s the authority granted by a constituency to act as itsrepresentativehe concept of a government having a legitimate mandate togovern via the fair winning of a democratic election is a centralidea of democracy.ew governments who attempt to introduce policies that theydid not make public during an election campaign are said to nothave a legitimate mandate to implement such policies.
n international law, a mandate is a binding obligationissued from an inter-governmental organization (e.g.the United Nations) to a country which is bound tofollow the instructions of the organization.n Christian theology, a mandate is an order given fromGod that must be obeyed without question.
he Mandate of Heaven is based on four leading ideas: The right to rule is granted by Heaven. There can be only one legitimate ruler. The right to rule is based on the virtue of the ruler and his good performance as a steward for Heaven. The right to rule may be passed down from father to son, but only on the conditions established above. Once the Mandate is lost, the will of Heaven towards a successor will only be known by the working out of the imponderable force of events in human history.
t asserts that a monarch is subject to no earthlyauthority, deriving his right to rule directly from thewill of Godhe king is thus not subject to the will of his people,the aristocracy, or any other estate of the realm,including the Churchnly God can judge an unjust king
ny attempt to depose the king or to restrict his powersruns contrary to the will of God and may constitute asacrilegious act
efined as the supreme power of the state to command andenforce obedience to its will from people within itsjurisdiction and corollarily, to have freedom from foreigncontrol.t implies the supreme authority to govern. As the State inwhom sovereignty resides, the people have the right toconstitute their own government, to change it, and todefine its jurisdiction and powers.
t is also the quality of having supreme, independentauthority over a geographic area, such as a territoryn international law, sovereignty means that agovernment possesses full control over affairs within aterritorial or geographical area or limit
e jure or legal sovereignty concerns the expressed andinstitutionally recognized right to exercise control over a territory.e facto or actual sovereigntyis the ability to carry out various functions of the state and isconcerned with whether control in fact existshen control is practiced predominately by military or police force it isconsidered coercive sovereignty
nternal sovereignty is the relationship between a sovereign power and its own subjects. A central concern is legitimacy: by what right does a government exercise authority A state that has internal sovereignty is one with a government that has been elected by the people and has the popular legitimacy examines the internal affairs of a state and how it operates
t is important to have strong internal sovereignty inrelation to keeping order and peacehe presence of a strong authority allows you to keepagreement and enforce sanctions for the violation oflaws
xternal sovereignty concerns the relationship between a sovereign power and other states. is in line with questions of international law, such as: when, if ever, is intervention by one country onto anothers territory permissible May be recognized even when the sovereign body possesses no territory or its territory is under partial or total occupation by another power.
hared Sovereignty the office of the head of state can be vested jointly in several persons within a state, the sovereign jurisdiction over a single political territory can be shared jointly by two or more consenting powers, notably in the form of a condominium. A small area on the Arabian Peninsula is jointly ruled by Oman and the Emirati member state of Ajman. The Moselle River, and its tributaries the Sauer and the Our, comprise a condominium between Luxembourg and Germany, who share bridges and at least the tip of one island (near Schengen). Egypt from 1876-1882, under France and the United Kingdom
ederation In a federal system of government, sovereignty also refers to powers which a constituent state or republic possesses independently of the national government In a confederation constituent entities retain the right to withdraw from the national body, but in a federation member states or republics do not hold that right
Different interpretations of state sovereignty in the United States ofAmerica, as it related to the expansion of slavery and Fugitive slavelaws, led to the outbreak of the American Civil War.Depending on the particular issue, sometimes the North and othertimes the South justified their political positions by appealing tostate sovereignty. Fearing that slavery would be threatened byfederal election results, eleven states declared their independencefrom the federal Union and formed a new confederation. The UnitedStates government rejected the secessions as rebellion, declaringthat secession from the Union by an individual state wasunconstitutional, as the states were part of an indissolvablefederation.
. South Carolina2. Mississippi3. Florida4. Alabama. Georgia6. Louisiana
ystem of laws, regulatory measures, courses ofaction, and funding priorities concerning a given topicpromulgated by a governmental entity or itsrepresentativess commonly embodied in constitutions, legislativeacts, and judicial decisions.
ublic policy is a purposive and consistent course ofaction produced as a response to a perceived problemof a constituency, formulated by a specific politicalprocess, and adopted, implemented, and enforced bya public agency.
econciling conflicting claims for scarce resourcesEncouraging or fostering cooperation that wouldprobably not occur without government influence orencouragementProhibiting morally unacceptable behaviorProtecting the rights of individualsroviding direct benefits to citizens
) Public Policies are goal oriented. Public policies are formulated and implemented in order to attain the objectives which the government has in view for the ultimate benefit of the masses in general. These policies clearly spell out the programs of government.) Public policy is the outcome of the governments collective actions. It means that it is a pattern or course of activity or the governmental officials and actors in a collective sense than being termed as their discrete and segregated decisions.
) Public policy is what the government actually decides or chooses to do. It is the relationship of the government units to the specific field of political environment in a given administrative system. It can take a variety of forms like law, ordinances, court decisions, executive orders, decisions etc.) Public policy is positive it depicts the concern of the government and involves its action to a particular problem on which the policy is made. It has the sanction of law and authority behind it. Negatively, it involves decisions by the governmental officials regarding not taking any action on a particular issue.
re analytical tools for understanding, explaining, andmaking predictions about a given subject matteray be expressed mathematically, symbolically, or incommon language, but are generally expected tofollow principles of rational thought or logic.
CLASSICAL ORGANIZATION THEORY Scientific Management approach Webers Bureaucratic approach Administrative theory
• NEOCLASSICAL THEORY• MODERN ORGANIZATION THEORY Systems approach Socio-technical approach Contingency or Situational approach
aylors principles of scientific management Science, not rule-of-thumb; Scientific selection of the worker Management and labour cooperation rather than conflict Scientific training of workers
ayols principles of management: Administrative theoryivision of work (specialization)uthority and responsibilityisciplinenity of commandnity of directionubordination of individual interestemuneration of personnelentralizationcalar chainrderquity
rinciples of the neoclassical approach INDIVIDUAL WORK GROUP PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT
haracteristics of modern approaches to theorganization Systems viewpoint Dynamic process of interaction Multi-levelled and multidimensional Multi-motivated Probabilistic Multidisciplinary Descriptive Multivariable Adaptive
Modern approaches to organization: The systems approach COMPONENTS The individual The formal and informal organization Patterns of behavior Role perception The physical environment LINKING PROCESSES Communication Balance Decision analysis GOALS OF ORGANIZATION Growth Stability Interaction
philosophical and theoretical framework of ascientific school or discipline within which theories,laws, and generalizations and the experimentsperformed in support of them are formulatedefers to the set of practices that define a scientificdiscipline at any particular period of time.
homas Kuhn defines a scientific paradigm as: "universallyrecognized scientific achievements that, for a time, providemodel problems and solutions for a community ofresearchers", i.e., what is to be observed and scrutinized the kind of questions that are supposed to be asked and probed for answers in relation to this subject how these questions are to be structured how the results of scientific investigations should be interpreted how is an experiment to be conducted, and what equipment is available to conduct the experiment.
s early as the 14th Century theItalian poet Dante wrote of the“universality of man” andenvisioned a unified world statemmanuel Kant argued that doinggood was an end unto itself ratherthan a means to some other end
ope to minimize conflict and maximize cooperationamong nationsocus attention on legal-formal aspects of internationalrelations, such as international law and internationalorganizationslso focus on moral concerns such as human rights
hile realists are just as interested as idealists in conflictmanagement, realists are less optimistic about theeffectiveness of international law and organization andabout the extent of international cooperation that ispossibleealists view international relations almost exclusively as a“struggle for power” among competing nation-states States, like human beings, have an innate desire to dominate others
he ultimate goal of all countries is security in a hostile,anarchic environmentealist policies are determined by power calculations inpursuit of national security Countries satisfied with their situation tend to pursue the status quo Countries that are dissatisfied tend to be expansionist Alliances are made and broken based on the requirements of “realpolitik”
ealists focus on military strategy, the elements ofnational power, and the nature of national interestsmore so than international law and organizationrom WWII they learned that the way to prevent futurewars was a “balance of power” capable of deterringwould-be aggressors or on a “concert of powers”willing to police the world
n the 16th Century Machiavelli had arguedin The Prince that: “it is far better to be feared than loved” “he ought not to quit good courses if he can help it, but should know how to follow evil courses if he must” “he will prosper most whose mode of acting best adapts itself to the character of the times; and conversely that he will be unprosperous, with whose mode of acting the times do not accord”
ans Morgenthau is considered thefather of realism Wrote Politics Among Nations in 1948 Stressed the virtues of the classical, multipolar, balance of power system and saw the bipolar rivalry between the US and the USSR as especially dangerous
he realist paradigm was very popular duringthe Cold War The US and the USSR competed in everything Military Economics Space race Olympics Alliances
homas Hobbes Wrote the book Leviathan and said that “Man by nature is aggressive and greedy” He espoused also that “might makes right and the weak are victimized”
iberalism (from the Latin liberalis) is a political ideology orworldview founded on ideas of liberty and equalityiberals espouse a wide array of views depending on theirunderstanding of these principles, but generally liberalssupport ideas such as free markets, constitutionalism, liberaldemocracy, free and fair elections, human rights and the freeexercise of religion.
reedom of speechnatural rights- Life- not under anyone Liberty- freedom to do things Property- freedom to own thingsgainst absolute power
eveloped during the enlightenment periodohn Lockerose during French revolution
• John Locke - developer of political liberalismdam Smith – developer of free trade market(economic liberalism)ree market- government can’t interfere withthe market’s good price
rench revolution Changes of government American revolution Decoration of Independence for America
iberalism first became a powerful force in the Age ofEnlightenment, rejecting several foundationalassumptions that dominated most earlier theories ofgovernment, such as nobility, established religion,absolute monarchy, and the Divine Right of Kings.
s any ideology or political act far outside theperceived political center of a society; orotherwise claimed to violate common moralstandardsn democratic societies, individuals or groupsthat advocate the replacement ofdemocracy with an authoritarian regime areusually considered to be extremists
olitical agendas perceived as extremist often includethose from the far left or far right as well asfundamentalism or fanaticism.erm may also sometimes be associated with person(s)who have different view(s) which is not consistentwith the existing norm(s)
t need not necessarily imply that the person is a threatto the society or the government or any other agency,but the underlying fact is that there is a totally newand unique perception of the person about life,politics or any other agenda.
s an economic and sociopolitical worldview and methodof socioeconomic inquiry centered upon a materialistinterpretation of history, a dialectical view of socialchange, and an analysis–critique of the development ofcapitalism.n the early-to-mid 19th century, the intellectualdevelopment of Marxism was pioneered by two Germanphilosophers, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
s an ideology, Marxism encompasses an economictheory, a sociological theory, and a revolutionary viewof social change
arx believed that a truly utopian society must beclassless and stateless.arxs main idea was simple: Free the lower class from poverty and give the poor a fighting chance. In order to liberate the lower class, Marx believed that the government would have to control all means of production so that no one could outdo anyone else by making more money.
arx described three necessary phases toward achieving his idea of utopia.hase 1: A revolution must take place in order to overthrow the existinggovernment. Marx emphasized the need for total destruction of the existingsystem in order to move on to Phase 2.hase 2: A dictator or elite leader (or leaders) must gain absolute control overthe proletariat. During this phase, the new government exerts absolute controlover the common citizens personal choices -- including his or her education,religion, employment and even marriage. Collectivization of property andwealth must also take place.
hase 3: Achievement of utopia. This phase has never beenattained because it requires that all non-communists bedestroyed in order for the Communist Party to achievesupreme equality. In a Marxist utopia, everyone wouldhappily share property and wealth, free from therestrictions that class-based systems require. Thegovernment would control all means of production sothat the one-class system would remain constant, with nopossibility of any middle class citizens rising back to thetop.
entral banking systemovernment controlled educationovernment controlled laborovernment ownership of transportation and communicationvehiclesovernment ownership of agricultural means and factoriesotal abolition of private propertyroperty rights confiscation
s the process by which a theory, lesson, or skill is enacted,practiced, embodied, or realizeday also refer to the act of engaging, applying, exercising,realizing, or practicing ideashis has been a recurrent topic in the field of philosophy,discussed in the writings of Plato, Aristotle, St. Augustine,Immanuel Kant, Søren Kierkegaard, Karl Marx, MartinHeidegger, Hannah Arendt, Paulo Freire, and many others
efers to the process of putting theoretical knowledgeinto practice, the strategic and organizational usage ofthe word emphasizes the need for a constant cycle ofconceptualizing the meanings of what can be learnedfrom experience in order to reframe strategic andoperational models.