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Better by design workshop 27th Nov 2012

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  • For the UK the population went from 38m to 61m – an increase of 1.6 timesIn that time our “use” went up by different factorsAircraft 0 to 1.5 trillion passenger milesTrains 850 to 1250 million passenger milesCars 15,000 to 30 millionHouses 7.5 to 26 million housesPhones 3,000 to 33 million
  • For the UK the population went from 38m to 61m – an increase of 1.6 timesIn that time our “use” went up by different factorsAircraft 0 to 1.5 trillion passenger milesTrains 850 to 1250 million passenger milesCars 15,000 to 30 millionHouses 7.5 to 26 million housesPhones 3,000 to 33 million
  • At this point delegates are introduced to the case study; shout out trends and drivers; vote on them; then form groups based on clusters
  • At the end of this stage we’ll be writing a “detailed innovation description”. A key concept in getting this right is to nail what we’re actually delivering, and continue to keep this in mind until commercial launch. We need to aoid getting distracted by details too early. We’ll also connect use concept of nailing “what it is that we’re delivering” with an introduction to LCA, linking it to the concept of the “functional unit”.
  • Gut reaction?What would you need to consider to ascertain the answer?Amount of materialProcesses usedHow often breakages occurDo paper cups get recycled? How? What resources are used? How many times?Answer: Closer than you might think; Depends on how often breakages occur
  • In our example what’s the F.U.? Clean hair?
  • What is it?: Assessment of environmental impacts throughout the entire product lifecycle
  • This is a “Lifecycle profile.”Introduce concept of the hotspot
  • SD Guide outlines strategies for each of these- we’ll introduce these after lunch...
  • Focus should be on ensuring people only boil what they need.User behaviour often very important in determining overall sustainability credentials.It was at this point I decided to throw away my ancient kettle…
  • Illustrates communication aspect of LCA.2.5-4.5 is over the expected lifetime of the product – 40 years£300. Payback after 5 years.Which? report questioned benefits suggesting that the impact of manufacturing had not been quoted.Which? energy expert Syvia Baron said: "For the product to truly make a difference in terms of carbon savings, it will need to save more carbon when in use than it consumes during its production and disposal. And this is quite complicated to work out.
  • C-Tech were able to answer this question through LCA.ie. In terms of carbon it pays for itself in less than a yearIt takes time to amass the knowledge & experience to ask the “right” questions eg. carbon footprint of different materials, transportation, energy (eg. elec v. gas)
  • Eutrophication: Algal blooms. Mouth of the Mississipi has a large dead zone because of eutrophication.Over 100 different impacts possible! These are some of the more commonly used ones.Relative toxicity effects may vary depending on where you are in the world.Relative importance of water usage likewise.France: A year-long experiment will begin in July 2011, involving 168 firms in a range of industries, to apply carbon labels to products including clothing, furniture and cleaning products. An accompanying campaign will try to raise awareness of carbon labels among consumers. This is a prelude to the planned introduction of compulsory carbon-labelling rules, possibly as soon as 2012, which will apply to imported goods as well as those made in France. The new rules, devised by AFNOR, the French Standards Agency, require labels to show more than just the carbon footprint. Depending on the product category, they must also include other environmental data, such as the product’s water footprint and impact on biodiversity. Product-category rules have already been drawn up by AFNOR and the French environment ministry for shoes, wood, furniture, shampoo and fabric chairs. The project is the result of Grenelle 2, a law passed in 2010 which marks the first time a government has tried to make environmental labelling mandatory.
  • PVC has bad reputation. PP appears worse if you only take into account carbon footprint. Source: SolidWorks Sustainable Design guide
  • Golf BlueMotion 74.3mpg; 99g/kmPrius 72.4mpg; 89g/km. Adds functionality in terms of acting as energy storage for national gridPersonal rapid transit (PRT), also called podcar, is a public transportation mode featuring small automated vehicles operating on a network of specially built guide ways.PRT was a major area of study in the 1960s and 1970s. Systems in operation in US and UAE.Another PRT system (by ULTra PRT) at London Heathrow Airport, Terminal 5. Fully operational as of September 2011 and bus service between the business parking lot and Terminal 5 has been discontinued.Several cities have recently expressed interest in PRT, and two small city-based systems are currently in development, in Suncheon, South Korea and Amritsar, India.Environmental credentials: Less stop-start than cars. Not owned. Can be fuelled by renewables.Also mention ZipcarThe element of risk/lead time might lead you to not pursue the ultimate option straight away!
  • IE based in a shed in Loughborough but had world class technology
  • Best of What’s New “Popular Science” magazineTime Magazine’s Most Amazing Inventions of the YearMotorcycle News “This is the bike of the future”Independent reviewFeatured on James May’s “Big Ideas”, Channel 5 news, BBC Breakfast. I was on Irish version of Tomorrow’s WorldAttracted visits from the likes of Gordon Brown, Prince Andrew.Key point: Can take a long time to generate a relationship like Suzuki; risky
  • Generating and evaluating ideas for the “what”
  • Other companies using remanufacturing include:SonyCaterpillarMercia Laser (printer cartridges)
  • Thinking in terms of selling a service means it’s in everyone’s interests to make product easy to repair, recover the materials, remanufacture, etc.Rolls Royce make more money under this model; better understanding of the needs of the customer; etc.
  • Unlikely you’ll come up with idea that is better in every respect, and quick and risk-free in terms of its realisation
  • Targeting the life cycle is the other main approach outlined in the guide. Complementary; hotspot is something that shouldn’t be forgotten.Where do you think the “hotspots” are in the common domestic electric kettle?C-Tech performed an LCA using CCaLC to find out…
  • What is it?: Assessment of environmental impacts throughout the entire product lifecycle
  • Hotspot is usage phase. Might at first appear that this means the designer can’t influence it… (far from true)Focus should be on ensuring people only boil what they need.It was at this point I decided to throw away my ancient kettle…User behaviour often very important in determining overall sustainability credentials eg. paper cup v. china one
  • What is it?: Assessment of environmental impacts throughout the entire product lifecycle
  • What is it?: Assessment of environmental impacts throughout the entire product lifecycle
  • What is it?: Assessment of environmental impacts throughout the entire product lifecycle
  • What is it?: Assessment of environmental impacts throughout the entire product lifecycle
  • What is it?: Assessment of environmental impacts throughout the entire product lifecycle
  • What is it?: Assessment of environmental impacts throughout the entire product lifecycle
  • The carpet industry in the UK alone disposes of 600,000 tonnes of used carpet into landfill every year.Take our carpet tiles, which represent half our business. We've put 90% of these under rigorous assessment to get rid of all unwanted chemical components. They all have detailed phase-out plans to get rid of any unacceptable materials. As part of this process, we've developed a new carpet backing called EcoBase, which is 100% safely recyclable.We've set up our own recycling business unit, called Refinity. We take back used bitumen-backed carpet tiles – both our own and those of our competitors. Using our own proprietary technology, we then separate the yarn from the backing. We sell the bitumen to the road and roofing industry. As for the yarn, that goes to one of our suppliers, which has built a €20m depolymerisation plant in Slovenia to recycle it into new yarn. None of this was happening three years ago.http://uk.ethicalcorp.com/fc_ethicalcorporationlz/lz.aspx?p1=05246362S4941&CC=&p=1&cID=0&cValue=1
  • Also oil, and of course...water“Water is the oil of the 21st century’” -Andrew Liveris, CEO, Dow
  • Interface has re-designed its business system to convert carpets into a service. Interface will install a carpet, maintain it, replace it when you want a new one and recycle the old carpet. You just pay for the experience of having a nice floor covering. Interface redesigned all aspects of the system, including the carpet itself, to support this model.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Better by Design: Sustainable Business And Chemical Engineering• Ben Peace• C-Tech Innovation; ES KTN• Mike Pitts• Technology Strategy Board• Becky Farnell• Chemistry Innovation Knowledge Transfer Network
    • 2. Sustainable Design Reducing the overall environmental impact, whilst maintaining or improving economic, technical and social performance A shift in thinking:  from plant/product to whole life cycle  from unit operation to whole system  from process and product to service
    • 3. Sustainable Design Guide  Shows chemistry-using organisations how to build sustainable thinking into their innovation processes  A collection of best practice with a process for how to do it  Linked supporting resources
    • 4. Workbook Contents1. Introduction2. Background to Sustainable Design3. Three Key Tools4. Understanding the Context 15. Identifying the Opportunities6. Delivering the Innovation7. Resources8. Appendices Includes extensive examples and case studies and guidance on running internal workshops
    • 5. Workshop Overview09:30 What is Sustainable Design? Warm-up discussion Design Guide Process Understanding the Context – “Why”10:30 Tea and Coffee Identifying Opportunities – “What”12:30 Lunch Delivering Innovation – “How”15:00 Tea and Coffee Delivering Innovation (continued) Case Study Summary16:00 TSB Competition16:30 Feedback & Close
    • 6. Knowledge Transfer NetworksAccelerating business innovation;a Technology Strategy Board programme
    • 7. WHAT ARE KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER NETWORKS?15 KTNs established by the Technology Strategy Board to: • Stimulate innovation in the UK’s key priority areas • Link different organisations • Facilitate the efficient use of other support mechanisms Knowledge Transfer Networks Accelerating business innovation; a Technology Strategy Board programme
    • 8. WHAT DO WE DO?• Brokering collaborations & connecting members• Providing access to funding• Identifying industry challenges & informing government policy• Showcasing innovations Knowledge Transfer Networks Accelerating business innovation; a Technology Strategy Board programme
    • 9. Who are we?Leading independent innovation company,developing our own technologies and helping others.Nearly 40 years experience.Provide services to blue chip and small businesses,Universities, Government bodies & NGOs.
    • 10. Who are we?• Engaged in eco-innovation at European, National and Regional Government level• Work one-to-one with business clients to bring about commercial and environmental improvements• Established suite of technology & product development services: • Prototype build & testing • Computer Aided Design (CAD) • Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) • Finite Element Analysis (FEA) • Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
    • 11. Clients & Collaborators
    • 12. Sustainable Innovation or Greenwash? Bio-diesel  M&S Plan A Organic Produce  Fair-trade coca Phone recycling beans Cartridge recycling  Electric & hybrid cars Bio-degradable bottles  Carbon Offsetting Bioplastics  Green Electricity Tariffs Nappy laundering service  Wind turbines Solar panels  Boris Bikes
    • 13. Aims of Sustainable DesignAim is sustainability on three levels: Social People Economic Environmental Planet Prosperity Economic ProfitMaintenance of economicprosperity and employment Environmental Social EquityPrudent use of natural resources Sustainabilityand effective protection of theenvironmentRecognises the needs of everyonein the supply chain
    • 14. Why? What? How? Workbook Content • Define boundaries Business/Understand • Market analysis Market Context • SWOT analysisWHY? • Problem statement  Innovation purpose Product/ Identify  Analysis of existing solutions using tools ServiceOpportunities WHAT?  Define critical success factors  Detailed description of opportunity Technology Deliver  Innovation strategies Innovation HOW?  Mapping technology needs  Evaluate and rank options TIME
    • 15. Why? What? How?Understand Context Understand IdentifyOpportunities Context Defining “why” things might be done differently Deliver Innovation
    • 16. Drivers for Why? What? How?Sustainable Design• Three fundamental ways to improve business profitability: • Reduce costs • Increase margins • Increase sales• Sustainable Design can contribute to all three• Objective of Sustainable Design is to provide commercial success, rather than win green awards • Recent Co-Operative Bank report showed the market for ethical goods & services in the UK rose 18% from 2007-2009
    • 17. Why? What? How? Shooting the Rapids Biophysical Limits • Resource depletion • Resource dispersion • Environmental damage Freedom of Manoeuvre • Biosphere‟s capacity to cope „shooting the rapids‟ Societal Limits • Growing population • Ageing population • Increasing consumption • Societal attitudes TimeMiller-Klein
    • 18. Why? What? How? Laws Laws of Thermodynamics 1. Energy can be neither created nor destroyed. It can only change forms. 2. The entropy of an isolated macroscopic system never decreases. 3. As temperature approaches absolute zero, the entropy of a system approaches a constant minimum. 1. You cannot win (that is, you cannot get something for nothing, because matter and energy are conserved). 2. You cannot break even (you cannot return to the same energy state, because there is always an increase in disorder; entropy always increases). 3. You cannot get out of the game (because absolute zero is unattainable).C P Snow
    • 19. Endangered Elements Knowledge Transfer Networks Accelerating business innovation; a Technology Strategy Board programme
    • 20. Why? What? How?Endangered Elements• Limited amount on the planet• Being used in dispersive technologies• Rapid growth in use due to technology application• Method of obtaining is disproportionately damaging to environment• Availability a geopolitical issue (political instability)• Lack of recycling – technical and/or infrastructure
    • 21. Why? What? How? Elements in a Mobile Roughly 40 different elements H, Li, Be, C, N, O, F, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Br, Sr, Y, Zr, Ru, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Ba, Ta, W, Pt, Au, Hg, Pb, Bi, Nd. mobile phone weighing 100 grams, contains 13.7 g of copper 0.189 g of silver 0.028 g of gold 0.014 g of palladiumSource: Basel Convention, 2006; Lindholm (Nokia report), 2003
    • 22. Concentration of Why? What? How? critical mineralsEU Raw Materials Initiative, June 2010
    • 23. Why? What? How? Endangered Elements • As much gold in 1 tonne of computer scrap as in 17 tonnes of gold ore • Concentration of platinum in the dust on the streets of Birmingham is higher than in the ore it came from • More copper above the ground in use that left in viable supplies • Rh mining generates 30,000 kgCO2 per kgChuquicamata mine, Chile
    • 24. 5.2 ppmHe Knowledge Transfer Networks Accelerating business innovation; a Technology Strategy Board programme
    • 25. P70 years? Knowledge Transfer Networks Accelerating business innovation; a Technology Strategy Board programme
    • 26. Cu170 kg Knowledge Transfer Networks Accelerating business innovation; a Technology Strategy Board programme
    • 27. Endangered Elements • As much gold in 1 tonne of computer scrap as in 17 tonnes of gold ore • Concentration of platinum in the dust on the streets of Birmingham is higher than in the ore it came from • More copper above the ground in use that left in viable supplies • Rh mining generates 30,000 kgCO2 per kgChuquicamata mine, Chile Knowledge Transfer Networks Accelerating business innovation; a Technology Strategy Board programme
    • 28. Image: Basel Action Network Knowledge Transfer Networks Accelerating business innovation; a Technology Strategy Board programme
    • 29. Why? What? How? Peak Oil 120World Oil Production (Mb/day) Fuel 100 Demand? 80 60 40 20 0 1935 1955 1975 1995 2015
    • 30. Why? What? How?Water
    • 31. Why? What? How?Water„embedded‟ water by 2020 we will need 17% more content (litres) water than is currently available1 pair of shoes 80001 cotton T-shirt 4100 about how much a1 hamburger 2400 dishwasher uses in a year1 glass of milk 2001 cup of coffee 140 „water is the oil of the 21st century‟1 microchip (2g) 32 Dow CEO Andrew Liveris Source: World Council, UNESCO, DEFRA
    • 32. Understand Identify Deliver Context Opportunities Innovationwww.footprintnetwork.org
    • 33. Why? What? How? Ageing population Doubled from 2000www.statistics.gov.uk/populationestimates/flash_pyramid/UK-pyramid/pyramid6_30.html
    • 34. Why? What? How? Increasing Consumption UK since 1900: • 9 x more water • 2000 x more car miles • 16 x more electricity • 40 x more „stuff‟David Bott, Technology Strategy Board
    • 35. Why? What? How? Increasing Consumption The worlds population will rise from 6bn to 8bn (33%) 2030 Demand for food will increase by 50% Demand for water will increase by 30% Demand for energy will increase by 50%John Beddington,UK governments chief scientific adviser
    • 36. Why? What? How?Future Trends?
    • 37. Why? What? How?Future Trends?
    • 38. Why? What? How?Future Trends?
    • 39. Why? What? How?STEEP SOCIAL ECONOMICTECHNOLOGICAL TRENDS & DRIVERS ENVIRONMENTAL POLITICAL
    • 40. Why? What? How?STEEP 51
    • 41. Why? What? How?Interactive Session• Considering our case study: • What benefits are required in a solution to the identified trends and drivers? • Think all along the supply chain/lifecycle • Assess ideas against internal limits (SWOT, p. 49)• Outcome: • A problem statement: “If only we could..... then we could......” (p 59) • Avoid thinking what would solve the problem, or how 30 49 59
    • 42. Why? What? How?Understand Context Identify IdentifyOpportunities Opportunities Defining “what” needs to be delivered Deliver Innovation
    • 43. Why? What? How?What are we delivering?
    • 44. Carbon footprint of Why? What? How?1000 kg paint 3000 2500 Waste 2000 Transport kg CO2 equivalent Production 1500 Packaging Pigment Question: 1000 Filler Additives 500 Which is more sustainable? 0 Market entry High performance
    • 45. Carbon footprint per Why? What? How?50 m2 covered 20.0 18.0 16.0 14.0 Consumerkg CO2 equivalent 12.0 waste Waste 10.0 Better Functional Unit: Transport 8.0 6.0 Production Area coverage 4.0 Packaging 2.0 0.0 Market entry High performance
    • 46. Why? What? How? What are we delivering?„I don‟t sell a tinof paint – I sell aneffect on a wall‟ Dulux „Power by the hour‟ Rolls Royce „1,500 petabytes shipped in 2009‟ Xyratex
    • 47. Why? What? How?Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) raw material extraction manufacturedisposal/recycling distribution & retail use
    • 48. Why? What? How?Life Cycle Analysis (LCA)LCA enables:• Identification of hotspots• Focussing of efforts• Comparison of concepts and potential improvements• Assessment and communication of benefits
    • 49. Life Cycle Analysis Why? What? How? Example for each pint of milk: “hot spot”Source: DEFRA
    • 50. Why? What? How?Identifying the “hotspot” Raw material intensive Production intensive Distribution intensive Use intensive End of life intensive
    • 51. Why? What? How?Identifying the “hotspot” source: WRAP
    • 52. LCA example Why? What? How? In-use benefit: 2.5-4.5 tonnes CO2 equivalent Manufacture: ????
    • 53. LCA example Why? What? How? PCB fasteners components case PCB board In-use benefit: 2.5-4.5 tonnes CO2 equivalent Manufacture: 50kg
    • 54. LCA: Environmental Why? What? How? Impact FactorsCarbon Footprint Total Energy Other impact factors include: • Consumption of mineral resources • Consumption of biomass • Consumption of fresh water • Photochemical oxidation • Ozone layer depletion • Production of hazardous waste • Total waste production • ...Air Acidification Water EutrophicationImages source: SolidWorks
    • 55. 56
    • 56. Why? What? How?LCA – setting the scope• Which environmental impacts?• “Cradle-to-gate” / “Cradle-to-grave” / “Cradle-to-cradle”?• What data is available? • primary or secondary • level of supply chain engagement • assumptions that can be made• How to interpret the results? • are findings valid? • what does the result mean? • independent review?• How to communicate results?
    • 57. Why? What? How?LCA spectrum Level of effort Full ISO 14040 LCA Key question: LCA Streamlined What are you doing Proxy measures Carbon footprint; Embodied energy; the LCA for? Eco-indicators Directional tools eco innovation compass; matrix methods Principles &rules-of-thumb – life cycle thinkingQualitative Quantitative
    • 58. Why? What? How?Innovation AmbitionRISKS New business system Improvement Add new functionality Redesign Improve the product existing product Time to bring to market
    • 59. Why? What? How?CCaLC • An LCA & carbon footprinting tool • Free to download and use • Particularly suited to Chemical-using industries • A powerful tool for assessing and improving environmental credentials • Excellent databases • Capable of tracking cost/value added • Appropriate for ISO 14044, PAS2050 etc. • Simple to use by non-experts
    • 60. Questions explored Why? What? How?with CCaLC • What is the carbon intensity of a supply chain/product/process? • Where are the „hot spots‟? • What are the optimum low-carbon options for reducing the carbon intensity? • What would be the cost? And value added? • How would other environmental impacts change?
    • 61. CCaLC: Why? What? How?Databases and case studiesDatabases Case studies  Materials  Chemicals &  Energy related  Transport  Food & drink  Packaging  Bio-feedstocks  Waste  BiofuelsOver 5500 datasets Over 30 case studies
    • 62. Why? What? How?CCaLC example
    • 63. Why? What? How?The Process
    • 64. Why? What? How?CCaLC top level
    • 65. Why? What? How?CCaLC results: lasagne “hot spot”
    • 66. “Sureshine” shampoo Why? What? How?- carbon footprint
    • 67. Why? What? How?Critical Success FactorsExternal factors may include:  Technical specifications that must be met or exceeded  Compliance with regulations or standards  Product form  Compatibility with existing technologies - the drop-in replacement  PriceInternal factors may include:  Fit with the corporate strategy  Projected market size  Projected return on investment  Fit with technical capabilities  Cost and time to bring the product or service to market
    • 68. Why? What? How? Interactive Session• Considering our case study: • Determine innovation purpose (p 72) • Assess current solutions – functional unit, lifecycle (pp. 27 – 39) • Determine the critical success factors (p 78) • Think what it delivers NOT how it does it• Outcome: • A “detailed innovation description” (p 79) 27–39 72 78-79
    • 69. Why? What? How?Understand Context Deliver IdentifyOpportunities Innovation Generating and evaluating ideas for the “how” Deliver Innovation
    • 70. Why? What? How? Eco Innovation Compass• A useful tool for generating and assessing ideas• Developed by the World Council for Business Sustainability and Dow Service 0 – worse > 50% 5 4 1 – slightly worse Resource Use 3 Durability 2 2 – no change 1 3 – some improvement 0 Safety Re-use 4 – improvement x 2 5 – improvement x 4 Energy Mass 102-116
    • 71. Why? What? How? Eco Innovation Compass• A useful tool for generating and assessing ideas• Developed by the World Council for Business Sustainability and Dow Service Resource Use Durability Safety Re-use Energy Mass
    • 72. Why? What? How? Eco Innovation Compass• A useful tool for generating and assessing ideas• Developed by the World Council for Business Sustainability and Dow Service Resource Use Durability Safety Re-use Energy Mass
    • 73. Re-use/remanufacture/ Why? What? How? recycle• Product leased, not sold• Product returned to Xerox for “remanufacturing” • >90% of original product „core‟ returned to service • 5,000+ tonnes per annum diverted from landfill
    • 74. Why? What? How? Eco Innovation Compass• A useful tool for generating and assessing ideas• Developed by the World Council for Business Sustainability and Dow Service Resource Use Durability Safety Re-use Energy Mass
    • 75. Why? What? How? Eco Innovation Compass• A useful tool for generating and assessing ideas• Developed by the World Council for Business Sustainability and Dow Service Resource Use Durability Safety Re-use Energy Mass
    • 76. Why? What? How? Eco Innovation Compass• A useful tool for generating and assessing ideas• Developed by the World Council for Business Sustainability and Dow Service Resource Use Durability Safety Re-use Energy Mass
    • 77. Why? What? How? Eco Innovation Compass• A useful tool for generating and assessing ideas• Developed by the World Council for Business Sustainability and Dow Service Resource Use Durability Safety Re-use Energy Mass
    • 78. Why? What? How? Eco Innovation Compass• A useful tool for generating and assessing ideas• Developed by the World Council for Business Sustainability and Dow Service Resource Use Durability Safety Re-use Energy Mass
    • 79. Why? What? How? Eco Innovation Compass• A useful tool for generating and assessing ideas• Developed by the World Council for Business Sustainability and Dow Service Resource Use Durability Safety Re-use Energy Mass
    • 80. Why? What? How?Service “Power by the hour” service model • In everyone‟s interests to make product last longer; easier to repair, etc. • Better understanding of product in operation • Business more profitable as a result
    • 81. Why? What? How? Eco Innovation Compass• A useful tool for generating and assessing ideas• Developed by the World Council for Business Sustainability and Dow Service Resource Use Durability Safety Re-use Energy Mass
    • 82. Why? What? How?Eco Innovation Compass Service 5 4 Resource Use 3 Durability 2 1 0 Safety Re-use Energy Mass
    • 83. Why? What? How?Targeting the lifecycle raw material extraction manufacturedisposal/recycling distribution & retail use
    • 84. Why? What? How?Targeting the lifecycle
    • 85. Targeting the lifecycle: Why? What? How?raw material intensive Strategies might include: • Reduce the amount of raw materials • Use recycled/renewable raw materials • Reduce the number of raw materials • Extend product lifetime
    • 86. Targeting the lifecycle: Why? What? How?raw material intensive Finite Element Analysis Optimised Design: • 20% material reduction • Cost & carbon savings
    • 87. Targeting the lifecycle: Why? What? How?manufacturing intensive Strategies might include: • Improve energy efficiency of process • Minimise process waste • Use renewable energy for process • Avoid hazardous processes • Use closed-loop manufacturing process
    • 88. Targeting the lifecycle: Why? What? How?manufacturing intensive UV-curable primer safer to use •50% VOC reduction
    • 89. Targeting the lifecycle: Why? What? How?distribution intensive Strategies might include: • Minimise/eliminate packaging • Minimise transport miles • Manufacture at point of use • Use a lower impact form of transportation
    • 90. Targeting the lifecycle: Why? What? How?distribution intensive • Ethylene causes fresh fruit, flowers and plants to continue to grow & ripen • Technology uses 1-methycyclopropene (1-MCP) to block ethylene, preventing over-ripening • Higher temperatures tolerated
    • 91. Targeting the lifecycle: Why? What? How?use intensive Strategies might include: • Maximise energy efficiency of product • Design out waste and emissions in-use • Make product safer for user & environment • Design out potential for improper use
    • 92. Targeting the lifecycle: Why? What? How?use intensive • Detergent and clothing manufacturers identified domestic washing as highest peak on their corporate carbon footprints • Both technology and consumer behaviour change innovations required to get acceptance of low temperature wash detergents
    • 93. Targeting the lifecycle: Why? What? How?end-of-life intensive Strategies might include: • Design for recovery & re-use • Design for ease of disassembly • Design for modularity • Ensure harmful substances easily removed • Ensure only benign materials left behind
    • 94. Targeting the lifecycle: Why? What? How?end-of-life intensive • Take-back scheme • Design allows replacement of just worn parts • Simplified product composition • Separation & depolymerisation processes & plant • Profit margin up from 1% in 2006 to more than 9% in 2010 Profit margin up from 1% in 2006 to more than 9% in 2010
    • 95. Targeting the Life Cycle – Understand Context Identify Opportunities Deliver InnovationDownstream benefits • Originally targeting in-use/ end-of-life aquatic toxicity issues with anti-fouling coatings • Smooth solution of Intersleek had even bigger impact on fuel use of ships – at least 6%, saving up to $2.5 million over 5 yrs for typical ship
    • 96. Three tips for Why? What? How?generating ideas 1. Think service (not product) 2. Think lifecycle 3. Think benefits downstream
    • 97. Why? What? How?Evaluating Ideas low hanging exciting but fruit difficult Reward quick why? progress Risk
    • 98. Why? What? How?Interactive Session• Considering our case study: • Generate possible solutions using life cycle (p 92-100) • ...and/or eco innovation compass (p 102-116) • Explore fit with your organisation & market (p 119-123) • ... and refer back to initial criteria • Rank ideas (risk v reward)• Outcome: • A chosen lead research project! • Present as a short pitch88-130
    • 99. Why? What? How?Case StudyUnilever led FR&SH project
    • 100. 1. Markets Are Changing
    • 101. Scale and geographic reachThe Americas Western Europe AACEE*€13 billion turnover €13 billion turnover €14.5 billion turnover6.5% underlying sales 1.3% underlying sales 14.2% underlying salesgrowth growth growth32% of group turnover 32% of group turnover 36% of group turnover2008 turnover €40.5 billion
    • 102. We sell to consumers across an increasingly widespectrum of income, and consumption LSM 1-3 LSM 4-6 General Trade focused  LSM 7-9 LSM 10-12  Market Trade focused LSM 13-15 LSM 16-18
    • 103. The World is Changing: Socio-demographic issues• The world is ageing – The 60+ population is growing, and not just in the Developed world. – It is fastest in Developing and Emerging markets.• 1 billion + people lack safe drinking water – 3 million children die from unclean water per year – Fluoride is unavailable to 25%+ of the world• Huge global issues in nutrition – Millions of people are malnourished – Yet obesity has reached epidemic proportions
    • 104. 2. Cost Control 115 Knowledge Transfer Networks Accelerating business innovation; a Technology Strategy Board programme
    • 105. Challenges• Rising commodity prices (energy, oils, food staples)• Consumer focus on value• Need for cost effective benefit ingredients
    • 106. ….means we need to get more fromour molecules •More Functionality •More Robustness •More Flexibility
    • 107. 3. Oil Depletion 118 Knowledge Transfer Networks Accelerating business innovation; a Technology Strategy Board programme
    • 108. 4. Carbon Footprint 119 Knowledge Transfer Networks Accelerating business innovation; a Technology Strategy Board programme
    • 109. 5. Minimising / Recycling Waste Knowledge Transfer Networks 120 Accelerating business innovation; a Technology Strategy Board programme
    • 110. 6. Water Availability Knowledge Transfer Networks 121 Accelerating business innovation; a Technology Strategy Board programme
    • 111. 7. More StringentRegulatory Knowledge Transfer Networks 122 Accelerating business innovation; a Technology Strategy Board programme
    • 112. Challenges Facing Introduction ofNew Molecules in FMCGLegislative changesRecent introductions to the legalstatute, include: • 7th Amendment to the Cosmetics Directive (animal testing) • REACH regulations • VOC emissions control
    • 113. `8. Commodities Moving East Knowledge Transfer Networks 124 Accelerating business innovation; a Technology Strategy Board programme
    • 114. 9. Speed of Innovation Knowledge Transfer Networks 125 Accelerating business innovation; a Technology Strategy Board programme
    • 115. 10. Competition for Talent Knowledge Transfer Networks 126 Accelerating business innovation; a Technology Strategy Board programme
    • 116. Priority Issues • Oil Depletion • Cost Control • Stringent Regulatory Landscape • Consumer Demand for Natural Benefits to deliver • „Defendable‟ natural formulation • Decrease cost • Improved feel/flow
    • 117. Problem Statement If only we could have a base shower gel and shampoo formulation that is based on „natural‟ ingredients then we can exploit the growing consumer market ($7 bn) for such products
    • 118. „Natural‟ IngredientsFor consumers, natural = sustainable, 15% growth over last 6 years“natural”, “nature Need to consider:derived”, “renewable” etc. scale, energydo not equate with intensity, competing“less impact on land requirements , etc.environment”Source: JLS Consulting
    • 119. Surfactants and structuring Main issue with current formulation is high (unnecessary) use of surfactants (cleaning function ingredient) 35% cost structuring SURFACTANTS foaming cleaning cleaning
    • 120. Innovation Purpose• Long term, disruptive approach• New base formulation that enables customisation and simplification• Open Innovation model • Commercialise with small partner – complex and large supply chain disruption • Involve wider set of stakeholders, consider long term trends • Examine efficiency, avoid over specification, what delivering? • Consider the ecosystem – adaptable to different markets/technologies?
    • 121. Current AlternativesIngredients connected with "natural” marketing claims :• Coco-glucoside• Lauryl glucoside• Betaine• Sodium lauryl sarcocinate• Sodium cocoyl glutamate• xanthan gum etc...Although based on natural feedstocks (plant oils) also products ofconventional chemical modification.Also 2 to 3 times higher in cost than petrochemical-based surfactants
    • 122. Critical Success FactorsReplace some of surfactant with:• Abundant, cheap material• From renewable resources• 100 % non-petrochemical• Not food competitive• Clean derivatisation• Biodegradable• From existing supply chains• Low cost• Limited processing, using existing plant (thus minimising capital expenditure)• Functional• GentleWithout creating new chemical entities (expensive registration costs)
    • 123. Detailed Innovation Description The business opportunity is to replace unnecessarily high levels of surfactants and other high cost formulation ingredients with lower levels of novel, low cost viscosity modifiers, from „natural‟ sources that enable economic and environmental benefits to accrue throughout the value chain.
    • 124. Solution Strategies• Include materials know to be environmentally benign• Include materials known to be safe to humans• Use renewable materials• Don‟t use materials that compete for food• Looked at basic, cheap renewable materials and methods to modify them
    • 125. Technology and Approach UsedUsed modified cellulose; sourced from existing supply industries(cellulose fibres from the pulp and paper industry, and organicand inorganic components from the existing speciality chemicalsindustries)
    • 126. FR&SH Project • Partially oxidised cellulose • Used in existing product (bandages) • Forms thixotropic gels:Technology Strategy BoardSustainable Materials and Products competition, November 2008
    • 127. FR&SH Project - Benefits Service 5 0 – decrease > 50% 4Resource Use 3 Durability 1 – some decrease 2 2 – no change 1 0 3 – some increase Safety Re-use 4 – increase x 2 5 – increase x 4 Energy Mass Estimated savings for one brand, in one region at £2m alone
    • 128. Further Information www.chemistryinnovation.co.uk/sdg www.chemistryinnovation.co.uk/stroadmap www.ctechinnovation.com www.esktn.org
    • 129. RSA/Technology Strategy Board programmepromoting the creation of circular economymanufacturing models in which design innovationplays a pivotal role. Circular Economy Design Workshops • Starting again in early 2013 www.greatrecovery.org.uk Knowledge Transfer Networks Accelerating business innovation; a Technology Strategy Board programme
    • 130. New Designs for a CircularEconomy Competition • Feasibility studies • Up to £25K per project – Up to 65 / 75% of costs • Collaborative / co-design – Up to 75% sub-contracting allowed • Two challenge areas: – Reducing the global environmental impact of materials that we use – Reducing dependence on key raw materials, the supply of which potentially is at risk Knowledge Transfer Networks Accelerating business innovation; a Technology Strategy Board programme
    • 131. New Designs for a Circular Economy: Possible approaches• Design for disassembly/remanufacturing/refurbishment • Design for disassembly • Component standardisation • Modularisation • Reducing the number of materials• Design features to facilitate closed loop business models and customer behaviours eg. lease, recycling• Dematerialisation / lightweighting / rightweighting• Reducing energy intensity• Product lifetime extension Knowledge Transfer Networks Accelerating business innovation; a Technology Strategy Board programme
    • 132. New Designs for a CircularEconomy: Official _connect group • Official competition documentation • Resources • Keep up-to-date with events • Networking forum • Discussion forum • Links to other resourceshttp://tinyurl.com/Circular-Design Knowledge Transfer Networks Accelerating business innovation; a Technology Strategy Board programme
    • 133. New Designs for a Circular Economy Competition: Key Dates Round 1 Round 2Briefing webinar 7th Nov 2012 19th Feb 2013Networking events 1st Nov 2012 TBA 12th Nov 2012Registration deadline 5th Dec 2012 20th March 2013Deadline for 12th Dec 2012 27th March 2013applications Knowledge Transfer Networks Accelerating business innovation; a Technology Strategy Board programme
    • 134. Relevant ES KTN reports www.esktn.org Knowledge Transfer Networks Accelerating business innovation; a Technology Strategy Board programme
    • 135. Thank you forattendingAny FurtherQuestions?

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