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  • 1. Best Practices for Bank Web Site Navigation Best Practices and Methods David Juhlin Peter McNally Bentley University User Experience Center
  • 2. Presentation Overview 2 • Why We Did This Research • Marketing Survey • Tree Testing with a Twist • Guidelines • Creation of our own IA • The Business Case • Appendices (depending on time) www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 3. Why We Did This Research 3 • Main issue for clients • “10% of task attempts failed due to problems in IA” -Jakob Nielsen, April 16, 2009 • Navigation difficulties • • • Structure/grouping of IA (mental model) Labeling (comprehension) Graphic layout (visibility) www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 4. Our Research 4 • Survey • Tree test on three different navigational menus • • • Blue Hills Bank Cambridge Trust Rockland Trust • Used the insight to create our own navigation • User Experience Center Bank (UXC Bank) • Of these banks, which one do you think performed best? www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 5. Marketing Survey
  • 6. The Survey 6 • Question What information is important to find on a bank’s website? • Sampling method • • • Email lists Social media Online classified ads • Response rate • • • 1331 started the survey 1132 completed (85%) 892 cleaned up responses (79%) www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 7. Most important things on a bank website… 7 Percent Respondents Designating Items as "Most Important on a Banking Website When Searching for a New Bank" (Error bars represent 95% confidence interval) 80% 70% Percent 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 8. Tree Testing with a Twist
  • 9. Tree Testing (basic method) 9 Optimal Workshop (www.optimalworkshop.com) • Early usability test of organization and labeling of IA Primary Navigation • http://bentley.optimalworkshop.com/treejack/bank22 • No visual distraction • Task success www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 10. The Three Banks Information Architecture Blue Hills Personal Small Business Commercial Loans Online & Mobile Rates Community 10 Top Level IA Options Cambridge Rockland Personal Banking Business Banking Wealth Management Customer Support About Us Personal Small Business Commercial Investing Planning Tools and Resources Community Focus About Us www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 11. The Three Banks Information Architecture Blue Hills Checking Savings CDs &IRAs Money Market Account Services Financial Calculators 11 Navigation Within Personal Cambridge Rockland Checking Savings, CDs, IRAs Online Banking Mobile Banking Mortgages Home Equity Credit Cards Personal Loans More Services Overview Online Banking* Mobile Banking* mDeposit* Checking* Debit Cards Savings, CDs & IRAs* Overdraft Options* Mortgages* Home Equity Personal & Auto Loans Investing Insurance Other Products & Services* *Items had a third level www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 12. 12 Items on Each Level Impact of Information Architecture Size Number of Levels www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 13. Task Selection 13 Percent Respondents Designating Items as "Most Important on a Banking Website" (Error bars represent 95% confidence interval) 80% - Supported 60% Percent 70% - Not Supported 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Item www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 14. TreeJack 14 • Implemented tasks and IAs • Tested the phrasing/wording of the tasks • Between subjects design (one IA per participant) • Sampling method • • • Email lists Social media Online classified ads • Participation rates • • • 700 (213, 232, 255) Started the test 595 (178, 209, 208) Completed 85% (84%, 90%, 82%) 440 (134, 167, 139) Cleaned up resp. 74% (75%, 80%, 67%) www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 15. Success Rate Tasks Fees Online Banking Interest Rates Card Options Mobile Apps Branch Hours Open an Account Online Overdraft Protection Bank Size Compare Bank Accounts Offers Financial Services Mortgage/Loan Availability Average Success 15 Success rate Blue Hills Cambridge Rockland 77% 99% 58% 65% 93% 4% 63% 20% 1% 61% 43% 94% 57% 87% 81% 98% 84% 75% 84% 23% 7% 90% 80% 57% 90% 71% 25% 94% 68% 77% 82% 68% 18% 51% 2% 77% 73% 68% 59% www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 16. Survey Result 16 Percent Respondents Designating Items as "Most Important on a Banking Website" (Error bars represent 95% confidence interval) 80% 70% Percent 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Item www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 17. Average Success Rate Top 5 Tasks Fees Online Banking Interest Rates Card Options Mobile Apps Average success 17 Success rate Blue Hills Cambridge Rockland 77% 99% 58% 65% 93% 87% 81% 98% 84% 75% 25% 94% 68% 77% 82% 78% 85% 69% www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 18. Weighting 18 • Weighting formula • • 𝑾𝒆𝒊𝒈𝒉𝒕𝒆𝒅 𝒔𝒄𝒐𝒓𝒆 = 𝑰𝒎𝒑𝒐𝒓𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒄𝒆 × 𝑺𝒖𝒄𝒄𝒆𝒔𝒔 More important tasks are valued higher than less important tasks • Some tasks are more important than others • Based on customers goals (what we did) • Alternative approach • • Based on business value Combination of business value and customer goals www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 19. Weighted Success Rate Tasks Original average score Top 5 average Score Weighted Average Score 19 Weighted success rate Blue Hills Cambridge Rockland 57% 78% 68% 71% 85% 78% 59% 69% 59% www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 20. Guidelines
  • 21. Guidelines 21 1. Replicate some pages/sections (or crosslink) • • • Retirement account information is beneficial to include under both ‘Personal’ and ‘Investing’ Overdraft Options (‘Checking’-> ‘Overview’, ‘Compare Accounts’, ‘Rates & Fees’) Replicate ‘Open an a Account Online‘ at multiple places and make sure it’s in close proximity to ‘Enroll in Online Banking’ www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 22. Data from Treejack 22 Task 11: Where do you expect to learn whether a bank offers services to help you manage your retirement accounts? Visited first Cambridge Personal Banking Business Banking Wealth Management Customer Support About Us Rockland Personal Small Business Commercial Investing Planning Tools and Resources Community Focus About Us Visited first Visited first 37% 2% 57% 4% 1% Visited first 34% 1% 31% 35% Visited during 53% 10% 74% 7% 3% Visited during 38% 1% 1% 40% 45% www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 23. Guidelines 23 2. Don’t use vague terms • • • • ‘Account Services’ ‘Facts at a Glance’ (under ‘About Us’) ‘Other Products and Services’ ‘Planning Tools & Resources’ 3. Be careful of misleading terms • ‘Rates’ Vs. ‘Fees’ www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 24. Guidelines 24 4. Group items at the right level • • • Structure ‘Rates’ under ‘Personal’ and ‘Business’ instead of as an option on the first level (and name it ‘Rates & Fees’) ‘Online & Mobile’ should be structured as an option on the first level ‘Credit/Debit Cards’ can preferably be structured under ‘personal’ and ‘business’ www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 25. Guidelines 25 5. Chunking matters • It is better to have an IA with more levels than a shallow IA with many options on each level. Users will find it as long as it is a clear logic path. (Don’t take it too far) www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 26. Creation of Our IA
  • 27. Creation of our IA 27 • Copied and combined good parts from the other IAs • Compromises based on importance level • Implemented our insight and modified accordingly Blue Hills Personal Small Business Commercial Loans Online & Mobile Rates Community 51 items Top Level IA Options Cambridge Rockland Personal Banking Business Banking Wealth Management Customer Support About Us 53 items Personal Small Business Commercial Investing Planning Tools and Resources Community Focus About Us 220 items UXC Personal Small Business Online & Mobile Investing About Us Customer Service 150 items www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 28. The Information Architecture 28 Navigation Within Personal Blue Hills Checking Savings CDs &IRAs Money Market Account Services Financial Calculators Cambridge Checking Savings, CDs, IRAs Online Banking Mobile Banking Mortgages Home Equity Credit Cards Personal Loans More Services Rockland Overview Online Banking* Mobile Banking* mDeposit* Checking* Debit Cards Savings, CDs & IRAs* Overdraft Options* Mortgages* Home Equity Personal & Auto Loans Investing Insurance UXC Checking* Savings, CDs, IRAs* Credit Cards* Loans** Retirement* Membership Rewards Other Products & Services* *Items had a third level **Item had a forth level www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 29. TreeJack 29 • Replicated the same test with our IA • • Same tasks Did not retest the other IAs • Slightly changed sampling method • • • Avoid learning bias Mechanical Turk Craigslist • Participation Rates • • • 210 Started the test 189 Completed (90%) 154 Cleaned up (81%) www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 30. The result Tasks Fees Online Banking Interest Rates Card Options Mobile Apps Branch Hours Open an Account Online Overdraft Protection Bank Size Compare Bank Accounts Offers Financial Services Mortgage/Loan Availability Average Success 30 Blue Hills 77% 99% 58% 65% 93% 4% 63% 20% 1% 61% 43% 94% 57% Success rate Cambridge Rockland 87% 81% 98% 84% 75% 84% 23% 7% 90% 80% 57% 90% 71% 25% 94% 68% 77% 82% 68% 18% 51% 2% 77% 73% 68% 59% UXC 90% 94% 90% 85% 97% 86% 76% 81% 88% 84% 94% 91% 88% www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 31. Average Success Rate Top 5 Tasks Fees Online Banking Interest Rates Card Options Mobile Apps Average success Blue Hills 31 Success rate Cambridge Rockland UXC 77% 99% 58% 65% 93% 87% 81% 98% 84% 75% 25% 94% 68% 77% 82% 90% 94% 90% 85% 97% 78% 85% 69% 91% www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 32. Weighted Success Rate Tasks Original average score Top 5 average Score Weighted Average Score 32 Weighted success rate Blue Hills Cambridge Rockland 57% 78% 68% 71% 85% 78% 59% 69% 59% UXC 88% 91% 89% www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 33. The Replication 33 Task 11: Where do you expect to learn whether a bank offers services to help you manage your retirement accounts? Personal Checking Savings, CDs, IRAs Credit Cards Loans UXC Bank Personal Small Business Online & Mobile Investing About Us Customer Service Visited first 59% 1% 1% 36% 1% 2% Visited during 61% 1% 1% 36% 1% 2% Retirement Membership Rewards Investing Overview Rates & Fees Personal Retirement Business Retirement Personal Wealth Management Institutional Investment Management Fiduciary Services Trust Administration Newsletters Investment Offices Our Team www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 34. The Business Case
  • 35. Calculations 35 • Total revenue from the website • life time value/customer × amount of customers from site $140 × 10,000= $1,400,000 • An improved website provides more customers • Original number of customers + increase of customers 10,000+1,000=11,000 • Total increased revenue over the websites life time • life time value/customer × Increased amount of customers $140 × 1,000=$140,000 www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 36. Calculations 36 • Increased amount of customers Prospects Bank Website New Customers $ 𝑁𝑒𝑤 𝐶𝑢𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑟𝑠 Conversion rate = 𝑃𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑠 Lost prospects • New customers from improvement • Prospects × conversion rate × improvement of conversion 500,000 × 0.02 × 0.05 = 500 www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 37. Calculations 37 • Total increased value becomes • Prospects×Conversion×Improvement×Customer Value • Estimates (over the website’s design’s lifetime) • • • • Number of prospects: 500,000 Old conversion rate: 2% Improvement: 5% (new conversion rate: 2.1%) Average customer lifetime value: $140 • Total increased value • 500,000 × 0.02 × 0.05× $140 = $70,000 www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 38. Calculations 38 • Return of investment • ROI = 𝑮𝒂𝒊𝒏 𝒐𝒇 𝒊𝒏𝒗𝒆𝒔𝒕𝒎𝒆𝒏𝒕−𝑪𝒐𝒔𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝑰𝒏𝒗𝒆𝒔𝒕𝒎𝒆𝒏𝒕 𝑪𝒐𝒔𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝑰𝒏𝒗𝒆𝒔𝒕𝒎𝒆𝒏𝒕 • Estimates • • Gain of investment: $70,000 Cost of investment: $30,000 • Return of investment • ROI = $𝟕𝟎,𝟎𝟎𝟎−$𝟑𝟎,𝟎𝟎𝟎 $𝟑𝟎,𝟎𝟎𝟎 = 133% www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 39. Other Considerations 39 • Market share gains • Competitors loose • Late discovery of problems • • • Late development changes - “You can use an eraser on the drafting table or a sledgehammer on the construction site.” – Frank Lloyd Wright Project delay Might still need additional research to identify a better IA • May have to choose • Expensive change vs. under preforming site www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 40. Other Type Of Calculations 40 • Intranet • • • Employee productivity Training time Cost of not finding the information • Ecommerce site • • • Conversion rates Higher profit/purchase Returning customers • Support site • • Decreased support calls Increased customer satisfaction www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 41. Your Project 41 • Create a business case • • • Varies for industries and type of site Ballpark increase of task success: 5% Not the same as increased conversion rate www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 42. Appendices
  • 43. Demographics – Age Distribution 43 Age Distribution of Study Respondents 70% 60% Percent 50% Survey 40% Blue Hills 30% Cambridge Rockland 20% UXC 10% 0% 18-25 26-34 35-54 55-64 65 or over Age www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 44. Success Rate – Age Groups 44 Success Rate by Age Group 100% 90% 80% 70% Success Rate 60% 18-25 26-34 50% 35-54 55-64 40% 65 or over 30% 20% 10% 0% Blue Hills Cambridge Rockland UXC www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 45. Demographics – Income Distribution 45 Income Distribution of Study Respondents 35% 30% Percent 25% 20% Survey Blue Hills 15% Cambridge Rockland 10% UXC 5% 0% $0-$15,000 $16,000 – $30,000 $31,000 – $50,000 $51,000 – $74,000 $75,000 – $150,000 More than $150,000 Prefer not to answer Income www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 46. Success Rate – Income Groups 46 Success Rate by Income 100% 90% 80% 70% $0-$15,000 Success Rate 60% $16,000 – $30,000 $31,000 – $50,000 50% $51,000 – $74,000 $75,000 – $150,000 40% More than $150,000 Prefer Not to Answer 30% 20% 10% 0% Bluehills Cambridge Rockland UXC www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 47. Mechanical Turk vs. Craig’s List 47 Success Rate by Participant Source 100% 90% 80% Success Rate 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Craig's List Mechanical Turk Participant Source www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 48. Mechanical Turk vs. Craig’s List 48 • Number of cheating participants • • Mechanical Turk: 18 of 116 (15%) Craig’s List: 16 of 67 (24%) • Cost per completion • • Mechanical Turk: $0.5 Craig’s List: $1 • Issues with Craig’s list www.bentley.edu/uxc | djuhlin@bentley.edu | 781-891-3142 pmcnally@bentley.edu | 781-891-2893
  • 49. Thank you! Questions? David Juhlin Usability Consultant Bentley University User Experience Center djuhlin@bentley.edu 781-891-3142 Peter McNally Senior Usability Consultant Bentley University User Experience Center pmcnally@bentley.edu 781-891-2893