Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Motivation

1,409

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,409
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
50
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Motivation
  • 2. Motivation <ul><li>The factors that direct and energize the behavior of humans and other organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>It has something to do with what makes people behave the way they do. </li></ul><ul><li>It is considered as the “why” of behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation cannot be directly observed. Motives are inferences from overt behaviors such as facial expressions, gestures, and movements of body parts. </li></ul>
  • 3. <ul><li>Not all motives are known to us (unconscious motives). Signs are accidents, forgetting, slips of speech and of the pen. </li></ul><ul><li>If inferences about motives are accurate, we can make predictions about what the person will do in the future. </li></ul>
  • 4. Approaches
  • 5. Approaches Meaning Instinct People and animals are born with pre-programmed sets of behaviours essential to their survival. Drive reduction When some basic biological requirement is lacking, a drive is produced. Arousal People seek an optimal level of stimulation. If the level of stimulation is too high, they act to reduce it; if it is too low, they act to increase it.
  • 6. Approaches Meaning Incentive External stimuli direct and energize behaviour. Cognitive Thoughts, expectations, and understanding of the world direct motivation. Hierarchy of needs Needs form a hierarchy; before higher-order needs are met, lower-order needs must be fulfilled.
  • 7.  
  • 8. Classifications of Motives
  • 9. Biological Needs /Primary Drives <ul><li>hunger motive </li></ul><ul><li>oxygen motive </li></ul><ul><li>thirst motive </li></ul><ul><li>warmth or cold </li></ul><ul><li>elimination of body waste </li></ul><ul><li>pain avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>sleep and rest </li></ul>
  • 10. Social Needs/Secondary Drives <ul><li>Achievement motive </li></ul><ul><li>Social acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Affiliation </li></ul><ul><li>Status and Prestige </li></ul><ul><li>Altruism </li></ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul>
  • 11. Sexual Motivation <ul><li>It is both biological and social. It involves other people and is influenced by social pressures. </li></ul><ul><li>Sex is not essential to sustain the life of the individual but it is necessary for the perpetuation of the species. </li></ul><ul><li>Sex drive satisfaction is governed by rules and laws. It cannot be satisfied anywhere or with just anybody. </li></ul>
  • 12. Human Needs and Motivation: Eat, Drink, and Be Daring
  • 13. The Motivation Behind Hunger and Eating <ul><li>Body Mass Index (BMI): </li></ul><ul><li>less than 18.5 = underweight </li></ul><ul><li>18.5 to 24.9 = normal weight </li></ul><ul><li>25 to 29.9 = overweight </li></ul><ul><li>above 30 = obesity </li></ul>
  • 14. Biological factors in the regulation of hunger: <ul><li>Hypothalamus – responsible in monitoring food intake </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral hypothalamus and ventromedial hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Injury to the hypothalamus affects the weight set point, the particular level of weight that the body strives to maintain. </li></ul>
  • 15. <ul><li>Glucose or blood sugar is an essential substance involved in hunger motivation. Low sugar level indicates hunger. </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolism – the rate at which food is converted to energy and expended by the body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High metabolic rate = no gain in weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low metabolic rate = gain weight </li></ul></ul>
  • 16. <ul><li>Cultural influences and our individual habits play important roles in determining what, when, and how much we eat. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tend to eat on schedule every day, we feel hungry as the usual hour approaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>we put roughly the same amount of food on our plates every day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tend to prefer particular foods over others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>amount of food we eat varies according to cultural norms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>through classical and operant conditioning, food is associated with comfort and consolation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>food provides an escape from unpleasant thoughts. </li></ul></ul>
  • 17. The Roots of Obesity <ul><li>Oversensitivity to external eating cues based on social factors, coupled with insensitivity to internal hunger cues. </li></ul><ul><li>Obese individuals have a higher level of hormone called leptin, which appears to be designed, from an evolutionary standpoint, to protect the body against weight loss. </li></ul><ul><li>Fat cells in the body that increases in number or size starting at birth. </li></ul><ul><li>The body has a settling point, determined by a combination of our genetic heritage and the nature of the environment in which we live. </li></ul>
  • 18. Eating Disorders <ul><li>Anorexia Nervosa </li></ul><ul><li>a severe eating disorder in which people may refuse to eat while denying that their behavior and appearance- which can become skeletonlike- are unusual </li></ul><ul><li>intense fear of gaining weight even though underweight </li></ul><ul><li>Bulimia </li></ul><ul><li>a disorder in which a person binges on incredibly large quantities of food and later may attempt to purge the food through vomiting or the use of laxatives </li></ul><ul><li>overeating </li></ul>
  • 19. Causes of Eating Disorders <ul><li>Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural norms of attractiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Food as way of coping negative emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Family dynamics characterized by over controlling parents (projection mechanism) </li></ul><ul><li>History of sexual abuse (sublimation) </li></ul><ul><li>Biological (genetics, hypothalamus) </li></ul>
  • 20. The Need for Achievement: Striving for Success <ul><li>A stable, learned characteristic in which a person obtains satisfaction by striving for and attaining a level of excellence. </li></ul><ul><li>people with high need for achievement = avoid situations in which success will come too easily, instead, choose tasks that are of intermediate difficulty </li></ul><ul><li>people with low achievement motivation = tend to be motivated by a desire to avoid failure, they seek out easy tasks, or difficult tasks where failure has no implications </li></ul><ul><li>Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) – used to measure achievement motivation </li></ul>
  • 21. The Need for Affiliation: Striving for Friendship <ul><li>An interest in establishing and maintaining relationships with other people. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sensitive to relationships with others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>be with friends more of the time, and alone less often </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>female spend significantly more time with their friends than males </li></ul></ul>
  • 22. The Need for Power: Striving for Impact on Others <ul><li>A tendency to seek impact, control, or influence over others, and to be seen as a powerful individual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>belong to organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>work in professions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>display the trappings of power (prestigious possessions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unusually high levels of aggression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>drink heavily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>act in sexually exploitative manner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>participate in competitive sports </li></ul></ul>

×