Safe structures 
Benoit PARMENTIER 
Head Division Structures 
BBRI (www.bbri.be) 
Engineers Education Needs from the Indus...
BBRI Knowledge system 
(some) BBRI Collaborations 
It is like a PCM (phase changing material)
New generation of 
Societal needs 
Techno logies 
Engineers 
Global competitors 
Safe structures = Basics 
Society wants m...
Digital natives (DN) 
© Prodis
Know where to find the reliable & up-to-date scientific information 
…Infobesity…
Wikipedia : 
> 1 000 000 entries 
> 5000 contributors
Slender 
Lighter 
Complex 
Multi-functional 
(Outsized)
Technology offers new tools for design 
Are DN ready to use it (safely) ? 
Keep FEM learning attractive
Design situations 
Actions 
Combination of Actions 
Effects 
Materials 
Structural behaviour 
Know uncertainties
0 
2 
4 
6 
8 
10 
12 
1982 
2010 
Waregem (2005) 
[We do not design for all situations]… 
Number of Tornadoes in Belgium
[Example : Ponding effect] 
Ponding effect
[Ponding effect]…
Where do the rain go ? 
Should be a design situation ?
Semi-probabilistic approach 
Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS)
p (overload) 
z 
z1 
z2 
qh1(z) 
γd 
ϕ’ 
c’ 
γs at - γw 
qh2(z) 
Watertight structure 
Combination of Actions 
-External 
...
Roissy-T2E (2004, 5 deaths) 
This is partly due to (combination of) thermal effects…
Know the background of safety factors 
Know how to reduce it (safely) 
Reliability differentiation (Consequence Classes – ...
Feel the (behaviour of the) structure 
From the structure… 
…to the element
vs. 
Creativity 
Standardization
Creativity
Standardization > Eurocodes 
©Ney & Partners
Refining the mesh if appropriate ?? 
©BBRI
Fibres with L=60mm and 30kg/m³ 
138 000 
fibres in 1 m³ 
Fibre Reinforced Concrete 
© Benoit Parmentier
X 3 
12 samples 20 kg/m³ same fibre
Master constitutive laws 
Use real case-studies 
Fibre Reinforced Concrete in tension
Anticipate failure mechanisms 
Weakest link
Know solutions for pre-design
Major collapses Learning lessons
Mitigate the risks at lowest costs 
“ 
We should be prepared to be surprised. 
” 
Patrick Lagadec
Master costs Vs. performance
[Recap] 
Feel the structure & material behaviour 
Benefit from calculation power (numerical methods) 
Able to pre-design 
...
BBRI - Lab. Structures 
bp@bbri.be
[Credits] 
#4 http://benoitraphael.com/tag/digital-natives 
#5 http://www.sxc.hu/photo/477966 
#6 http://en.wikipedia.org/...
Safe structures - Education for engineers
Safe structures - Education for engineers
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Safe structures - Education for engineers

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Presentation given at the invitation of the SASICE research group on June 6th 2011 and hosted by the Catholic University of Leuven (KUL).

It gathers some ideas for teaching structural safety and reliability to engineers.

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  • We have different visions due to our collaborations (global view of the sector)Skills specific to different activities and some are common.We are a « PCM » system.
  • 25% of the chinese population with the higher IQ is greater than the population of North America : they have more honor kids than they (we) have kids.Techno : numerical, cloud, communication (digitally), positioning systems, maintenance, lasers, …
  • Créatifs, multi-tâches, mobiles, collaboratifs, interconnectés, habitués à avoir l’info rapidement ; Google has the answer.But are they (civ engineers) always thinking about FEM tools for working with ?
  • 3000 books are published every day but think only about digital medias !They will promptly go to internet to find information (reflex). But what kind of information ? Continuous learning cyles…
  • Wikipedia : 1 111 232 articles and more than 5000 active contributors (2011).135 000 entries en French dictionnaryUp-to-date ? Reliable ? (reflex for DN)
  • Sustainability, back to vernacular architecture ?So high structures (think about Burj Khalifa in Dubai ; between brackets, I heared that the appartements were not promptly sold).
  • 9/10 large projects in civil engineering are calculated now with FEM.DN do not want automatically work with FEM…(paradox)
  • Costs evolution is inversely proportional to Number of occurrences (let’s say average return period)All situations must be considered (not calculated with details)
  • Problems with water discharge systemsSecond order phenomenon/effect
  • From tree leaves
  • 1976 : first version of JCSS report (Bulletin 112)2001 : Last versionGeneration Gap (Elastic method vs. Limit states)
  • Design situationsCombination, history of loading important because rigidity is influenced by cracking.
  • Flights therminal
  • Quality control, people certification, …Concrete quality on site, rebars position, section geometry,….can be checked and reduced safety factors can hence be used.
  • How the forces are transfered (see eg anchors)
  • Around 1950.Creativity is sometimes opposed to standards (think also about soilmixing). Engineers must provide evidence (for clients, control offices,…).Sometimes, codes must be fighted.
  • Companies invest a lot for harmonization support because they sell more products if everybody speaks the same language.+BIM
  • Stress concentrations…better results ?
  • Product development (CLT is a current example but there are plenty of others)Phase duration => know statistics
  • Also : Strain-hardening vs. Strain softening
  • 1981 – Kansas CityQuick design/adaptation > potential problems
  • Japan disasterBeyond codes currently usedRisks assessement => méthode pour coûts
  • RISK assessment, like for natural disastersAlso for geotechnical works (play with partial safety factors if economical benefits).Technical agreements (for reducing safety factors, also for execution), quality control, more tests allow for better characteristic valuesIdem for concrete repair, Certification ? Also for fire design !!
  • Select the good materials. Benefit from other industries developments…Open for non traditionnal materials (or collaborate)
  • Corruption, …
  • Safe structures - Education for engineers

    1. 1. Safe structures Benoit PARMENTIER Head Division Structures BBRI (www.bbri.be) Engineers Education Needs from the Industry
    2. 2. BBRI Knowledge system (some) BBRI Collaborations It is like a PCM (phase changing material)
    3. 3. New generation of Societal needs Techno logies Engineers Global competitors Safe structures = Basics Society wants more… Digital Natives Worldwide Computing Communication …
    4. 4. Digital natives (DN) © Prodis
    5. 5. Know where to find the reliable & up-to-date scientific information …Infobesity…
    6. 6. Wikipedia : > 1 000 000 entries > 5000 contributors
    7. 7. Slender Lighter Complex Multi-functional (Outsized)
    8. 8. Technology offers new tools for design Are DN ready to use it (safely) ? Keep FEM learning attractive
    9. 9. Design situations Actions Combination of Actions Effects Materials Structural behaviour Know uncertainties
    10. 10. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 1982 2010 Waregem (2005) [We do not design for all situations]… Number of Tornadoes in Belgium
    11. 11. [Example : Ponding effect] Ponding effect
    12. 12. [Ponding effect]…
    13. 13. Where do the rain go ? Should be a design situation ?
    14. 14. Semi-probabilistic approach Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS)
    15. 15. p (overload) z z1 z2 qh1(z) γd ϕ’ c’ γs at - γw qh2(z) Watertight structure Combination of Actions -External -Imposed deformations
    16. 16. Roissy-T2E (2004, 5 deaths) This is partly due to (combination of) thermal effects…
    17. 17. Know the background of safety factors Know how to reduce it (safely) Reliability differentiation (Consequence Classes – See Eurocode 0)
    18. 18. Feel the (behaviour of the) structure From the structure… …to the element
    19. 19. vs. Creativity Standardization
    20. 20. Creativity
    21. 21. Standardization > Eurocodes ©Ney & Partners
    22. 22. Refining the mesh if appropriate ?? ©BBRI
    23. 23. Fibres with L=60mm and 30kg/m³ 138 000 fibres in 1 m³ Fibre Reinforced Concrete © Benoit Parmentier
    24. 24. X 3 12 samples 20 kg/m³ same fibre
    25. 25. Master constitutive laws Use real case-studies Fibre Reinforced Concrete in tension
    26. 26. Anticipate failure mechanisms Weakest link
    27. 27. Know solutions for pre-design
    28. 28. Major collapses Learning lessons
    29. 29. Mitigate the risks at lowest costs “ We should be prepared to be surprised. ” Patrick Lagadec
    30. 30. Master costs Vs. performance
    31. 31. [Recap] Feel the structure & material behaviour Benefit from calculation power (numerical methods) Able to pre-design Try to reduce safety factors (if appropriate and safely) Add value for worldwide competition Be prepared for unexpected (beyond probabilistic approaches) Manage ethics Future engineers must… to design (economically) safe structures…
    32. 32. BBRI - Lab. Structures bp@bbri.be
    33. 33. [Credits] #4 http://benoitraphael.com/tag/digital-natives #5 http://www.sxc.hu/photo/477966 #6 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earthquake_engineering #7 Herzog & DeMeuron - http://tinyurl.com/3ww4cbw Ghery & Milunic Unfcccecosingapore - http://tinyurl.com/3maywn3 Contemporist.com - http://tinyurl.com/6beqdt Ney & Partners – Knokke footbridge #8 http://www.scia-online.com #9 http://www.sxc.hu/photo/496498 #10 www.meteo.be #12 S. Wijte #14 S. Wijte #17 Dherte s.a. #18 CTK #20 O. Burdet – EPFL #22 Cement n°4 – 2008 #29 http://www.istockphoto.com/stock-photo-369060-the-weakest-link.php #30 http://www.vermonttimberworks.com/timber-frame.html #33 www.cartoonstock.com

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