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    Memory Memory Presentation Transcript

    • Memory
    • Memory
      • the process by which we encode, store, and retrieve information
      • 3 Basic Processes:
      • Encoding
      • Storage
      • Retrieval
    • Three-System Memory Theory
      • Sensory memory
        • the initial, momentary storage of information, lasting only an instant
        • types are dependent on the source of sensory information (iconic memory, echoic memory)
        • can store information for only a very short time, but its precision is high
        • can be destroyed or replaced with a new one
      • Short - term memory
        • memory that holds information for 15 to 25 seconds
      • Chunk
        • a meaningful grouping of stimuli that can be stored as a unit in short-term memory
        • can be individual letters or numbers, or may consist of larger categories such as words or meaningful units
      • P B S F O X C N N A B C C B S M T V N B C
      • CBS MTV NBC
    • Rehearsal
      • the repetition of information that has entered short-term memory
      • information is maintained in the short-term memory or may transfer into long-term memory
      • Elaborative rehearsal
      • occurs when information is considered and organized in some fashion
      • expanding, linking to another memory, turning to image, transforming to some other way
      • Mnemonics
      • formal techniques for organizing information in a way that makes it more likely to be remembered
    • Working Memory
      • Some theorists view short - term memory as a working memory, in which information is retrieved and manipulated. In this view, it is a central executive processor involved in reasoning and decision-making
      • a set of temporary memory stores that actively manipulate and rehearse information
        • 3 systems
        • visual store (visual and spatial information)
        • verbal store (speech, words, numbers)
        • episodic buffer (episodes or events)
      • It uses significant amount of cognitive resources during its operation. In turn, it makes us less aware of our surrounding.
      • Long - term memory
        • memory that stores information on a relatively permanent basis, although it may be difficult to retrieve
      • Serial position effect
      • the ability to recall information in a list depends on where in the list an item appears
      • primacy effect
      • items presented early in the list are remembered better
      • recency effect
      • items presented late in a list are remembered best
    • Memory Modules
      • Declarative memory
      • memory for factual information
      • Semantic memory
        • for general knowledge and facts about the world as well as memory for the rules of logic that are used infer other facts
      • Episodic memory
        • memory for events that occur in a particular time, place, or context
      • Procedural memory
      • memory for skills and habits
    • Semantic Networks
      • mental representations of clusters of interconnected information
      • Spreading activation
      • activating one memory triggers the activation of related memories
    • Neuroscience of memory
      • Hippocampus
      • aids in the initial encoding of information
      • Cerebral Cortex
      • where information is stored
      • Amygdala
      • involved with memories involving emotion
    • Recalling Long-Term Memory
      • Tip -of-the-tongue phenomenon
      • the inability to recall information that one realizes one knows - a result of the difficulty of retrieving information from long-term memory
      • Retrieval Cue
      • is a stimulus that allows us to recall more easily information that is in long-term memory
      • Recall
      • memory task in which specific information must be retrieved
      • Recognition
      • memory task in which individuals are presented with a stimulus and asked whether they have been exposed to it in the past or to identify it from a list of alternatives
      • What are the names of the seven dwarves in the Disney Movie Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs?
      • Which of the following are the names of the seven dwarves in the Disney Movie Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs?
      • Goofy Bashful
      • Sleepy Sneezy
      • Smarty Happy
      • Scaredy Doc
      • Dopey Crazy
      • Wheezy Donald
    • Levels-of-processing Theory
      • emphasizes the degree to which new material is mentally analyzed
      • the amount of information processing that occurs when material is initially encountered is central in determining how much of the information is ultimately remembered
        • information is processed in physical and sensory aspects
        • translated to meaningful units
        • analyzed in terms of meaning (wider context, associations)
      • the deeper the initial level of processing of information is, the longer the information will be retained
    • Forms of Memory
      • Explicit memory
      • intentional or conscious recollection of information
      • Implicit memory
      • memories of which people are not consciously aware, but which can affect subsequent performance and behavior
        • unclear dislike for an acquaintance
        • prejudice and discrimination
      • Priming
      • a phenomenon in which exposure to a word or concept (prime) later makes it easier to recall related information, even when there is no conscious memory of the word or concept
      • Name the moon of Mars.
      • _ _ obos
    • Flash bulb Memories
      • memories centered on a specific, important, or surprising event that are so vivid it is as if they represented a snapshot of the event
      • memories that are exceptional are more easily retrieved (although not necessarily accurate) than are those relating to events that are commonplace
      • romantic experience, witnessing car accident, first airplane flight
      • Source amnesia
      • when an individual has a memory for some material but cannot recall where he or she encountered it before
    • Constructive Processes
      • processes in which memories are influenced by the meaning we give to events
      • experiences, guesses, inferences affect the memory we produce when we retrieve information
      • Schemas
      • organized bodies of information stored in memory that bias the way new information is interpreted, stored, and recalled
      • are based not only on the specific material to which people are exposed, but also on their understanding of the situation, their expectations, and awareness of motivations of others
      • A basic principle is that some information gets lost during each process. You notice only a small part the world that confronts you; you encode only a small part of what you notice; and you retrieve only part of what was previously stored in your memory.
    • Memory in the Courtroom
      • eyewitness on trial
        • wordings of questions
        • weapons
        • Age
      • repressed memories - recollections of events that are initially shocking that the mind responds by pushing them into the unconscious
      • false memory - inaccurate or even wholly false
        • experience or imagination
    • Autobiographical Memory
      • incompatible with the way in which we currently see ourselves
      • particular periods of life are remembered more easily than others
    • Why We Forget
      • Failure of encoding
      • Decay - loss of information in memory because of nonuse
      • Interference - the phenomenon by which information in memory disrupts the recall of other information
      • Cue-dependent forgetting - forgetting that occurs when there are insufficient retrieval cues to revive information that is in memory
    • The Before and After of Forgetting
      • Proactive interference
        • interference in which information learned earlier disrupts the recall of newer material
      • Retroactive interference
        • interference in which there is difficulty in the recall of information learned earlier because of later exposure to different material
    • Memory Dysfunctions
      • Alzheimer’s disease
      • an illness characterized in part by severe memory problems
      • Amnesia
      • memory loss that occurs without other mental difficulties
      • retrograde amnesia
      • in which memory is lost for occurrences prior to a certain event
      • anterograde amnesia
      • in which memory is lost for events that follow an injury
    • Improving Memory
      • keyword
      • encoding specificity
      • organization cues
      • effective note taking
      • practice and rehearse
      • don’t believe claims about drugs that improve memory