(-lIf.'l .(-C1,.+r1 OLROO- ltsPr i~ hit OI/~lrO O~C;J h~:t'1.(-9" II 0:11.., hlD-'I.1.lB- h~A9" Ir~ O"71'1lD-9" f001..,P''''' ht}A lD-1t~sPr09":I1l"" CD~9"O~~C:t' h~;J.t~9" II ~. htLtJ Oi~ f+f.~11lD- h1f.+mO+ If'i : OH.tJ h1+R' 1o-it h1+R' ji f+m+""'''''1 CD11:for t.R'oolD- flf""" ~ fIJ"" t+ telf. 'l TlD- ltsPr C,)It 11tit.-r ~fIJi:1 CDf. ,).(-"'/. Ah R'~ },itt."" fLl7i7itlD- ~riA II hlJ'.A u-t"" Yolf"ht.lt.I'C 0011+ r t,1+R' i)'i! fhoott)h-}- htj Ult1l1 o~, foo111tj foo..,tR' 0011"" ji. OI/1'1lD-9" ltlD- 1tOI/19" flJA:P 111~"" foolttlD-1 hoo tt}h..,. t00111 ~riA II ~. "71'1 lD-9" ItlD- 1 t"719" fIJA:P 111~..,. 0 It{l-1 f 00'" tR' ~,~..,. htlD- II ~tJ ~,~..,. 001C lD-itT9" Ir~ h01C lD-6f.h CDIt1 It~Y.l'" 0"" O:PA9" Ir ~ 0R'"'.~ CD~9" 0:11""00"" : OP'~ TOrO ooAh m~9" OoolmlD- O"71'1lD-9" f"7lt/,.6l>}. HYo: "71'1lD-19" f}~~"" ool~tj Olto{}foolt rOlto{}t foo+OAtj f"7lt/,.,Q."" ~'~+r1 1t}"";J-A II r. fTl..ittj ft.for oo1tj'1 -OH-'!1 : h1Jtu-9" fP'~ TOo{} t.m/,. ~,~-). +l;J°l(1).A II fTloit ~,~..,. O+t~ fD?h+ l'''''1 oo-n+r Im:PAiA : 0) f~Y.:D?1 9"Cool,. O"71'1lD-9" OOAh- f+htht oolf~ 1 : freedom, either individually or in community with others, and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in worship, observance, practice and teaching. 2. Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-Article 2 of Article 90, believers may establish institutions of religious education and administration in order to propagate and organize their religion. 3. No one shall be subject to coercion or other means which would restrict or prevent his freedom to hold a belief of his choice. 4. Parents and legal guardians have the right to bring up their children ensuring their religious and moral education in conformity with their own convictions. 5. Freedom to express or manifest one's religion or belief may be subject only to such limitations as are prescribed by law and are necessary to protect public safety, peace, health, education, public morality or the fundamental rights and freedoms of others, and to ensure the indepen- dence of the state from religion. Article 28 Crimes Against Humanity 1. Criminal liability of persons who commit crimes against humanity, so defined by international agreements ratified by Ethiopia and by other laws of Ethiopia, such as genocide, summary executions, forcible disappearances or torture shall not be barred by statute of limitation. Such offences may not be commuted by amnesty or pardon of the legislature or any other state organ. 2. In the case of persons convicted of any crime stated in sub- Article 1 of this Article and sentenced with the death penalty, the Head of State may, without prejudice to the provisions hereinabove, commute the punishment to life imprisonment. PART TWO DEMOCRATIC RIGHTS Article 29 Right of Thought, Opinion and Expression 1. Everyone has the right to hold opinions without in- teference. 2. Everyone has the right to freedom of expression without any interference. This right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any media of his choice. 3. Freedom of the press and other mass media and freedom of artistic creativity is guaranteed. Freedom of the press shall specifically include the following elements: (a) Prohibition of any form of censorship.
  10. 10. 1~ X Aofot.lA ~;Jt"" ;JU,ffJ 'k'fC ~ ~,h(L If; 4>1 lillit?: ~'9'" Federal Negarit Gazeta - No.1 21st August 1995 - Page 10 t) f c"h1111"}'1':"9" fOl/..oPth-r oPl~ fOl/'?1 -r iJY: A"} :: 2' tYolfOttt.f.11£ P'C,}'}' hilt...I1. flf). oPl~sP"f 1u"n"f'i hoPti1h.y."f O~., oP"}7i/,,7it.rlD-"} tOI/l:n'l' (l.flA Tloil 0+*9"~i: f hrPt.C ~.,~-r'i f+tI~ hil+ ff.y."f fOl/il+ 'i1Y: "f/r';r h"}Jt'illD- fc"h'? 'I'O:J>f,Y-l'?/;rA :: ?;. 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"'. «!j foP(ll1(l.o 1 (ll0I/1£ (lA~ fOl/Y:l'? ~"~-r'i M1i:;r fOl/:"l'O oPl1-r li' 0I/"}~lD-9" (llD- h"-/o"f ;JC OoPlf") oP"'~f "f,1I 0(ll9" foP(ll1(l.o 1 (ll0I/1£ (lA~ fOl/Y:l'? ~"~-r'i 1 hl1..f:;r fOl/:"ll1 oPl1-r h/lD- :: hl1.-r lD-6J.bfOl/..Y-l1- ill1(ll1sP"f'i (llOI/lf (lAb:"f 001/.."}"''''''(}'l1rlD- n;rsP"f 0c"h1l11 h"}:" il:J>~ If, "f'?c h"}~f,t..'I'cr /OI/Y:l'? OJf,9" OoPi1,h..(' If, f / il.O(l11OJf,9" (l101/1£(lA~ (ll9"") 1 .e..lfOtt t.f.fl£ oPl1.y."f"}'i f c"h1l11"}flfOt.A o-);;r h "}~f,'I'(}. /OI/ilmO:" h'?l1l1 l1rlD- P'c'}.y."f I.Y-~11- f,"fltt- :: ~. f,U oP'O-r fOJII}.y.:f."} 1.U"}~-r 1 f(llD-"} ttl1C'i oPAi19" il9""} /oPm 0:" : fin C~.}. :,.il ". "sP:f' h"}Jt 0-9" (l11'}I£ tt.OC") fOl/. ~h- f hY-1111f, oP'?/6liJ.sP"f"} /oPhlhA f.I1A OOl/.OJm' c"h1"f oP(ll-r '''mf-t hoPlf"} hf '('"}9":: h ")". '" all;~ foP.(>.I,,'l-r oPl1-r.. -'"}~lD-9" (llD- /0I/"}~lD-9" ,}IOI/ OOl/..,OC foPY-t.~-r oPl1-r h/lD- :: 1f'i9" h'?l1l1 ftlD-") c"h'? OoPlI}il OJf,9" c"h1 oP"},?p':rl£ P'C'}i:"} 0c"h1 OJ'I' oP"}1Y: /OI/~lil f+oP(lli: OJf,9" f + m'" (}..}") +°1 11I,,'}' fOl/..f t.9" p,. Y:C'f:.y."f f+h /h/' f,lr'it. :: 1',"}". '" @~ foPHq'OJC ~.,~.} li' 0I/"}~lD-9" h. -rV'*' fl£ OJf,9" 0c"h;J1£ oP"}1Y: U1~i: lD-il'l' f0l/..1~ flD-lif.b tL;J OoPlmlD- fU1~i: hi1I1Q foPHq'OJC'i foP'i ~f n;r foPoPill'} : h"}Jto-9" 0t../1lD- 1.tL hU1C foPlD-II}"" ~"~-r h/lD- :: !{. 0I/"}~lD-9" h.-rV'*'fl£ OJ1. U1cr foPoP/il oPl1"" h/lD- :: (b) Access to information of public interest. 4. In the interest of the free flow of information, ideas and opinions which are essential to the functioning of a democratic order, the press shall, as an institution, enjoy legal protection to ensure its operational independence and its capacity to entertain diverse opinions. 5. Any media financed by or under the control of the State shall be operated in a manner ensuring its capacity to entertain diversity in the expression of opinion. 6. These rights can be limited only through laws which are guided by the principle that freedom of expression and information cannot be limited on account of the content or effect of the point of view expressed. Legal limitations can be laid down in order to protect the well-being of the youth, and the honour and reputation of individuals. Any propaganda for war as well as the public expression of opinion intended to injure human dignity shall be prohibited by law. 7. Any citizen who violates any legal limitations on the exercise of these rights may be held liable under the law. . Article 30 The Right of Assembly, Demonstration and Petition 1. Everyone has the right to assemble and to demonstrate together with others peaceably and unarmed, and to petition. Appropriate regulations may be made in the interest of public convenience relating to the location of open-air meetings and'theroute of movement of demons- trators or, for the protection of democratic rights, public morality and peace during such a meeting or demons- tration. 2. ,This right does not exempt from liability under laws enacted to protect the well-being of the youth or the honour and reputation of individulas, and laws prohibiting any propaganda for war and any public expression of opinions intended to injure human dignity. Article 31 Freedom of Association Every person has the right to freedom of association for any cause or purpose. Organizations formed, in violation of appropriate laws, or to illegally subvert the constitutional order, or which promote such activities are prohibited. Article 32 Freedom of Movement 1. Any Ethiopian or foreign national lawfully in Ethiopia has, within the national territory, the right to liberty of movement and freedom to choose his residence, as well as the freedom to leave the country at any time he wishes to. 2. Any Ethiopian national has the right to return to his country.
  11. 11. 1Jt"Hi ~1.t-A );MT ;IlL", -liTe Ii )dd'LI~ 4>, Iiln '-r- Federal Negarit Gazeta - No.1 21stAugust 1995 - Page 11 h,)"'1 .nf-- ffl. ..,~.'t ODi1"'~ Ii. "7') ~ tD-9"" 1..'tf"* 1'e/1. .'tf"* 1'e.'t hL.+~/hL.+ ~ tD-~ 1..'tf"*''e tJ."'~-f:,)/tJ...,~.'t'P,) A.1L~ mf;,'" A.'t1L~ hf;,~A9""/h.'t~A'" :: 1..'tf"*''e/1..'tf"k 1'e.'t tL;Jh~I V1C tL;J;JC f"7.L1ODtD-/f,...'tL1ODtD- ;Ji1;F 1..'tf"*''e tL"'~-f:,)/tJ...,~.'t'P,) hlia+C,.. :1 "7')~tD-9"" 1..'tf"*''e tL;J f1..'tf"*' tJ...,~.'t Oib.., f"7.1ia11tD-') ODi1.'t . 1'O:P'i" 1':"9"" f"7"'1.'t ODi1.'t h/tD- II . "7')~(o.9"" tL;J 1..'tf"*''e tJ."'~-f:,) fOD/m'l' ODi1.'t h/ tD-II 1..'tf"*' hh~1.+;FTtD- ~I'" h+~ ia"''''~'''~ ;JC O"7f;,:I"l') OD')11: O"7.mlf) ib.., 'h'i" 0"7.1.~1'" P'CIi.'t OD(al.'t f 1..'tf"* 1 tJ...,~..,. 1tD-~ 01 C (a9'~ A.(aT f;,~IA:: I- r- §- h')+1 .no-- f ;Ji1;F . f..,A'i" fo.+(al1 ODl1"'~ i. Oib.., h+m(a~tD- f ;J11;FiJ1:"7. f1.lfl- m')p.~'i" (.,.~ onc . 011th.C . 011th.l(a11 mf;,'" O'f;,"7'i.'t A~~.'t "f;,1.l"''lTtD- f"7"''l.'t'i'' o.+(al1 fODODial.'t ODl1-r hlTtD- :1 0;J11;F hL~~9"" . 0;J11;FtD- nOD')'i" O~:f 1.tL M1-A ODl1.'t hlTtD- .:1 O~:f'" 1.tL fA~~,) ODl1-r'i" 1':",.. 'h')JLhOC f"7.11.C~ 1:');J1.sP~ f;,1.~1;J/- :1 I-~ ;J11;F 0+ ;Jfl9'~ ~''i'' ~/- L:I"1: If;, 11;F f;,OD(al:1'A:I r- 0.+ (a11 f..,l1l+(al1 f+t..1'~ OD(al:1''e OD~7i ~tD- :1 h..,l1l+(al1'i" hOD')"'P'-r 1'0:1" f"7"'1-r ODl1.'t hltD-:: §. Oib.., O+If;, O"7.nlHltD- OD(al.'t O'f?i'i-r . O'libA fib.., P'CIi"'~ If;, 1'ODiaC1'tD- I"7.L?~ ;Jl1;FsP"f 'htD-:"'i"f"7.(a1' ib.., A.mlf) f;,~IA I: ~- f;,U ib1 OD,)"'P'.'t f..,A 'h'i" fo.+(al1 ib..,') O+ODlh+ O+h&.ta~9'~ L:I"1: O'f;,"7'i"'~ mf;,9""O'libfte"f Cho)"f OD(al.'t OD.';1.'t') hf;,hlhA9"" :11fC"U~ OCh..,f;,m(a'i"A:I h ')+1 .nl:-- f("'~ ODl1.'t Ii- (.,.~ f;,U Ch1 OD'}"'P'-r Ohl;J1If)TtD- 0D1)"'~ 1'0 :l"9'~ OODm+9"" l11: hm')p."f ;JC 'hh-A ODl1-r hlTtD- :1 I. C.,.~ OltU ib1 OD,)"'P':" 0+1. ~11tD- OD(al-r 0;J11;F hm')p.~ ;JC 'hh-A ODl1-r hlTtD- :1 r. (.,.~ 00:1'~~.'t'i" OA~~-r OOD:1'f:1'TtD- f1.l(a'lTtD-') f :1'~h :"Cia h"'9"".'t tD-ia1' 0"7ia1'l-r f;,U :"Cia 'h')JL:1'l 9""ITtD- O+Q;)."7~ f 1:;J~ 'hC9""~9'~ +m:l""7. fODIf') ODl1.'t hlTtD-:: OltU Oh-A f"7.m(a~-r 'hC"'~9'"f lil"7 07'I-I:ta'e . 0"7..,0&.1f.'i"01.fI'i"7.1'e ODiafl"f'h')JLV-9"" OOD')"'P'.'t 'h'i" O..,A '''*IfU~ tD-ia1' (.,."f hm')p."f ;JC O'hh-A ~-r +m.';.';~'i" ".l}:1't.. 'h')JLIf). 1"71:l'" 'h')JL~A A~ .'th-l-r IODiam-r ~tD-:1 §. (.,.~ hO):( 'libA +1iJ'i fODI"':" ODl1:1'TtD-') OD') "'P'.'t "7iahOC hlO-r :1 c"'~1 f"7.Q;).ck). mf;,9"" OhtalTtD- mf;,9"" OhiJ9""C'hTtD- If;, ~-r f"7.1iah-r/- Cho)~ . mo)~'i" A"7P.~ f+hlh/- 'i"TtD- :1 Article 33 Rights of Nationality 1. No Ethiopian national shall be deprived of his or her Ethiopian nationality against his or her will. Marriage of an Ethiopian national of either sex to a foreign national shall not annul his or her Ethiopian nationality. 2. Every Ethiopian national has the right to the enjoyment of all rights, protection and benefits derived from Ethiopian nationality as prescribed by law. 3. Any national has the right to change his Ethiopian nati onali ty. 4. Ethiopian nationality may be conferred upon foreigners in accordance with law enacted and procedures established consistent with international agreements ratified by Ethiopia. Article 34 Marital, Personal and Family Rights 1. Men and women, without any distinction as to race, nation, nationality or religion, who have attained marrigeable age as defined by law, have the right to marry and found a family. They have equal rights while entering into, during marriage and at the time of divorce. Laws shall be enacted to ensure the protection of rights and interests of children at the time of divorce. 2. Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses. 3. The family is the natural and fundamental unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State. 4. In accordance with provisions to be specified by law, a law giving recognition to marriage concluded under systems of religious or customary laws may be enacted. 5. This Constitution shall not preclude the adjudication of disputes relating to personal and family laws in accor- dance with reljgious or customary laws, with the consent of the parties to the dispute. Particulars shall be deter- mined by law. . Article 35 Rights of Women 1. Women shall; in the enjoyment of rights and protections provided for by this Constitution, have equal right with men. 2. Women have equal rights with men in marriage as prescribed by this Constitution. 3. The historical legacy of inequality and discrimination suffered by women in Ethiopia taken into account, women, in order to remedy this legacy, are entitled to affirmative measures. The purpose of such measures shall be to provide special attention to women so as to enable them compete and participate on the basis of equality with men in political, social and economic life as well as in public and private institutions. 4. The State shall enforce the right of women to eliminate the influences of harmful customs. Laws, customs and practices that oppress or cause bodily or mental harm to women are prohibited.
  12. 12. 1~' I~ ~lo&.IA ~;J&"" ;J11.t'J <h'l'C ~ ~,h~ If; +1 Hifft '}.9". ?;. Federal Negarit Gazeta - No.1 21stAugust 1995 - Page 12 'k' 0) ,."f flDILf: tt:P f: hOO-I- ff.OOlD11 hlj:!;JC 5. fO?'1lT 0011T h"T~ :: flDILf.' tt:Pf: C1100T "":t f9"TIP&.~'} P'&. v-);;r f f"":t'} m. ,}"T f f,fi'l'" '}e; f 0..,. (a{}-'} f,U')" T h'19" T ~ it'I' flO?it 1f1T fI,fi'1 f.lD(ae;A :: t) flDILf: &.:Pf: fI,fi'1 flOIJ..lD(a"~ OO(a~T hOO-I- f f. 00 lD11 hlj:! ;J C f OIJ..(a'I' fh C'111e; tt:P f,:') IL~Q.9"Cf."f"A :: ,."f fl11m.&.'e fAO?T 7'ILla.9>"f ,,:,. f:e; flTc.'~h"'"f 6. If'1~Te; htt~K9" f n.,.tf. f ,."f'} '1':"9" nOlJ.."h- Tc.'~h"'"f OltflT~'} n.,.",,,,, v-);;r h'}~(am- foomf:" 0011T h"T~ :: ,."f '}.n~T fo?lj:lrT f fO?it.,..&;f.C f foo~llJmC f foom4>9"e; fO?it.,."tlj: 0011T h"T~ :: O.,.tf. OOI..T'} noom4>9" f nO?it.,."tlj: : flO?it.,..&;f.Ce; floo~llJmC ~'lf.' hlD'}P."f ;JC },h'A 0011T h"~~ :: h,}~v-9" ~Cil,} nOlJ..OOthTnhh-A"T foo;rfT 0011T h"T~:: ,."f f.}>'fCf f P' II' hf.:1T f fh h-A hlj:!e; m-~;r'} fO?it.,."tlj: MrA 0011:" h"T~ :: ,."f nhC'111e;e; fllDlLf.: 9"h'}!T. fOlJ..f.CitflT~'} 1-.&;T tooh"hAe; m.'}.,:t'T~'} tO?itmfl.}> fOlJ..!it"fA fo.1'(a11 9"llJ); T9"uc.1': oo~jf he; h.}>9" fO?'1lT 0011T h"T~ :: ?:. t. it. h,} 4>? (/17:~ f ,fi'le;:" 0011T Ii' O?'}?f~9" ,fi'l,) fOlJ..h,,, t-T 00111'-"f h I-T ; 0) n,fif.lDT footfC : t) it9"e; Itol"T fO?o11T: ill) lD"ft~'} lDf.9" n,fi°l fO?ltf.'1 0011T !"T~'} (asP"f fO?lD.}>e;fh.,fI-'}9" h'}h11i]o. fO?'1lT f (0) 1-AI..,:'} hOlJ..nH.nu- AO?P."f foomn.}> f flT9" UC'I:: nm.e;~e; flf.U'}.,1: "f. '1-'&;T fOlJ..!f.CfI- P'lr9>"f h'}~lPlr !t001f.f: lDf.9" hOOP'&.T foomn.}> f IJ.') n.1'9"UCT 0..,.'.)', lDf.9" n,fi'le;T O?ltf.'I.! ",:1: qo':'-" ~il 'I' fIh i] t- h OIJ..&.K9" lDf.9" h "lhi]);e; h.o.n'}'e hrr., .}>fJ)'1'"'l fOOl',} :: ~. ,fi'lc;.1''} fO?ooth1: hC9"jf~"f flOIJ..lD(aJ;.nT 'Ut. floo'}'1 P' :J-,£ lDf.9" n'1A fn1 hf.-Ir1T .,.:l:qo"f f fllj:Cf: o..,."f: nhit.,..&;f,C fltP'AllJtf"f lDf.9" n,fi'1 h~tJ;. hi]"T f,n'le;T f,U,}"T n4>f,9"T":" 00;r(a11 htflT :: e. O)fJ)T h'l'&.9>"f f nO?~OIJ..! lDf.9" floo:l::l:OIJ..! .,.:l:qo";f' fO?:,.r;.: noo'}'1p"1' hC.&;;r f«t!f:1- lDllJ.,."f f noo'} °1P':'- lDf.9" nOlA h~t O?~ .+'} .,.:l:qo"f lDil'f f0lJ..11- OJllJ.,."f hh -Pct9>"f .,.tf."'~ 00!11 ht flT~ :: !!. h;J.n:F ~61!' f"'lDtJ;. ,fi'le;T n;J11:F h"'lDtJ;. ,fi'le;T ;JC hit.A 0011T h"T~ :: ?;. OO'}olP'T th~t O?~.+'} A~ 'fn:p !f.C'1"T-PA :: n'l-~&.:F fOlJ..!f.'1,n.1-'} P'C'}T fO?_!oo:F~e; fOlJ..! il4.~ h '}~v-9" f.U'}" :J-T~'}e; T9"UC;rT~'} fOlJ..! 1..9"J;. "':l:qo"f h'}~oo(a~1: !n~;r;rA :: (a) Women have the right to maternity leave with full pay. The duration of maternity leave shall be determined bylaw taking into account the nature of the work, the health of the mother and the well- being of the child and family. (b) Maternity leave may, in accordance with the provisions of law, include prenata11eave with full pay. Women have the right to full consultation in the formulation of national development policies, the desig- ning and execution of projects, and particularly in the case of projects affecting the interests of women. 7. Women have the right to acquire, administer, control, use and transfer property. In particular, they have equal rights with men with respect to use, transfer, administration and control of land. They shall also enjoy equal treatment in the inheritance of property. 8. Women shall have a right to equality in employment, promotion, pay, and the transfer of pension entitlements. 9. To prevent harm arising from pregnancy and childbirth and in order to safeguard their health, women have the right of access to family planning education, information and capacity. Article 36 Rights of Children 1. Every child has the right: (a) To life; (b) To a name and nationality; (c) To know and be cared for by his or her parents or legal guardians; (d) Not to be subject to exploitative practices, neither to be required nor permitted to perform work which may be hazardous or harmful to his or her education, health or well-being; (e) To be free of corporal punishment or cruel and inhumane treatment in schools and other institutions responsible for the care of children. 2. In all actions concerning children undertaken by public and private welfare institutions, courts of law, adminis- trative authorities or legislative bodies, the primary consideration shall be the best interests of the child. 3. Juvenile offenders admitted to corrective or rehabilitative institutions, andjuveniles who become wards of the State or who are placed in public or private orphanages, shall be kept separately from adults. 4. Children born out of wedlock shall have the same rights as children born of wedlock. 5. The State shall accord special protection to orphans and shall encourage the establishment of institutions which ensure and promote their adoption and advance their welfare, and education.
  13. 13. 1Jr xr ~1.~A. ~.?~+ .?It.1fJ., C Ii ~"'(&.x~ .,., xun ,.,.. Federal Negarit Gazeta - No.1 21stAugust 1995 - Page 13 h")"'1t c9~ ti::"ih f07..,1':" 00-0:" i. ",")r;:tD-r iltD- O~C.(' I.lDiI") f"7..1'1tD-") ~~ Iti:c.(' aT lD~r I/.I Oih.., f.c;:-S~:"FAtI'f") I+ilmtD- hitA f07:t-l-o'i tD-It1 lD~r ti:c.(' f07..,1':" 00-0:" hltD- :1 I. OtLU h")"'1t ")o-h h")"'1t Ii f+OOlh+tD-") tD-"1 lD~r ti:c.(' I v) ",")r;:tD-r ",...oc fh'1Irf:") f;1to lD~r f..,A ...:t-r OOOlDhA . 1) ",")r;:tD-")r 0-.('") lD~r +oo,,"~ ...:,,'1"11:ftD-") il9»'f f"7..lDh A ..,IiI-o ID~r fo-.('") h'1 A foomf:t-'i f07..,,.:,, 00-0:" hltD- II h")"'1t c9:!; foorlT'i foooolT 00-0:" i. ",")r;:tD-r h.:"f"A-l«f tJ.;J 0.,.1'1" . onc . O-oth.C . O-oth.lil-o . OJ':J-. mt")* . OV~'r:" . 07"I-I:it lD~r O/.IhOOlith:" lD~r O/.Ih*rl~ f+ooill+ A~~:" "~~l"'O:" f"7..h+ft-:" oo-o-fT hft-:" I v) O+...:J- ~'i O~,~:,. oooltl'f:ftD- +lDitf"T h"7it :-s~:,. 0;"11-0 .,...c;~hh+.c;~c foo"+ti: . 1) ".('''7.tD-!:!;'00:'' lI.'l"1 Oih.., 00ill:" f oorlT' th) O"7'i:ftD-r foo")..,F:" ~lJr Of1.tJ.tD- O"7..it¥.(' rc6li). foorlT'i foooolT II rC~tD- o-ft- h+ti:. Oo-ft-r ~ boA~:" I~ f+ooill+'i O"7..h...c .('r" hil tl'fT 00toQJ: L:Jt ~") O~, ~:,. f"7..1A JtO:" "''''':'''i f"7..ilT 00"") hlO:" I: I. 07"I-I:it.('C:E--fT' OlPto+7fT . 0")"'.(' . OhlP~9»T'i n""'l ",... 0 to:" 1+,,:,. t.':.('C:E-rf: f"7..m~"'tD-") m:"1 1'i A ~ fh'1A~:" ooh~C:" f"7..1":1.1"7")~tD-r iltD-0ti:I1rf: h'1A foo.,") oo-orf: f+hOl 011"") hlO:":: r. OtLUh")"'1t ")o-h h")"'1t I O+OOlhrf::" .('C:E-"'T tD-h... I:)I~~:" f1:J-9»Tf"7.it¥~ rC~9'T ~''i 1-..'l"htoll.lce O.,~ 00")1.(' ~~"'''7ft- :: §. ftLU h")"'1t ")o-h h")+1t I ~'i r .('");11.9'Tfih1l-o") T:t-r il4- '11 0-1:J- f"7. ~bo ~h h"~ .('lh Oih" '1ce .('C:E-"'T I~ +~"'''7. ~"'ift- :: h")+Y c9i} f-oth.C"T . -oth.lilf1T . ih1lf1T 00-0:" Ii. "7")r;:tD-r f h. :"f"A-1 -0th.C . -oth.lil-o . ih"-o f to""") ".('A Oto"" foomil") ~hhOD1")mA 11tD-oo-orf: 0"7'i :ftD-r ooAbol1 1~-o f+mO.,. ~tD-II I. "7")r;:tD-r fh.:"f"A-l -oth.C . -oth.lil-o . ih1l-o ml: ")*tD- fOO'i1C . fOD"'ti: . *")*tD-") f"7"~'" 7..'i '1ihl-") fOD"'I1t . M~OC'i f"7h4-4-:" ~")Jlo-r :J-~bo") foo") h'1h-O 011-0:" hltD- I: r. ",")r;:tD-r fh.:"f"kl -oth.C . -oth.lil-o . ih1l-o to""") f"7"'+.c;"C "...ft- 00"":" hltD- :: ~u OIl :" -oth.~ . -oth.lilo- . ih1l0- Oil~lO:" ODAh, r.('c to""") f"7.1h +.c;.('CO:" oo")"'F:J-ce +!1:"7:" f"7**r 7..")Jlo-r OhAA'i 04..1-..toA hh+.c;"C"T tD-hT "7.tJ'ice tD-hA'i f",..,1':" 011-0:"")lm:J'AIA :1 Article 37 Right of Access to Justice 1. Everyone has the right to bring ajusticiable matter to, and to obtain a decision orjudgement by, a court of law or any other competent body with judicial power. 2. The decision orjudgement referred to under sub-Article 1 of this Article may also be sought by: (a) Any association representing the Collective or individual interest of its members; or (b) Any group or person who is a member of, or represents a group with similar interests. Article 38 The Right to Vote and to be Elected 1. Every Ethiopian national, without any discrimination based on colour, race, nation, nationality, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion or other status, has the following rights: (a) To take part in the conduct of public affairs, directly and through freely chosen representatives; (b) On the attainment of -18 years of age, to vote in accordance with law; (c) To vote and to be elected at periodic elections to any office at any level of government; elections shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall beheld by secret ballot, guaranteeing the free expression of the will of the electors. 2. The right of everyone to be a member of his own will in a political organization, labour union, trade organization, or employers' or professional association shall be respec- ted i{he or she meets the special and general requirements stipalated by such organization. 3. Elections to positions of responsibility within any of the organizations referred to under sub-Article 2 of this Article shall be conducted in a free and democratic manner. 4. The provisions of sub-Articles 2 and 3 of this Article shall apply to civic organizations which significantly affect the public interest. Article 39 Rights of Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples 1. Every Nation, Nationality and People in Ethiopia has an unconditional right to self-determination, including the right to secession. 2. Every Nation, Nationality and People in Ethiopia has the right to speak, to write and to develop its own language; to express, to develop and to promote its culture; and to preserve its history. 3. Every Nation, Nationality and People in Ethiopia has the right to a full measure of self-government which includes the right to establish institutions of government in the territory that it inhabits and to equitable representation in state and Federal governments.
  14. 14. 1~ Hi t..f-o&.A, ~:J&"" ;>,l.llJ <h1'C: ji ~thl Hi <1'1Iilf"it% ~.,... Federal Negarit Gazeta - No.1 21st August 1995 - Page 14 4. The rightto self-determination,including secession,of every Nation, Nationality and People shall come into effect: (a) When a demand for secession has been approved by a two-thirds majority of the members of the Legislative Council of the Nation, Nationality or People concer- ned; (b) When the Federal Government has organized a referendum which must take place within three years from the time it received the concerned council's decision for secession; (c) When the demand for secession is supported by a majority vote in the referendum; (d) When the Federal Government will have transferred its powers to the Council of the Nation, Nationality or People who has voted to secede; and (e) When the division of assets is effected in a manner prescribed by law. 5. A "Nation, Nationality or People" for the purpsoe of this Constitution,is a group of people who have or share a large measure of a common culture or similar customs, mutual intelligibility of language, belief in a common or related identities, a common psychological make-up, and who inhabit an identifiable,predominantly contiguous territory. Article 40 TheRight to Property 1. Every Ethiopian citizen has the right to the ownership of 6' 0I/1i1tD-9"fh.:,.r-k/ ".;J fO'A 111l:"I1t0.:" oolf.,.joolfc;. private property. Unless prescribed otherwise by law on~ f,hflCt;J-Ajf,hflCIt;J-A :: f,tJ 0011:" fih1f111 '1'''''9'' accountof public interest,this right shallinclude the right to toomfl"" flt.1t o-);;J- flih.., hitI1A+lD(}~ 1:lit 111l:" acquire,to use and,in a manner compatiblewith therights of othercitizens,to disposeof such property by sale or bequestfoo/1fe; fl111l:" foom"'9" lDf,9" ft.fo"f1 tl.1"f 0011-f"f or to transfer it otherwise. hiti1A+:Pl~ 1:i.it111l:"1 fooi'iT t fOl/tD-litlDf,9" flt.1t 00111: Mit+IttCJ: 0011-f"f1 /11:";J-A :: 2. "Private property", for the purpsoe of this Article, shall mean anytangibleorintangibleproduct which has value ande ttLtJ "'1"'1 ~1t0i/ "f..,A 111l:"" OI/t:" orni1tD-9":. is producedby the labour, creativity, enterprise or capital ofh.:,.r-k/If tI.;J lDf,9" ih;J1f (}tD-~:"flih.., f+(}tlJTtD- an individual citizen, associations which enjoy juridical h. :"r-k /If OI/..,flt-:" lDf,9" "'..,1111fl"'ItTtD- o-);;J-sP"f personality under the law, or in appropriate circumstances, flih.., fl+tf fl;Jt- f1'fll:"I1t0.:" h1JtIf.,. f+L.,.Y.ltTtD- by communities specifically empowered by law to own OI/..,fll(}P"f fl1-Afl;J-TtD-t flooCJ:mC "ffo;J-TtD- lDf,9"" property in common. fli11;;J-ItTtD- / tC..~:"+QJ,I1~ flf~e; f+QJ,I16£"~:" ml1f, 3. The right to ownership of rural and urban land, as well as ofItf,tj ltD- €I';J /ttD- tD-m.:" ~tD-:: all natural resources, is exclusively vested in the State and in [. f1mC9" In fh+O? oot..:,.e; f+LTC: U11:" 11t0.:"~:" the peoples of Ethiopia. Land is a common property of the 0011:" f001..,,,.,:,.e; fih1f11 11:F ~tD- :: 001..:" Mf,i'fT Nations, Nationalities and Peoples of Ethiopia and shall not fOl/f,tlDT fh.:,.r-k/ 11th.c:"ft 11th.l(}p"fe; ih1fP"f f;Jt- be subject to sale or to other means of exchange. 111l:" ~tD-:: 4. Ethiopian peasants have right to obtain land without payment 2' fh.:,.r-A'/ "'C(t "'1.c:"f 0010:" fl~' M"'1:,.e; hOOt..;J-TtD- and the protection against eviction from their possession. /too~"'A 0011;J-TtD- f+hfll ~tD-:: "'L1.ROD-1fl+ooth+ The implementation of this provision shall be specified by 1fC1fC ih.., f,lDtlJA :: law. ?;. fh.:,.r-k/ Hltif"f t"'fI1"li9" If~ thCi'f ftllJ.m"'OD-fl:" 0010:" 5. Ethiopian pastoralists have the right to free land for grazing fl~' M"'1:" t foom"'?'"'1 hOOt..;J-TtD- /too~..c;"'A and cultivation as well as the right not to be displaced from 0011:" "'ItTtD- :: 1fC1fC "'tC.."ROD-flih.., f,lD(}e;A :: their own lands. The implementation shall be specified by }. fool..:" 11t0.:"~:" fh.:,.r-k/ 11th.c:"f t 11th.l(}PTc; law. ih1fP"f oolf.,. h 11.+mfl.,. Iftj 001..,,,.,:" t..,A I1tU11-f"f 6 Without prejudice to the right of Ethiopian Nations, flih.., fltllJ.lD(}1 hCJ:/ flOOI..:" foom"'9" 0011;J-:ftD-1 . Nationalities, and Peoples to the ownership of land, /ith11CItT'P A :: "'C1f~ flCh'" f,lD(}e;A I: government shall ensure the right of private investors to the use of land on the basis of payment arrangements es- tablished by law. Particulars shall be determined by law. 2' f11th.C: 'flth.l(}P"f t ih1fP"f ft-it1 iJ1:A flt-it fOOlD(11 hith 0011mA 0011:" h".,I,. Itf, ftllJ.tD-ttD-; U) f0011mA l' /tJ: fl11th.Ct fl11th.l(}{t lDf,9" flih1f{t f ihO' "'tD-'1J. 9"hC 0.:" flo-t:" Y'it+i1 f 1:9"6 1:;Jfj: +"'I1f,~:" 01/"'11: iLl;J1T ; t) f t..lot-fto 001..,,,.,:" f11th.C t f11th.l(}{t lDf,9" f ih1f{t 9"hC 0.:" tD-It);fl1.l(}tD- flY'it:" ~oo:,. 1.tI. tD-it1' tm/cttD- lIth.C t 11th.l(}11 lDf,9" ih1f11 ih 1f{l tD-It); iL/ 1.1,.1: : d1) f0011mfto l' /tJ: flih1ffl tD-It);tD- fl"'111t6l>l. 1:9"6 iLY.1CJ:; 00) ft..lot-fto 001..,,,.,:" 0011mfto1 tOOlmtD- lIth.Ct 'fl,h.l(}11 lDf,9" ih1f11 9"hC 0.:" ".,AtlJ.,.1 iL/it lh.fl : lP) fliho, fltllJ.lD(}~tD- oo(}l:" f111l:" hCJ:CJ:A iL1.l.., ~tD-:: ?;. fltLtJ ih1 001..,,,.,:" tD-itT "11th.C t lIth.l(}11 t ih1fll" OI/t:" hILtJ "'1'fo f+1tRtD-1 I1tJCf, ftllJ./ltf, OI/..,fll(}l1 ~tD- :: (14- /t f ;JI,. ml1f, ftllJ.!1RI1C"" l1ihA lDf,9" .f'ooltltf, A9"f."f /ItTtD- : t. ..,11{tfl:" ftllJ."fftofl:" f;Jt- *1* /ItTtD- t f;Jt- lDf,9" f+tfoo1. ihAtD-e; "'t111ttD- ftllJ./9"~. : f""~ APe; "'11:"1:" /ItTtD-e; fl"'11tfi1tD- fl+//H ooAh~ 9"1:C fOl/.tj~ e;TtD- :: "'1'" 1 '!j f1'fll:" 0011:"
  15. 15. 1K' Xl; t..fot.l ~;1t"" ;1,1f1l <h'l'C!i ~(hI1. Xl; 4>1 Hifif% q.9".. Federal Negarit Gazeta - No.1 21stAugust 1995 - Page 15 'to 1P/1er i.Tf-kf«£ O,..AO-l: I OJy,er 011"(1- OOUI..T "y, t 0IJ.1 ~11OJ«cJ:0IJ. 1 1Il T OJ y,er t OIJ.f ~C1 OJ«cJ:0IJ. ou 7i7i A OD-~ OU1lT htOJ« :: Y,U OU1lT foui"i'1' I foutOJ'1' I flP/ OJ«l il I foul.. T 1-1Il:J>OIJ.~-I: fl cJ:l '1' 111l-l:1 fIP/11}TI 11t0':1~~-I:1 fIP/tfOJC OJy,er fill} h~f fOUlllf~ ou1lT1 fI1T;f'A :: 1IC1fC h~.~U~OD-O,'h"l y,OJlI.e;A :: f"lA 111lT l1to.T~T OU1lT h1~1-1Il0~ lflf t ou1 "lr'T t,'h1111 '1'~er hil~-"1. lflf flf110J« 1-ouflJflJ:'; 111} O~ Y:OIJ.f oouh~A f"lA 111lT1 touOJ«lI.Y: Y,"f"A:: ~. h1~'" ~li fi.1'1lfOlJ. I flP/..,o~«£e; fl1,'hA OU1l.y."f Ii. 1P/1~ OJ«er i. T f-k f«£ 0U1{;-I: OJ«il '1' OIP/1 ~OJ«er fi.1'1lflP/. h1~il:J>"" foull.lP/~Te; tOU1-.&;~{;fOJ«foul. 1Il0J«1r'~ four'II'T ou1lT htOJ« :: ~. V-~er i.'''' f' k f«£ ou 1-'&;~.(; f OJ«1 t r' ~0J«1 e; OD-f OJ«1 fouerl'1' OU1lT htOJ« :: [. fi.Tf-A'f U1"f v-t:. OOU1"lr'T 11"11 00lJ.11~~ IP/"'O~«£ h1A"lftn.y."f Oh h-A ~T foulll~er ou1lT h" TOJ«:: Q' OU1"lr'T fmS I fTerUCTe; Ibftn"f flP/"'O~«£ h1A"lftn .y."f1 t,'h1111 t1P/~l.'0 Of1.'f.OJ« hf{;Q.oul fOlJ.~Y: U1IT Y,ouY:I1A :: ~. ou1"lr"'" fhl1A he; fh/Jerr: ,...&;1-q."f1 I hl.;J«£f11e; ftm,,'f: OJy,er fthl}.&;1. f~~ ,'h'le;T1 t1P/cJ:cJ:erc; tOUC'&;T fU1{;-I: fi.1'1lfOlJ. h~er O~~~OJ« ~ljf h1h '0110. f.V~C;JA :: i' OU1"lr"'" tr'~ h(J1"fe; t"f"'lq."f r'~ tOU~lIlC fOlJ.f il "f A T t. fl Y,h 1-" A : h 1 Jt v-er 0 OIJ.fl1'l~0J« fr'11' "C~ OJ«il'1' fr'11' /JY:A tOU~lIlC fr'~ Tr:"l~ qu"f1 fmflJA I Tr:~h.y."f1 fl1~'&;A :: 'to OU1"lr"'" t1.1"f 1Il:J>1P/.r'11' flP/"l1T /JY:"TOJ« hfll.4. h 1Jt ~Y: t1P/Y:l."l hil~"1. hCerjf9'"f1 Y,OJil.&;A:: . ~. 101..9'"fC; ""1 i.Tf'kfOJ«f1 Of1.UOJ« hf1-7i7it flP/. ~Y: ~r: toulfC flP/.fil"f"TOJ«C; terCT 11~l."'T hil1- tp"'/..;JC 1-ouflJflJ:'; flr~ 1-10. tp;J terCT OJ«{f]..y.Y:TOJ« flP/"l'Y'1' ou1lT h"~~OJ« :: OU1"lr"'" fi.1'1lfOlJ. t flP/..,O II' «£e; fA IP/ T 7' t. fl 9' 1~1 0 OIJ.1-A er 0 T 1.U 0 H. U l}"1P/ ououll'.1. htOT :: !t. ou1"lr':" fl1,'hAc," f;h~h ~C{"f1 fou1hl1h1le; tr'~'1' 01le; til7~CT OUiltj~4-.T hil1-tp/JP flP/Y:l."l ~"k ~T htOT :: i',1 ~ '" Pie flPll'-I.q."f OU1lT Ii' U) f4.'O{;I1e; fh1A"'lo..,. lPll'1-q."f I 101..9'"f I fhcif IPII'.,.q.1' : lblo1' f111lC lPll'1-q."f I h1-OJlI.~ f~"~. ~T ~ljf O;J."f f t:.e; f r' II' 1Ill1fTOJ« fOlJ.~~ y.'''~~0J« fOU1"lr'T lPll'1-q."f f r' ~e; fi.1'1lflP/. V-kJ'9'"f1 t1P/"li7iA OIP/..,OC fOUY.~~T OU1lT h"~~OJ« :: y,u OU'OT flP~1-~ 1P/"'0~T1e; Ibftn"f 1P/..,0/1'T1 flP/~/I'~f. T I hhlP{;9'"fe; '1'~IP/T0J«1 hlP/. ~h- Ibftn"f Y.~c"f:i~"f ;JC fou Y.~~C OU1lT1 fl1:";f'A :: 7. Every Ethiopian shall have the full right to the immovable property he builds and to the permanent improvements he brings about on the land by his labour or capital. This right shall include the right to alienate, to bequeath, and, where the right of use expires, to remove his property, transfer his title, or claim compensation for it. Particulars shall be determined by law. 8. Without prejudice to the right to private property, the government may expropriate private property for public purposes subject to payment in advance of compensation commensurate to the value of the property. Article 41 Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 1. Every Ethiopian has the right to engage freely in economic activity and to pursue a livelihood of his choice anywhere within the national territory. 2. Every Ethiopian has the right to choose his or her means of livelihood, occupation and profession. 3. Every Ethiopian national has the right to equal access to publicly funded social services. 4. The State has the obligation to allocate ever increasing resources to provide to the public health, education and other social services. 5. The State shall, within available means, allocate resources to provide rehabilitation and assistance to the physically and mentally disabled, the aged, and to children who are left without parents or guardian. 6. The State shall pursue policies which aim to expand job opportuniti~s for the unemployed and the poor and shall accordingly undertake programmes and public works projects. 7. The State shall undertake all measures necessary to increase opportunities for citizens to find gainful em- ployment. 8. Ethiopian farmers and pastoralists have the right to receive fair prices for their products, that would lead to improvement in their conditions of life and to enable them to obtain an equitable share of the national wealth commensurate with their contribution. This objective shall guide the State in the formulation of economic , social and development policies. 9. The State has the responsibility to protect and preserve historical and cultural legacies, and to contribute to the promotion of the arts and sports. 1. (a) Article 42 Rights of Labour Factory and service workers, farmers, farm labourers, other rural workers and government employees whose work compatibility allows for it and who are below a certain level of responsibility, have the right to form associations to improve their conditions of employment and economic well-being. This right includes the right to form trade unions and other associations to bargain collectively with employers or other organizations that affect their interests.
  16. 16. '/?'!:,!, tI..~.t.t: ~:Jt,} ?IL"I ''''re?i ~<h(1.it, '~1 iiH:'w% 'HI", Federal Negarit Gazeta - No.1 21" August 1995 - Page 16 ~, 1) WW.it t.'}<f>1.' (II) l',t'OOlh1:"" I'lvlr"';;: het:I."f F' /.. "'I''''''''', {,Q.""{~ TI..;J'r{J}<", 1'''7f1''7'''' oo-fH t.IVt:{J}< ,: d1) {no,it t.","''''' (II) },c,' (I) uPfll."" 'hm':"<; Ill'f..} uP.fI-I'."f luPiIl"'''''I'°,/."ftr'''' flID","1F"'" lP/,..t-7f'"f fl,).°1 y,mfl<;I' :: uP) {I.-I";1" lPlr't-?';';'j- /-t,oollllY, F'lr .t,oollllY, hlj:Y 1'''7°rr.} uP'fI;F':w" I"hnfl'" ~{J}<:: 1~'lr.t-7f''''''' flt.°lllfl' l'.t'OJfI~ I'F'I;' fll}.} f)l.et:'''' J 1'00 '11<;:;' 'I.II. : flI'1.lL{J}< hh'~,I' :1(: l'''7.flm' I'~l.lj:..,. <I><:'"f: .'.ooOJ'II l'''7.h6.AIl~:w'I';''''II'n fll}".} 'hV;'v-"" m,,<;"7<; t,Y.:J I''''IN'.eitl'F'/'. t,t)IH1,I''''I''11'''' uP'fI"" t.,,:f{J}<:: },~llU'} OD'fI-I"1' '/'°1'11r'P. l"7f.:l."1I'''7.wm' ;"'11' flltU t,}<1>"" ",o'it t.",<1>"" ~ uPfll.'''' 'h{J}<:"<; ,1'11-'''''', t1D-fH"1' lIY,"''',fI. N'm<l>fI''''' (}y,H' 1'11'/,."';;: "'I..,fl/,."" iII"7.** OO-fl""<;, I'.:I/.. Y:ef.:e itl"7.I1't~'n"" F'Cl}"" y,Y.~"1;JI':: 1:' t,H'1.' 0;1' I'A"'/'} uP-fl"" {i' 1'h..H'A'.1" ;"'11f1"f flt.iIl."'''Y,'''' If~ nh.,"'r-A-,I' ,l'ho 'fI,h,C.'.}', : .nd1.l.fI{J".}', : 'h'ml".1" n.t-<;mA n.e V-);;t' J':{D"} 1''''1 ,'i i' A lj 1'''7,1'*c'r 'h.I":'I'''' 1''''I°rr..,. uP-fl,"'r{J}< I"hnn", ',w' :: 1I.1"f n'fI,h./'.'P. A"'I''''l'lIDlI.t'lj: fI.,.IY,"" t.IlA I'If~fl""", "'I..,fll.fI'fI 1'''7. uP 1h": /'l..fl.9'1'<; TC::f.h-l'."f "y, IIlIIl ~:{J}<",'h",.ltflm. l'uPml':" uP.fl.} t."r{J}<:: lID'}OIF"} lI'MII" t"t'l':' Y.I.~' 1''''I.11J~:{J}< it.,...,..H'."f.,.. ,,.,, 1''''I..I''J!.e:J~:{J}< "rn:H.""', I't.,.}r-A'y", 1'''7,1'*C<r },.~'1'''' lID'IH. 1'''7..l''ilh'flo;. uP""} t.IIl:f{J}< :: I'Ao'H 'h",'PiI,4'(J. 'Pl.,- ,}""'I1'1L1'f", 'h~'1''''<; uPfll.;t''P. l~" 1-1'.."f "'1".'1-""" Y,1f<;'A :: Ii' e' ~. t,H'1.' ..ji! ft,l1tlf1, ,(',u",H' uP.n.'" ~, /J."..,.. fI9"''j- ",1..U<;' iIIS"7 nlf~ t.l1lJfl. fuP<:'e uP,n.", t, " :,: {J}<:: lID","IF"} fI"'I..I"I1'tP,:':ciJ. Teollr'l°"f .,..h",,1''''' N'6. ,,-,,,,,. (,IY,"" ~,c.'t,:':rD' f.t'~I)tFf{J)< fl9'"f v-I' floo", "IF"'" {H: },CP,;J' my, 1.< t.11Ilfl. uPII'Pmc", m..,..e .t'(/IJ("lIl:'; I',n I'nt/.fl OJy,.,.. lb" t."7/"1iJ!' "711117i {''''''rr:,. uP'fl'} t.,,:f{J}<:: 11, ""~/..l':' tdr'} l'uP'}"I!":" t,m."'",c t,}<f>1.' .ij 1: F'C'H' llD",°IP"'" 1't...''''I''A'! b...I!../,.I'P. J.'..'l°h/..fl.,I''P. 'ID","II";t. ;J'e"o,/:} ;"'P. ~lD' :: /.T'fll..h F'C'H (b) Categories of persons referred to in paragraph (a) of this sub-Article have the right to express grievances, including the right to strike. (c) Government employees who enjoy the rights provided under paragraphs (a) and (b) of this sub- Article shall be determined by law. (d) Women workers have the right to equal pay for equal work. 2. Workers have the right to reasonable limitation of working hours, to rest, to leisure, to periodic leaves with pay, to remuneration for public holidays as well as healthy and safe work envirpnment. 3. Without prejudice to the rights recognized under sub- Article I of this Article, laws enacted for the implemen- tation of such rights shall establish procedures for the formation of trade unions and for the regulation of the collective bargaining process. Article 43 The Right to Development I. The Peoples of Ethiopia as a whole, and each Nation, Nationality and People in Ethiopia in particular have the right to improved living standards and to sustainable development. 2. Nationals have the right to participate in national development and, in particular, to be consulted with respect to policies and projects affecting their com- munity. 3. All international agreements and relations concluded, established or conducted by the State shall protect and ensure Ethiopia's right to sustainable development. 4. The basic aim of development activities shall be to enhance the capacity of citizens for developement and to meet their basic needs. Article 44 Environmental Rights I. All persons have the right to a clean and healthy environment. 2. All persons who have been displaced or whose livelihoods have been adversely affected as a result of State program- mes have the right to commensurate monetary or alter- native means of compensation, including relocation with adequate State assistance. CHAPTER FOUR STATE STRUCTURE Article 45 Form of' Government The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia shall have a parliamentarian form of government.
  17. 17. 1~ 11, ~~t.t ~;Jt-r ;JIL"1 <II'!'!:?i ~,hl. Hi '1'1 Ii!I.!t1, ~'9'" Federal Negaiit Gazeta - No. I 21" August 1995 - Page 17 h14'K' '?il f /.,.YvI..A 1Afo"f Ii' f/.,.Yvt.(' {/D1"1P"t' Il1Afo"f f-tCP4'l .,w- " ~, 1Afo"f f"'l.CP4'~t' 1l;"1t11M4..tC I 1:11: I "'11.,t' 'he; .tJ'1: liS'> 11 {/D{/DIII t' .,w- " h14'K' "i~ f /.,.Yv/rA {/D1"1r.-t' Milt' Ii' fh.H'k, /.,.YvtA'C Yv'f"1/rIt,'C tTlIc.1 Milt' f"'l.h-t".t' e;:fw- " ii' H"1/rS'> hAA ~. fh4.C hAA [, fh07/r 1AA g' fM.':"'l.' 1AA ~. ffl-"'1lt. 1AA }. f0.17i1...A/ 1I 1AA '1.'f1.o-11l1,h.~"f I lI,h.l(("fe; ;"1I("f 1AA t. f ;1?"o.II ;"11 ("f 1AA U' f tltU ;"1111 1AA jI. 1ltt.1I h14>K' 10-11 h14>K' ii f-t{/D/h1:t' 1AI-"f w-lI'I' - f-t1-t1:t' 1I,h.~"f I 11"':l(("f ' ;"1I(1"f IlO71;;:w-?" 2. 'UL ff{,.lt:fw-1 1AA f071:1:?" {/D1It' M:fw- " [. f"'11;;:w-?" lI,h.C I 'll,h.l(l1 ' ;"1111 f/rfl-1 hAA f{/D{/DlIlt' (/D11t' P"l.. 'IS'>f"'l.w-/w- ; 0) f'iJAA (/D{/D1Ilt' 'I',<l:w- 1l11,h.~ , 1l1l,h.l(0- OJS'>?" 11;"110- ?"1C 0. t' 11"'/ t' V'lI-t;;: 1:?"II -t4' 11M t' 07"111: Itl;1'1 'l'e; 'I',<l:w- 11K'""If: "hAI- ?"hC o.t' It4'C11 ; /) 'I"<l:w- f4'lll/t' fhAA ?"hC o.t' 'I"<l:w- ll1.l (w- Ilh 11: '}(/Dt' 1.tL w-1I'I' /m f 4'w- 11,h.C' 11,h.l(11 OJS'>?" ;"1111 ;"11 11 w-it); It, f./r 1: ' . tit) hAA f{/D{/DlIlt' 'I',<l:w- 1l11,h.~ I 1l11,h.ll'lo- OJS'>?";"110- ;"1111 w-it); Ilhllll""l 1:?"II 1t1.'11f:; (/D) fhAI- ?"1C o.t' P"AIfJ.,.1 /mf4'W- 11,h.C I 'O,h.l(11 OJS'>?";"1I11It,lIlhll ; w) 0;"1111 w-it); f"'l..tmlw- h"lll hAA '1',<1: O7:"l11 it,lI.tA'1W- 04''I';t- fh.H'k, /.,.Yv/rll'C Yv.,.,1/rIt,'C tTlIc.h hilA 1t11'1 .,w- " g' fh.H'k, kYv/r"'C Yv'f"1I..It''C tT'Ilc.h Mllt''hb-A {/D11t'e; P"A1fJ1 hll:fw- " h14'K' "it fhM/A /w-tO"f ii' fhAfo"f1 OJ(1 Il"'l.{/D/ht' '1',<1: f-t.,it 'h11.11''' II~ Il"'l.{/D/h;t-:fw- 1AI-"f lI?,,?,,"t' S'>.t'l."'1A " f"'l.{/D/h ;t-:fw- 1AI-"f {/D1ID7D7t' 1A:F I- f /"'f../" 11.,.?"1C 0. t' f;"1I1I1 h(4..tCe; If:II1t' {/D(lt' IlO71:l"1 S'>OJlIe;A ,I ~. 0tt.1I h14'K' 10-11 h14'K' ii {/Dilt' f4'lll 11,. ho-/t' '}{/Dt' IlAOIm 1.tL w-1I'I' Ilkf../" 11.,. ?"1c o.t' f (/D(;I;,l7i w-it); S'>( 'l'0;t- A " Article 46 States of the Federation 1. The Federal Democratic Republic shaH comprise of States. 2. States shaH be delimited on the basis of the settlement patterns, language, identity and consent of the people concerned. Article 47 Member States ofthe Federal Democratic Republic 1. Member States of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia are the following: 1) The State of Tigray 2) The State of Mar 3) The State of Amhara 4) The State of Oromia 5) The State of Somalia 6) The State of BenshanguUGumuz 7) The State of the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples 8) The State of the Gambela Peoples 9) The State of the Harari People Nations, Nationalities and Peoples within the States enumerated in'sub-Article 1 of this article have the right to establish, at any time, their own States. 3. The right of any Nation, Nationality or People to form its own state is exercisable under the following procedures: (a) When the demand for statehood has been approved by a two-thirds majority of the members of the Council of the Nation, Nationality or People concer- ned, and the demand is presented in writing to the State Council; (b) When the Council that received the demand has organized a referendum within one year to be held in the Nation, Nationality or People that made the demand; (c) When the demand for statehood is supported by a majority vote in the referendum; (d) When the State Council will have transferred its powers to the Nation,Nationality or People that made the demand; and (e) When the new State created by the referendum without any need for application, directly becomes a member of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. 4. Member States of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia shall have equal rights and powers. Article 48 State Border Changes 1. All State border disputes shall be settled by agreement of the concerned States. Where the concerned States fail to reach agreement, the l,Iouse of the Federation shall decide such disputes on the basis of settlement patterns and the wishes of the peoples concerned. 2. The House of Federation shall, within a period of two years, render a final decision on a dispute submitted to it pursuant to sub-Article I of this Art:;:;1e.
  18. 18. 'IX' Ii 4..Y.t.A ~;lt'1' ;lIL"1 '111'C:?i ~,h(L I?; 1>1 :uni!'~ 'H". h'}4'7 "i!1 eM h+<"1 Federal Negarit Gazeta - No.1 21" August 1995 - Page 18 fi' f~Y..IAt. oo'}"1l1T eM hT"'1 h"tll hOIl ~ID-:1 g. fM.lI Mil hT"'1 M1"H'.e t-,,"'} Ot-,," f"'1l1T.I~C oo-lr P'Ann f.<: l.'PA :: 11C1I~ 0:t."1 f.(/J(t<;A :: (, fh.ltll hOll h+<"1 hllT.I~C Ttn~"1: h~Y..t-lr oP'} "IP"} f.tr<;A :: ~, fh.ltll hOIl "'P~9':f OILU "'1 oo'}"IP'T OT~"111D" oo{l.T O~Y..t-lr f"'1I'O T(/Jqr-:f 9"hc Il.T f.(/JMh':: f,' fM':"'1..! nAA ; fh",A"li1"T h:"C(1'} (/Jf.9" fTIt-r~ tHIT htn:J'<f>9",}<; fooi't(tlrT'} .,..Ir-:f OToohhT t },'}.ltIJ-9" h.ltll h~1l 0"~"'1..! hAA ooVA f"'l.1~ 000"'" f"'1.."{' IJ-h"I:'} f"'1..!lITi'ti~ hiT.I~t-'f ",..If-:f'} OTOOhhT !hlD- A¥- '1':"9" J'.tnO:"h;t-A :: 11e11~ 0"'''1 f.(/J(t<;A :: 9"lJt-'t- h9"lIT fP'A~'}h(/J:J'4'c~<;h't-'t-A h'}4'7 ~ M P'A~'} hqlT h(/J:J'4'C fi' fh.TN,! t,.Y..t-I'f Y..'f"ht-I'I.!'f ~T-I1f1..h O~Y..t-A 2. oo,}"1P'T<; OhAiI":f fT'P4'l. ~ID-:: g. f~Y..t-fl' oo,}"1I"T<;hAiI":f f"'''I hID-(;!;.~T t f"'''I hllt.K"'1,"T<;f.l~~T P'A~'} M:f1D-:: (. f~f"l,"fI' oo,}"1I"T h't-T:;: fl"Ant'} hqA f~Y..t-lr oo'}"1P'T f"'1I-I1 T(/Jqr-:f 9"nC Il.T ~(IJ<::Ttn~"1:9" hV1~1: "'11-11 ~ID- :: fhAA h't-T;;' fl"Ant'} hqA fnAlr 9"hC Il.T ~ID-; Ttn~~1:9" fI(/Jhfl.1D-hAA "'11-11 ~(IJ<:: 11' hAI":f: OhAA~T<; nAiI":f Mt..I1. "'lID- 0"'l.!1~ h:f1D- fhllT.I~C ~ch<::f f.'P4't-lr :: "'11ft' 011:"1':;: fMT.If.C ~ch :f 04'-r;t- f.i'tT't- "'}~ h1l:"T:;: ~Ch<::f 04: I"A~,} f.lntA :: (;. fnAA 9"nC Il.T OnAl- I"Ant') lie II"'" .,..Ir-:f fh A fl. f"'''1 hlD-'''- hqA 'lID- :: r.wn "'1 oo,}"1I"T oo(tl.T O"'1~l."1 fhAfI',} ;,,', oo,}"1I"T !".?7fA I !K~:J'A : !?'1IIA :: '[;. fhAA oollT.I~C fnAh' h't-T:;: f"'''1 MltK"'1.. hqA ~(IJ<:: 'k' fhAA f.l~~T I"Ant'} f't-C~ Il.f-:f -I1:F 'lID- :: t,. f~f"l,"fI' oo'}"1I"T<; fhAh":f P'Ant'} ntLU "'1 oP'} "IP'T "'(/JlIS:A :: h~Y..I,"lr oo'}"1I"T fT{tnlD- P'A~,} OhAiI":f oohOC hfl.nT :' hhAiI":f f1'(ttnlD- P'A~'} O~f"l,"fI' oo,}"1I"T oPhOC hhOT :: ii' f~Y..lrA oo,}"1P'T OILtJ "'1 oo'}"1I"T h,}4'7 ~~ H.{tn""'I"A~,} ~<; '''''1Il~:f ~,}.Iit.l1.~1: hhAiI":f (llD-hN; fI..(t-r f.:flA :: Article 49 Capital City I. Addis Ababa shall be the capital city of the Federal State, 2. The residents of Addis Ababa shall have a full measure of self-government. Particulars shall be determined by law. 3. The Administration of Addis Ababa shall be responsible to the Federal Govemement. 4. Residents of Addis Ababa shall in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution, be represented in the House of Peoples' Representatives. 5. The special interest of the State of Oromia in Addis Ababa, regarding the provision of social services or the utilization of natural resources and other similar matters, as well as joint administrative matters arising from the location of Addis Ababa within the State of Oromia, shall be respected. Particulars shall be determined by law. CHAPTER FIVE THE STRUCTURE AND DIVISION OF POWERS Article 50 Structure of the Organs of State 1. The Federal democratic Republic of Ethiopia comprises the Federal Government and the State members. The Federal Governent and the States shall have legislative, executive and judicial powers. 3. The House of Peoples' Representatives is the highest authority of the Federal Government. The House is responsible to the People. The State Council is the highest organ of State authority. It is responsible to the People of the State. 4. State government shall be established at State and other. administrative levels that they find necessary. Adequate power shall be granted to the lowest units of government to enable the People to participate directly in the administration of such units. 5. The State Council has the power oflegislation on matters falling under State jurisdiction. Consistent with the provisions of this Constitution, the Council has power to draft, adopt and amend the state constitution. 6. The State administration constitutes the highest organ of executive power. 7. State judicial power is vested in its courts. 8. Federal and State powers are defined by this Constitution. The States shall respect the powers of the Federal Government. The Federal Government shall likewise respect the powers of the States. 9. The Federal Government may, when necessary, delegate to the States powers and functions granted to it by Article 51 of this Constitution.
  19. 19. 1Jt lit ~10~-/: .,;J&T ;JnlfJ <h1'CIi .,,,,( Hi <1>,Iitfft 'i''''' Federal Negarit Gazeta - No.1 21 st August 1995 - Page 19 h1~1 lib--- f ~Y..IrA 001..,,,.,:" "., A 1f)1'i" .,..., 11C b' ih1 001..,,,.,-1:1 f.m11:J>A ; f.hlhlA :: i. frJ1~-I:1 hm:J>If.fhJl'iOlJ. t fOlJ"'rOIr«£'i" f AOIJ:" ;rlLiL t it:"Iri::(S iJ~Y: !CDIf)A ; !itL1OIJA :1 r' fmS t f:"~tJC:" t fllihA'i" :f'~I'1«£ ~Cit t fllf.1it'i" i:h'ifoj{ rJ1C h+~ OOOO"t;=9'T'i" OO(}l:f'«£ f;rlLiL 00/ h.! 9' T1 !CDIf)A ; !itL1OIJA :: ~. frJ1~-I:1 f4.f.'i"1it: f11"11 t fCD-6f.hh,1ii'it:"001:" ;rlLiL9'T1'i" it:"Iri:j{9'T1 !CDIf)A ; !itL1OIJA :1 ~. foo(..:" t f.,.L1'e rJ11:"'i" f:f'~h ~C{T hm:J>~~'i" 'I'0:J>1 O.,.ooih.,. ih.., !CDIf)A :1 :&. frJ1C'i" fih1l11 foohlh!'i" f~tJ1~:" h1-'l0-9" f~Y.. irA 001..,,,.,:" f;rlLit ~f.A !~Ir~A ; f.ooIrA:1 ;k 11Ja.Ir«£ 111h1 !it"'~Y:IrA ; 11"11 !:t-OIJA ; f.0 ~IrA : fCD-6f.h~1"~'i" f11"11 ACD-CD-1'1f.~lf)mIrA:: hAfoT hCD-it1' ~1~T itiOIJ.O~~O:" o-~:f' ih..,'i" OOOO~! !CDIf)A :1 ~. fCD-6f.h"'1j.~:" ;rlLiL 1 f.CDit'i"A ; ;rlLiLCD-1~ !itL 1OIJA ! ~i~ h+~ it~~H'-"T1 f.'P'PIA ; !RY::J>A :: y. fhfC: fllftC t fllihC oo~~..,. ; f;rit:f''i'' fi:"'l1,w.~ . h. 7i1 h1A..,fo.y.T h1~tlo-~ o-i:" CDf.~ ho-i:" Olf. hAfoT1 fOlJ.!1'i"j. hCD-1r0011f.T1 !it4.4.A ; !it.,.~ Y:IrA ; f.~lf)mIrA :: I' i~Y..Ir~ 001..,,,.,:" O"'(}m-:" f10. ~1~T hAA °1'OC'i" ~l'l' f.1'IA : !it"'~Y:IrA ; f~1..IrA 001.., ".,:,. O~:,. ! l:J>A ; !RY::J>A ; ! it.,.~ Y:irA :1 Ili' 0-/:" CDf.~ ho-i:" Olf. frf). hAfoT1 fOlJ.!it"'"it~ CDf.'}"f.'10C "'7i;J~ frf). CD1t1T'i"rJf.~T1 hm:J>~~ f.CDit'i"A ! !it"'~Y:IrA :1 I~' OhAfoT ool1hA fOlJ.~l"'1 f1..,Y: "'1j.~:"'i" fCD-6f.h 1°1Y:1 f.OOIrA ! f.~lf)mIrA II Ir' O~Yo'"A 001..,,,.,:" 11"11 f.,.**tJD<o h1Y: CDf.~ hh1f.' hAA Olf. fOlJ.7itt:)' fh1A..,fo:" .,.*iJOT1 !it"'~f.""A : !it4.4.A :: I~' hhAA h~~ Olf. flr~ fR1':f' oo~tt:lit iLl ;J'I'~ OhAi' ooit.,.~y:C '}'!~ oo(}l:" frJ1~-I:1 foohlh! ;}f.A .f(}OIJIrA :1 I~' OfLtJ ih1 001..,,,.,:" f.,.l;J1m-:"1 f;ri-t11 0011.y.T /OIJit~.R~ hitLI'l frf). f;ri-t11 Y:C~.y.T1 h1-'l0-~ ~C6l>J.1 OOlJ.ooih:" ih1T !CDIf)A :1 I:&' OrJ1~'1: Ohm:J>If.~ lr~ O"'CD(}). frJ1~-I: htt:foT fhit:f".f. 'lit htp~ !CD-~A ! h'P~1 !~llA :1 I'L' fn..,.,.", 'I'!~ f.CDit'i"A :1 I~- fh,~"'t.. 7i1'i" f ;rit7'C'''' ! CD~ rJ1C foo..,o.!'i" foo CD-6l>J.'''~f'T1 : itiit~"'?fT'i" iti ;ri-t11 'I'1~~:" f.CDit'i"A : f.OOIrA :1 Ij/- f ~.mlr'i" f f.'C(}:" 00'0.y.T1 f.L~~A ; f.m11:J>A :1 ~. tl1f.' CD'}'fOOih.! ~l~9'T'i" f'llt ~ooC !CDIf)A :1 ~li' flOC oo.,,~! iti00!1I ih.., !CDIf)A :1 li- h1+1 2~ f h A A "., A If)1'i" .,..., 11C Oih1 001..,,,.,-1: i~1..'"i' 001..,,,.,:" O.,.if. CDf.~ i~Yolri' 001..,,,.,:"'i" ihAfoT 0;J1r O..,A1 !A"'(}m "., A If)1 f h A A "., A If)1 f. rf'i" A :1 Article 51 Powers and Functions of the Federal Government 1. It shall protect and defend the Constitution. 2. It shall fonnulate and implement the country's policies, strategies and plans in respect of overall economic, social and development matters. 3. It shall establish and implement national standards and basic policy criteria for public health, education, science and technology as well as for the protection and preservation of cultural and historical legacies. 4. It shall fonnulate and execute the country's financial, monetary and foreign investment policies and strategies. 5. It shall enact laws for the utilization and conservation of land and other natural resources, histortical sites and objects. 6. It shall establish and administer national defence and public security forces as well as a federal police force. 7. It shall administer the National Bank, print and borrow money, mint coins, regulate foreign exchange and money in circulation; it shall determine by law the conditions and tenns under which States can borrow money from.. internal sources. 8. It shall fonnulate and implement foreign policy; it shall negotiate and ratify international agreements. 9. It shall be responsible for the development, administration and regulation of air, rail, waterways and sea transport and major roads linking two or more States, as well as for postal and telecommunication services. 10. It shall levy taxes and collect duties on revenue sources reserved to the Federal Government; it shall draw up, approve and administer the Federal Government's bud- get. 11. It shall detennine and administer the utilization of the waters or rivers and lakes linking two or more States or crossing the boundaries of the national territorial jurisdic- tion. 12. It shall regulate inter-State and foreign commerce. 13. It shall administer and expand all federally funded institutions that provide services to two or more States. 14. It shall deploy, at the request of a state administration, Federal defence forces to arrest a deteriorating security situation within the requesting State when its authorities are unable to control it. 15. It shall enact, in order to give practical effect to political rights provided for in this Constituion, all necessary laws governing political parties and elections. 16. It has the power to declare and to lift national state of emergency and states of emergencies limited to certain parts of the country. 17. It shall detemine matters relating to nationality. 18. It shall determine and administer all matters relating to immigration, the granting of passports, entry into and exit from the coutnry, refugees and asylum. 19. It shall patent inventions and protect copyrights. 20. It shall establish unifonn standards of measurement and calendar. 21. It shall enact laws regulating the possession and bearing of anns. . Article 52 Powers and Functions of States 1. All powers not given expressly to the Federal Government alone, or concurrently to the Federal Government and the States are reserved to the States.

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