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  1. 1. Motivation
  2. 2. Motivation <ul><li>The factors that direct and energize the behavior of humans and other organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>It has something to do with what makes people behave the way they do. </li></ul><ul><li>It is considered as the “why” of behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation cannot be directly observed. Motives are inferences from overt behaviors such as facial expressions, gestures, and movements of body parts. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Not all motives are known to us (unconscious motives). Signs are accidents, forgetting, slips of speech and of the pen. </li></ul><ul><li>If inferences about motives are accurate, we can make predictions about what the person will do in the future. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Approaches
  5. 5. Approaches Meaning Instinct People and animals are born with pre-programmed sets of behaviours essential to their survival. Drive reduction When some basic biological requirement is lacking, a drive is produced. Arousal People seek an optimal level of stimulation. If the level of stimulation is too high, they act to reduce it; if it is too low, they act to increase it.
  6. 6. Approaches Meaning Incentive External stimuli direct and energize behaviour. Cognitive Thoughts, expectations, and understanding of the world direct motivation. Hierarchy of needs Needs form a hierarchy; before higher-order needs are met, lower-order needs must be fulfilled.
  7. 8. Classifications of Motives
  8. 9. Biological Needs /Primary Drives <ul><li>hunger motive </li></ul><ul><li>oxygen motive </li></ul><ul><li>thirst motive </li></ul><ul><li>warmth or cold </li></ul><ul><li>elimination of body waste </li></ul><ul><li>pain avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>sleep and rest </li></ul>
  9. 10. Social Needs/Secondary Drives <ul><li>Achievement motive </li></ul><ul><li>Social acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Affiliation </li></ul><ul><li>Status and Prestige </li></ul><ul><li>Altruism </li></ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul>
  10. 11. Sexual Motivation <ul><li>It is both biological and social. It involves other people and is influenced by social pressures. </li></ul><ul><li>Sex is not essential to sustain the life of the individual but it is necessary for the perpetuation of the species. </li></ul><ul><li>Sex drive satisfaction is governed by rules and laws. It cannot be satisfied anywhere or with just anybody. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Human Needs and Motivation: Eat, Drink, and Be Daring
  12. 13. The Motivation Behind Hunger and Eating <ul><li>Body Mass Index (BMI): </li></ul><ul><li>less than 18.5 = underweight </li></ul><ul><li>18.5 to 24.9 = normal weight </li></ul><ul><li>25 to 29.9 = overweight </li></ul><ul><li>above 30 = obesity </li></ul>
  13. 14. Biological factors in the regulation of hunger: <ul><li>Hypothalamus – responsible in monitoring food intake </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral hypothalamus and ventromedial hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Injury to the hypothalamus affects the weight set point, the particular level of weight that the body strives to maintain. </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Glucose or blood sugar is an essential substance involved in hunger motivation. Low sugar level indicates hunger. </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolism – the rate at which food is converted to energy and expended by the body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High metabolic rate = no gain in weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low metabolic rate = gain weight </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Cultural influences and our individual habits play important roles in determining what, when, and how much we eat. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tend to eat on schedule every day, we feel hungry as the usual hour approaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>we put roughly the same amount of food on our plates every day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tend to prefer particular foods over others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>amount of food we eat varies according to cultural norms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>through classical and operant conditioning, food is associated with comfort and consolation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>food provides an escape from unpleasant thoughts. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. The Roots of Obesity <ul><li>Oversensitivity to external eating cues based on social factors, coupled with insensitivity to internal hunger cues. </li></ul><ul><li>Obese individuals have a higher level of hormone called leptin, which appears to be designed, from an evolutionary standpoint, to protect the body against weight loss. </li></ul><ul><li>Fat cells in the body that increases in number or size starting at birth. </li></ul><ul><li>The body has a settling point, determined by a combination of our genetic heritage and the nature of the environment in which we live. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Eating Disorders <ul><li>Anorexia Nervosa </li></ul><ul><li>a severe eating disorder in which people may refuse to eat while denying that their behavior and appearance- which can become skeletonlike- are unusual </li></ul><ul><li>intense fear of gaining weight even though underweight </li></ul><ul><li>Bulimia </li></ul><ul><li>a disorder in which a person binges on incredibly large quantities of food and later may attempt to purge the food through vomiting or the use of laxatives </li></ul><ul><li>overeating </li></ul>
  18. 19. Causes of Eating Disorders <ul><li>Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural norms of attractiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Food as way of coping negative emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Family dynamics characterized by over controlling parents (projection mechanism) </li></ul><ul><li>History of sexual abuse (sublimation) </li></ul><ul><li>Biological (genetics, hypothalamus) </li></ul>
  19. 20. The Need for Achievement: Striving for Success <ul><li>A stable, learned characteristic in which a person obtains satisfaction by striving for and attaining a level of excellence. </li></ul><ul><li>people with high need for achievement = avoid situations in which success will come too easily, instead, choose tasks that are of intermediate difficulty </li></ul><ul><li>people with low achievement motivation = tend to be motivated by a desire to avoid failure, they seek out easy tasks, or difficult tasks where failure has no implications </li></ul><ul><li>Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) – used to measure achievement motivation </li></ul>
  20. 21. The Need for Affiliation: Striving for Friendship <ul><li>An interest in establishing and maintaining relationships with other people. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sensitive to relationships with others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>be with friends more of the time, and alone less often </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>female spend significantly more time with their friends than males </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. The Need for Power: Striving for Impact on Others <ul><li>A tendency to seek impact, control, or influence over others, and to be seen as a powerful individual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>belong to organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>work in professions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>display the trappings of power (prestigious possessions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unusually high levels of aggression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>drink heavily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>act in sexually exploitative manner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>participate in competitive sports </li></ul></ul>