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  1. 1. Learning
  2. 2. Learning refers to any relatively permanent change in behavior which occurs as a result of practice or experience. <ul><li>Learning is a change in behavior, for better or for worse. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a change that takes place through practice or experience. (growth, maturation, injury) </li></ul><ul><li>The change must be relatively permanent. (fatigue, diseases, drugs, hunger, thirst) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Ivan Pavlov </li></ul><ul><li>A type of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to bring about a response after it is paired with a stimulus that naturally brings about that response. </li></ul><ul><li>John Watson - Little Albert </li></ul>
  4. 4. Variables <ul><li>Neutral stimulus - a stimulus that, before conditioning, does not naturally bring about the response of interest </li></ul><ul><li>Unconditioned stimulus - a stimulus that naturally brings about a particular response without having been learned </li></ul><ul><li>Unconditioned response - a response that is natural and needs no training </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioned stimulus - a once-neutral stimulus that has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus to bring about a response formerly caused only by the unconditioned stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioned response - a response that, after conditioning, follows a previously neutral stimulus </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>A. Before conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>NS (bell) Pricking of ears </li></ul><ul><li>US (food) salivation (UR) </li></ul><ul><li>B. During Conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>NS (bell) + US (food) salivation (UR) </li></ul><ul><li>C. After Conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>CS (bell) salivation (CR) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Applying Conditioning Principles to Human Behavior <ul><li>Dentist </li></ul><ul><li>McDonalds </li></ul><ul><li>Phobia - irrational fears </li></ul><ul><li>Posttraumatic Disorders of veterans </li></ul><ul><li>Perfumes </li></ul>
  7. 7. Extinction <ul><li>A basic phenomenon of learning that occurs when a previously conditioned response decreases in frequency and eventually disappears. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: you stop putting coins in a damaged pop machine, stop writing with a pen once runs out of ink, stop texting a friend who never answers, attention to a crying child </li></ul>
  8. 8. Spontaneous Recovery <ul><li>The reemergence of an extinguished conditioned response after a period of rest and with no further conditioning. </li></ul><ul><li>Extinction Burst </li></ul><ul><li>initial increase in the response rate and magnitude or intensity, especially if that response has an emotional or aggressive component </li></ul><ul><li>Example: drug addiction, crying to get attention </li></ul>
  9. 9. Generalization and Discrimination <ul><li>Stimulus generalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>occurs when a conditioned response follows a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus; the more similar the two stimuli are, the more likely generalization is to occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: bell and buzzer, red lights (size, shape, shade) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stimulus discrimination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the process that occurs if two stimuli are sufficiently distinct from one another that one evokes a conditioned response but the other does not; the ability to differentiate between stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: two teachers, growling dog and wagging of tail, smile and frown </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Law of Effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Edward Lee Thorndike </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>puzzle box for a cat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>responses that lead to satisfying consequences are more likely to be repeated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>example, class recitation </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Operant Conditioning <ul><li>BF Skinner </li></ul><ul><li>Skinner Box - learn to obtain food by operating on their environment within the box </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratory rats </li></ul><ul><li>Learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened, depending on its favorable or unfavorable consequences. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Reinforcement: The Central Concept of Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Reinforcement - the process by which a stimulus increases the probability that a preceding behavior will be repeated </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcer - any stimulus that increases the probability that a preceding behavior will occur again </li></ul><ul><li>Primary reinforcer - satisfies some biological needs and works naturally </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary reinforcer - a stimulus that becomes reinforcing because of its association with a primary reinforcer </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Positive Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>reinforcement by the presentation of a reinforcer </li></ul><ul><li>positive reinforcer - a stimulus added that brings about an increase in a preceding response </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>reinforcement by the removal of an aversive condition </li></ul><ul><li>negative reinforcer - unpleasant stimulus whose removal leads to an increase in the probability that a preceding response will be repeated in the future </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>a stimulus that decreases the probability that a prior behavior will occur again </li></ul><ul><li>Positive punishment </li></ul><ul><li>weakens a response through the application of an unpleasant stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Negative punishment (Penalty) </li></ul><ul><li>removal of something pleasant (penalty) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Schedules of Reinforcement <ul><li>refers to the frequency and timing of reinforcement that follows desired behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous reinforcement schedule - reinforcing of a behavior every time it occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Partial (Intermittent) reinforcement schedule - reinforcing of a behavior some but not all of the time </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Behavior that is reinforced occasionally can ultimately be learned better than can behavior that is always reinforced. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning occurs more rapidly under a continuous reinforcement schedules. </li></ul><ul><li>Partial reinforcement schedules maintain performance longer than do continuous reinforcement schedules before extinction. </li></ul>
  17. 17. 2 Categories of Partial Reinforcement Schedules <ul><li>Fixed- and Variable- Ratio Schedules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>schedules that consider the number of responses made before reinforcement is given </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fixed- and Variable- Interval Schedules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>schedules that consider the amount of time that elapses before reinforcement is provided </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Fixed- and Variable- Ratio Schedules <ul><li>Fixed - ratio schedule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a schedule by which reinforcement is given only after a specific number of responses are made </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: garment workers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Variable - ratio schedule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a schedule by which reinforcement occurs after a varying number of responses rather than after a fixed number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: door-to-door salesperson </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Fixed- and Variable- Interval Schedules <ul><li>Fixed - interval schedule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a schedule that provides reinforcement for a response only if a fixed time period has elapsed, making overall rates of response relatively low </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: weekly paycheck, study habit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Variable - interval schedule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a schedule by which the time between reinforcements varies around some average rather than being fixed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: surprise quizzes </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Shaping <ul><li>The process of teaching a complex behavior by rewarding closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: helping a mental hospital resident to speak again, teaching a child with autism to play basketball </li></ul>
  21. 21. Behavior Modification <ul><li>A formalized technique for promoting the frequency of desirable behaviors and decreasing the incidence of unwanted ones. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Punishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extinction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shaping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penalty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior Contracting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Token economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time-out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overcorrection/Flooding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reprimands </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Cognitive Learning Theory <ul><li>An approach to the study of learning that focuses on the thought processes that underlie learning. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Latent Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observational Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insight Learning </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Latent Learning <ul><li>Learning in which a new behavior is acquired but is not demonstrated until some incentive is provided for displaying it. </li></ul><ul><li>It is said to occur but is not shown in behavior immediately, until later, when conditions for its emergence are favorable. </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior of rats in a maze (control and experimental group) </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons in school </li></ul><ul><li>Failures in love </li></ul>
  24. 24. Observational Learning <ul><li>Learning by observing the behavior of another person, or model. </li></ul><ul><li>Albert Bandura </li></ul><ul><li>often referred to as social cognitive approach to learning </li></ul><ul><li>Bobo doll (children and an adult) </li></ul><ul><li>Four processes in Observational Learning: </li></ul><ul><li>Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Retention </li></ul><ul><li>Motor Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul>
  25. 25. Insight Learning <ul><li>Sultan the chimpanzee and the banana </li></ul><ul><li>Wolfgang Kohler </li></ul><ul><li>Sudden appearance of a solution to a problem; AHA experience; restructuring a perceptual world into a new pattern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Catholic man who lived in a small town married twenty different women in that same town. All of them are still living, and he never divorced any of them. Yet he broke no laws. How could she do this? </li></ul></ul>