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  1. 1. Memory
  2. 2. Memory <ul><li>the process by which we encode, store, and retrieve information </li></ul><ul><li>3 Basic Processes: </li></ul><ul><li>Encoding </li></ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieval </li></ul>
  3. 3. Three-System Memory Theory <ul><li>Sensory memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the initial, momentary storage of information, lasting only an instant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>types are dependent on the source of sensory information (iconic memory, echoic memory) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can store information for only a very short time, but its precision is high </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can be destroyed or replaced with a new one </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Short - term memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>memory that holds information for 15 to 25 seconds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chunk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a meaningful grouping of stimuli that can be stored as a unit in short-term memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can be individual letters or numbers, or may consist of larger categories such as words or meaningful units </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>P B S F O X C N N A B C C B S M T V N B C </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>PBS FOX CNN ABC </li></ul><ul><li>CBS MTV NBC </li></ul>
  7. 7. Rehearsal <ul><li>the repetition of information that has entered short-term memory </li></ul><ul><li>information is maintained in the short-term memory or may transfer into long-term memory </li></ul><ul><li>Elaborative rehearsal </li></ul><ul><li>occurs when information is considered and organized in some fashion </li></ul><ul><li>expanding, linking to another memory, turning to image, transforming to some other way </li></ul><ul><li>Mnemonics </li></ul><ul><li>formal techniques for organizing information in a way that makes it more likely to be remembered </li></ul>
  8. 8. Working Memory <ul><li>Some theorists view short - term memory as a working memory, in which information is retrieved and manipulated. In this view, it is a central executive processor involved in reasoning and decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>a set of temporary memory stores that actively manipulate and rehearse information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>visual store (visual and spatial information) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>verbal store (speech, words, numbers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>episodic buffer (episodes or events) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It uses significant amount of cognitive resources during its operation. In turn, it makes us less aware of our surrounding. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Long - term memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>memory that stores information on a relatively permanent basis, although it may be difficult to retrieve </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Serial position effect </li></ul><ul><li>the ability to recall information in a list depends on where in the list an item appears </li></ul><ul><li>primacy effect </li></ul><ul><li>items presented early in the list are remembered better </li></ul><ul><li>recency effect </li></ul><ul><li>items presented late in a list are remembered best </li></ul>
  10. 10. Memory Modules <ul><li>Declarative memory </li></ul><ul><li>memory for factual information </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>for general knowledge and facts about the world as well as memory for the rules of logic that are used infer other facts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Episodic memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>memory for events that occur in a particular time, place, or context </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Procedural memory </li></ul><ul><li>memory for skills and habits </li></ul>
  11. 11. Semantic Networks <ul><li>mental representations of clusters of interconnected information </li></ul><ul><li>Spreading activation </li></ul><ul><li>activating one memory triggers the activation of related memories </li></ul>
  12. 12. Neuroscience of memory <ul><li>Hippocampus </li></ul><ul><li>aids in the initial encoding of information </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebral Cortex </li></ul><ul><li>where information is stored </li></ul><ul><li>Amygdala </li></ul><ul><li>involved with memories involving emotion </li></ul>
  13. 13. Recalling Long-Term Memory <ul><li>Tip -of-the-tongue phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>the inability to recall information that one realizes one knows - a result of the difficulty of retrieving information from long-term memory </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieval Cue </li></ul><ul><li>is a stimulus that allows us to recall more easily information that is in long-term memory </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Recall </li></ul><ul><li>memory task in which specific information must be retrieved </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>memory task in which individuals are presented with a stimulus and asked whether they have been exposed to it in the past or to identify it from a list of alternatives </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>What are the names of the seven dwarves in the Disney Movie Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs? </li></ul><ul><li>Which of the following are the names of the seven dwarves in the Disney Movie Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs? </li></ul><ul><li>Goofy Bashful </li></ul><ul><li>Sleepy Sneezy </li></ul><ul><li>Smarty Happy </li></ul><ul><li>Scaredy Doc </li></ul><ul><li>Dopey Crazy </li></ul><ul><li>Wheezy Donald </li></ul>
  16. 16. Levels-of-processing Theory <ul><li>emphasizes the degree to which new material is mentally analyzed </li></ul><ul><li>the amount of information processing that occurs when material is initially encountered is central in determining how much of the information is ultimately remembered </li></ul><ul><ul><li>information is processed in physical and sensory aspects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>translated to meaningful units </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>analyzed in terms of meaning (wider context, associations) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>the deeper the initial level of processing of information is, the longer the information will be retained </li></ul>
  17. 17. Forms of Memory <ul><li>Explicit memory </li></ul><ul><li>intentional or conscious recollection of information </li></ul><ul><li>Implicit memory </li></ul><ul><li>memories of which people are not consciously aware, but which can affect subsequent performance and behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>unclear dislike for an acquaintance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prejudice and discrimination </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Priming </li></ul><ul><li>a phenomenon in which exposure to a word or concept (prime) later makes it easier to recall related information, even when there is no conscious memory of the word or concept </li></ul><ul><li>Name the moon of Mars. </li></ul><ul><li>_ _ obos </li></ul>
  19. 19. Flash bulb Memories <ul><li>memories centered on a specific, important, or surprising event that are so vivid it is as if they represented a snapshot of the event </li></ul><ul><li>memories that are exceptional are more easily retrieved (although not necessarily accurate) than are those relating to events that are commonplace </li></ul><ul><li>romantic experience, witnessing car accident, first airplane flight </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Source amnesia </li></ul><ul><li>when an individual has a memory for some material but cannot recall where he or she encountered it before </li></ul>
  21. 21. Constructive Processes <ul><li>processes in which memories are influenced by the meaning we give to events </li></ul><ul><li>experiences, guesses, inferences affect the memory we produce when we retrieve information </li></ul><ul><li>Schemas </li></ul><ul><li>organized bodies of information stored in memory that bias the way new information is interpreted, stored, and recalled </li></ul><ul><li>are based not only on the specific material to which people are exposed, but also on their understanding of the situation, their expectations, and awareness of motivations of others </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>A basic principle is that some information gets lost during each process. You notice only a small part the world that confronts you; you encode only a small part of what you notice; and you retrieve only part of what was previously stored in your memory. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Memory in the Courtroom <ul><li>eyewitness on trial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wordings of questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>weapons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul><ul><li>repressed memories - recollections of events that are initially shocking that the mind responds by pushing them into the unconscious </li></ul><ul><li>false memory - inaccurate or even wholly false </li></ul><ul><ul><li>experience or imagination </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Autobiographical Memory <ul><li>incompatible with the way in which we currently see ourselves </li></ul><ul><li>particular periods of life are remembered more easily than others </li></ul>
  25. 26. Why We Forget <ul><li>Failure of encoding </li></ul><ul><li>Decay - loss of information in memory because of nonuse </li></ul><ul><li>Interference - the phenomenon by which information in memory disrupts the recall of other information </li></ul><ul><li>Cue-dependent forgetting - forgetting that occurs when there are insufficient retrieval cues to revive information that is in memory </li></ul>
  26. 27. The Before and After of Forgetting <ul><li>Proactive interference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>interference in which information learned earlier disrupts the recall of newer material </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Retroactive interference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>interference in which there is difficulty in the recall of information learned earlier because of later exposure to different material </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Memory Dysfunctions <ul><li>Alzheimer’s disease </li></ul><ul><li>an illness characterized in part by severe memory problems </li></ul><ul><li>Amnesia </li></ul><ul><li>memory loss that occurs without other mental difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>retrograde amnesia </li></ul><ul><li>in which memory is lost for occurrences prior to a certain event </li></ul><ul><li>anterograde amnesia </li></ul><ul><li>in which memory is lost for events that follow an injury </li></ul>
  28. 29. Improving Memory <ul><li>keyword </li></ul><ul><li>encoding specificity </li></ul><ul><li>organization cues </li></ul><ul><li>effective note taking </li></ul><ul><li>practice and rehearse </li></ul><ul><li>don’t believe claims about drugs that improve memory </li></ul>