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  1. 1. Understanding Emotional Experiences
  2. 2. Emotions <ul><li>Feelings that generally have both physiological and cognitive elements and that influence behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in blood pressure and heart rate </li></ul><ul><li>More rapid respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Dilation of the pupil of the eye </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in perspiration </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease in motility of the gastrointestinal tract </li></ul><ul><li>Raising of the skin hairs </li></ul>
  3. 3. Functions of Emotions <ul><li>Preparing us for action. </li></ul><ul><li>Shaping our future behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Helping us interact more effectively with others. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Determining the Range of Emotions: Labeling Our Feelings <ul><li>Love </li></ul><ul><li>Infatuation </li></ul><ul><li>Joy </li></ul><ul><li>Bliss </li></ul><ul><li>Pride </li></ul><ul><li>Anger </li></ul><ul><li>Annoyance </li></ul><ul><li>Hostility </li></ul><ul><li>Jealousy </li></ul><ul><li>Sadness </li></ul><ul><li>Agony </li></ul><ul><li>Grief </li></ul><ul><li>Loneliness </li></ul><ul><li>Fear </li></ul><ul><li>Horror </li></ul><ul><li>Worry </li></ul>
  5. 5. Roots of Emotions
  6. 6. James-Lange Theory <ul><li>The belief that emotional experience is a reaction to bodily events occurring as a result of an external situation. </li></ul><ul><li>For every major emotion there is an accompanying physiological or gut reaction of internal organs – called a visceral experience </li></ul><ul><li>Visceral experience and emotional experience </li></ul><ul><li>“ I feel sad because I am crying.” </li></ul>
  7. 7. Cannon-Bard Theory <ul><li>The belief that both physiological arousal and emotional experience are produced simultaneously by the same nerve stimulus. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Schachter-Singer Theory <ul><li>The belief that emotions are determined jointly by a nonspecific kind of physiological arousal and its interpretation, based on environmental cues. </li></ul><ul><li>When the source of physiological arousal is unclear, we may look to our surroundings to determine just what we are experiencing. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Neuroscience of Emotions <ul><li>Amygdala – provides a link between the perception of an emotion-producing stimulus and the recall of that stimulus later </li></ul>
  10. 10. Do people in all cultures express emotion similarly? <ul><li>Facial-affect program – activation of a set of nerve impulses that make the face display the appropriate expression </li></ul><ul><li>Display rules – guidelines that govern the appropriateness of showing emotion nonverbally </li></ul><ul><li>Facial-feedback hypothesis – the hypothesis that facial expressions not only reflect emotional experience but also help determine how people experience and label emotions </li></ul>
  11. 11. Six Primary Emotions <ul><li>Happiness </li></ul><ul><li>Anger </li></ul><ul><li>Sadness </li></ul><ul><li>Surprise </li></ul><ul><li>Disgust </li></ul><ul><li>Fear </li></ul>
  12. 12. Love Styles (John Lee) <ul><li>Eros is love of appearance. They express frequent appreciation to their beloved of those ideal qualities. </li></ul><ul><li>Storge (Stor-gay) is a slowly developing affection. Love builds with time together. There is little evidence of passion or romance. </li></ul><ul><li>Ludus is love as play or game. They seek many interesting relationships. They have no experience of jealousy and can openly love several partners over the same period of time. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Mania is intense love. Manic lovers are obsessed with their lovers and feel intense jealousy at the threat of loss. </li></ul><ul><li>Pragma is practical love style. A compatible lover is sought, one who is similar in attitudes, interests and beliefs. </li></ul><ul><li>Agape is one-direction, altruistic love. It is a selfless and giving love style, a duty to love even when there are no returns. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Components of Love (Robert Sternberg) <ul><li>Intimacy – close, warm feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Passion – primarily sexual urge or drive to love </li></ul><ul><li>Decision-commitment – is the short-term decision to love and the long-term commitment to maintain the love </li></ul>
  15. 15. Love Types (Sternberg) <ul><li>Liking is having only intimacy, without decision-commitment or passion (true friendship) </li></ul><ul><li>Infatuation comes from having passion without intimacy or decision/commitment. It appears quickly and disappears almost as fast. It is typically not reciprocal. </li></ul><ul><li>Empty love is label for holding the decision/commitment component without intimacy or passion. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Romantic love is a combination of intimacy and passion. There is both liking and physical desire. </li></ul><ul><li>Companionate love combines the decision/commitment and intimacy components. Passion has faded. </li></ul><ul><li>Fatuous love lacks intimacy but has sufficient passion and decision/commitment. Passion is the primary basis for a marriage. </li></ul><ul><li>Consummate love combines all three components. It is the society’s ideal of a love relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of the three components is called nonlove. </li></ul>