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  • 1. @ MacRitchieName:Class:
  • 2. ContentsIntroduction 1History of MacRitchie 2Navigate MacRitchie 3Features of MacRitchie 5Water Watch 7Biodiversity – Plants 9Biodiversity – Mammals 10Biodiversity – Reptiles 11Biodiversity – Insects 12Biodiversity – Birds 13Biodiversity - Others 14Rate the Impact 15Importance of MacRitchie 17Reflections 18My Notes 19 © Project BOLE 2011
  • 3. IntroductionWhat comes to your mind when you think of Biodiversity?Giraffes and elephants on the African Plains? Penguins andseals of the Antarctic Ocean? Do you know that there are alsosome amazing animals and plants in Singapore beyond thezoo? Today, you would be experiencing Singapore’s naturalheritage firsthand at our first reservoir, MacRitchie Reservoir. What you would learn about today? History and Quality and Features of Importance of MacRitchie Water BOLE Biodiversity and Human ImpactConservation on MacRitchie 1
  • 4. History of MacRitchie • J. T. Thomson proposed theBefore construction of a reservoir 1867 • Funds were brought in • Reservoir was completed • Called Impounding Reservoir1867 • Renamed Thomson Road Reservoir later • Supporting pumps and distributing network1877 completed • Reservoir expanded • Project supervised by Municipal EngineerEarly James MacRitchie1890s • Reservoir later renamed MacRitchie Reservoir to recognize his contributionsWhy do you think the reservoir had to be expanded in theearly 1890s?(Hint: As the years past, what happened to the number ofpeople in Singapore?) 2
  • 5. Navigate MacRitchie Which one is MacRitchie? NWhat does the shape of MacRitchie look like to you? 3
  • 6. Navigate MacRitchieThis would be where we would betrekking for the nature trail lateron. We would start at PrunusTrail, going on to Petai, then wewould turn back after a rest atPetai Hut. 4
  • 7. Features of MacRitchie Forest Reserve The reserve is home to more than 500 fauna species and countless flora species and covers an area of about 3043 hectares.The ReservoirConstructed in 1867, it contributedto Singapore’s water supply with itswater’s cleanliness maintainedthrough biofiltration, where theforest cleanses the water. Dam and Draw-off Tower Impound and retain water within its structure, and collect water. 5
  • 8. Features of MacRitchieBoardwalkServes as a non-destructivefootpath to the forestreserve, and brings visitorscloser to nature. Amenities Centre Serves as an information to house information about MacRitchie, also contains a café for visitors to meet up with one another and catch up over a meal of coffee Public Recreation Facilities Includes fishing areas, kayak lanes, fitness stations and more for the public to promote public recreation there. 6
  • 9. Water Watch What is the water quality like in MacRitchie Reservoir? Let’s use some water monitoring methods to find out. Since pure potable (drinkable) water has no smell,SMELL the smell of the collected water will tell you if it’s polluted. For example, if you smell oil, there might have been an oil spill. What do you smell? What can you see? CONCLUSION Since pure potable water is colourless, the colour ofCOLOUR the water can tell us if there are bacteria, pollutants or algae in the water. Note that coloured water does not necessarily mean pollution. What is the colour? CONCLUSION  Murky Brown  Clear and Green  Clear and Brown  Murky Black/Grey Clarity is the level of murkiness in the water,CLARITY OF how clear is the water, which affects the amount of sunlight passing through it, whichWATER would affect the growth of aquatic plants. Which is the faintest number you can CONCLUSION on the turbidity disc? 1 2 3 4 5 7
  • 10. Temperature changes with theTEMPERATURE weather and depth. Different temperature support different types of organisms.What is the temperature of the CONCLUSIONwater? ________ oc Other indicators of water quality includeOTHERINDICATORS pH The level of acidity of the water. If water is too acidic (like lemons or vinegar) or tooAdditional alkaline (like soap or bleach), fishes willInformation die. Dissolved oxygen The amount of oxygen in the water. If the amount of oxygen is too low, fishes will die. 4 milligrams per liter (4mg/l) is the minimum amount of oxygen needed to support fish life.CONCLUSION:Overall Water Quality is Generally Good Poor Cannot conclude 8
  • 11. Plants Silent but nonetheless amazing Characteristics: _______________________Tembusu _______________________Tree _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ Rattan Did you know: Our native rattan has the longest stem of all plants.SingaporeRhododendron Golden Hairy FigFan Palm Hydrilla 9
  • 12. Mammals Conquerors of the land, sea and sky Characteristics: ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ Colugo ______________________ Plantain ______________________ Squirrel ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ Did you know: Two mammalian speciesCommon called monotremes layPalm Civet eggs. Can you name them? Slender Squirrel Long-tailed Macaque Sunda Pangolin 10
  • 13. Reptiles Rulers of the Dry Characteristics: _____________________ _____________________ Changeable _____________________ Lizard _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ Common Flying Did you know: Dragon Reptiles evolved from amphibians, and the first reptile was Hylonomus.Oriental Whip CloudedSnake Monitor Green Crested LizardCommon SunSkink Malayan Water Monitor Red-eared Slider 11
  • 14. Insects Small in size, gigantic in variety Characteristics: _____________________ Malayan Carpenter Bee Eggfly _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ Did you know: Beetles are the most diverse organisms of all, Common PosyMicropezid with over 350000 species ButterflyFly identified so far. Common Forest Cricket Red Darter Dragonfly Common Blue Sprite Damselfly 12
  • 15. Birds Masters of the Skies Characteristics:White-throated White-bellied Sea ________________Kingfisher Eagle ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ Did you know: Singapore’s national GreaterCollared bird is the Crimson Racket-tailedKingfisher Sunbird, not the Drongo hummingbird. Common Striped Tit BabblerMagpie Robin White-breasted Waterhen Little Heron 13
  • 16. Others Still more … Did you know: Common Tree While there are estimated to be over 1.5 Frog million species of fungi, we only know about 0.075 million up to 2010. There’s still so much more to learn and discover about Biodiversity. Red Millipede Fungi Common Striped ScorpionField Frog Pond Wolf Javanese Ricefish Spider 14
  • 17. Rate the Impact Human Activities in the Reserve impact the environment in one way or another. Observe the human activities at MacRitchie Reservoir and determine their impacts, and whether they are good or bad to the environment.Visitors Impacts Why?Canoeists  Positive  Negative  DependsJoggers  Positive  Negative  DependsFishermen  Positive  Negative  Depends 15
  • 18. Rate the ImpactOthers Impacts Why?Overall Rating of How does humanHuman impact on activity affect the waterMacRitchie Reservoir and Biodiversity? High Low Cannot Conclude___________________________________________________ 16
  • 19. Importance of MacRitchie Reservoir Why is this beautiful nature sanctuary so important to us? Environment (Ecology)Water People(Hydrology) (Community) What can you do to ensure that MacRitchie remains healthy? 17
  • 20. Reflections What have you learnt through this programme? What can you do to conserve Biodiversity and water?How can you and your What can you and yourfriends do to help keep family do at home toour nature reserves clean? conserve water?What can you do to conserve Biodiversity? 18
  • 21. MY NOTES___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 19
  • 22. BibliographyMicrosoft ClipArtPage 3 MacRitchie Map - Running Alck http://www.alck.org/blog/?p=907Page 6 Amenities Centre – Urban Forest http://uforest.blogspot.com/2010_09_01_archive.htmlPage 6 Boardwalk – Panoramio http://www.panoramio.com/photo/31371421Page 6 Kayaking – A Walk across the Giant http://hikethegiant.blogspot.com/2011/02/macritchie- reservoir-park-singapore.htmlPage 10 Colugo – National Parks http://www.nparks.gov.sg/cms/gallery2/main.php?g2_itemId=1908Page 10 Common Palm Civet – Blue Planet Biomes http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/common_palm_civet.htmPage 10 Plantain Squirrel - Into the Wild http://intothewildsingapore.blogspot.com/2010/08/plantain- squirrel.htmlPage 10 Slender Squirrel, Page 14 Javanese Ricefish - Ecology Asia http://www.ecologyasia.com/Page 10 Sunda Pangolin – Mongabay http://news.mongabay.com/2008/1015-hance_pangolin.htmlPage 11 Oriental Whip Snake – flickriver http://www.flickriver.com/photos/indulgences/3230745151/Page 11 Green Crested Lizard - The Tide Chaser http://tidechaser.blogspot.com/2010/03/another-great- trip-at-sungei-buloh-14.htmlPage 11 Common Flying Dragon, Page 14 Field Frog – Wildlife Singapore http://www.wildsingapore.per.sg/Page 12 Carpenter Bee – Narragansett Pest Control http://narragansettpestcontrol.com/?page_id=100Page 12 Common Blue Sprite Dragonfly – Nature Photography http://sayhitoant.blogspot.com/2009_02_01_archive.htmlPage 12 Malayan Eggfly – Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/limwy/4869531680/Page 13 White-throated Kingfisher – Oriental Bird Images http://orientalbirdimages.org/photographers.php?p=127&action=birderimages&Bird_Image_ID=232 52&Birder_ID=511Page 13 Collared Kingfisher – Dig Deep http://digdeep1962.blogspot.com/2009/04/27th-march-2009- kapar-power-station.htmlPage 13 White-breasted Waterhen – Birds of India http://www.kolkatabirds.com/cranes.htmPage 13 Little Heron – Journey into the World of Birding http://yadz76.blogspot.com/2009_04_01_archive.htmlPage 13 Common Striped-tit Babbler – Nature Pixels http://www.naturepixels.org/blog/Page 13 Greater Racket-tailed Drongo – Animal Photo Album http://www.animalpicturesarchive.com/view.php?tid=3&did=27456Page 13 White-bellied Sea Eagle – The Birds of Singapore http://singaporebirds.net/npassers_04/white- bellied_sea_eagle.htmlPage 14 Common Tree Frog – Creatures of the Wild http://praying-mantis101.blogspot.com/2009/04/four- lined-tree-frog.htmlPage 14 Red Millipede – Sg Wild Animals http://sgwildanimals.fortunecity.com/arthropods/millipedes.htmlPage 14 Common Striped Scorpion – Scorpions in Singapore http://members.tripod.com/c_kianwee/local.htmPage 14 Pond Wolf Spider – Filickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/allanlee/2770221546/Background – Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:River_in_the_Amazon_rainforest.jpg
  • 23. Acknowledgements National Parks Board Hwa Chong InstitutionActive, Beautiful, Clean Waters for All Learning Trail @MacRitchie Lower Secondary Activity Booklet Public Utilities Board – the national water agencyAll External Sources of Photographs and Information These pictures are only used for education and not commercial purposes. All the other pictures belong to Project BOLE. Project BOLE Biodiversity Outdoor Learning Experience http://www.wix.com/projectbole/projectbole
  • 24. About BOLEThe literal meaning of the word ‘Bole’ in the dictionarywould be the trunk of a tree. However, in the context of ourprogramme, it stands for “Biodiversity Outdoor LearningExperience”.Why BOLE?Biodiversity is about all life under the Sun, as well as acrucial topic in the current Primary 3 Science curriculum.However, students are taught this topic mostly through thetraditional textbook-style of learning within the limitationsand restrictions of the school compound, and very fewinteraction chances with any sort of biodiversity. Also, manystudents are unaware of the rich biodiversity we have herein Singapore. With rapid urbanization and technologicaladvancements of this small and concentrated businesscentre, many assume that the only “Biodiversity” we own isin the zoos. Through BOLE, students can learn aboutBiodiversity through experiential learning and activities withrelevance to their curriculum, and at the same time beinformed of Singapore’s natural heritage and spread theword of conservation. Project BOLE Hwa Chong Institution