The Waterworks That Made The American West<br />A PowerPoint by Ben Ely<br />
The Panama Call<br />Ferdinand was known to have the gift of “will”<br />Implying his said blind courage is the only thing that can build the canal<br />The audience of the idea of the panama canal thought it was a feat nothing less than impossible<br />Panama has only two seasons, Wet and Dry season’s. The wet season being incredibly harsh conditions. Ferdinand originally only explored Panama twice in its beautiful and ideal dry seasons<br />Had to begin by actually cutting a path through the jungle itself<br />
The Panama Call<br />The Chagres river would have to be crossed repeatedly and posed a huge problem, and destroyed the team’s faith and confidence.<br />From this the engineers and scientists involved in this project were the best of the best and almost all died from such Panama diseases and troubles such as malaria<br />The mosquito carrying yellow fever’s (malaria) breeding place is in fresh water right where the project was taking place<br />The longer the digging, the more mudslides would take place, French engineers were not trained to think outside the box like American engineers to pose a solution to the problem.<br />20,000 lives were lost in just 10 years of the building of the Panama canal<br />
The Panama Call<br />President Roosevelt eventually stepped in to help the construction of the Panama<br />Talked strategy with the worker’s, and boosted morale like no other, yet John Stevens has quit for to this day unknown reasons, only theories of speculation<br />Best evidence supported he was angry and could not take the pressure of work<br />From this Roosevelt decided to hire a U.S. colonel who legally could not quit and had 2 immense missions from then on.<br /><ul><li>Colonel David would command the excavation at Culebra Cut
Colonel William was to build the Gatun Locks</li></ul>Rain proved as the most intimidating factor as the mountains began to slide, avalanches of mud and rock crushed miles of the project worsening until 1912<br />
The Panama Call<br />Towns along the canal route were being taken down for the project, and most importantly a Dam was built at Gatoon lake, it developed generators for the Canal to have its own power supply<br />The Panama Canal, was actually finished ahead of time with a total cost of 639 million dollars between America and France (modern day- $7 billion equivalent)<br />The human cost upon beginning the actual project totaled approximately 5,609 dead with 4,500 being black workers<br />The 50 mile crossing takes almost 9 hours to travel now, and 2,000 ships have developed to what is now called “Panamac” size<br />[The max size the canal can handle]<br />Proved to be a masterpiece of human engineering to this day<br />
Los Angeles Aqueduct<br />Los Angeles was a city built upon no use of minerals or resources, including a lack of water.<br />“Virtually built for no absolute purpose”<br />This left L.A. desperate to become a modern city<br />Developed plans for building L.A. a river based on Gravity<br />Planned to capture the Owen’s river and move it across 200 miles of terrain. Yet was owned by a multitude of farmers AND the federal government<br /><ul><li>Started by quietly buying property and water rights
This renders the Los Angeles aqueduct ultimately as a scheme rather than a project</li></li></ul><li>Los Angeles Aqueduct<br />Citizen’s ultimately had to vote on funding the Los Angeles aqueduct project<br />In the middle of a drought with temperatures reaching an extreme of 105 degrees, citizens had no choice but to comply<br /><ul><li>Roosevelt made Owen’s valley off limits to further development
In 1905 the aqua duct project was started planning to build it across the desert with the law and president giving it full support
Adequate water supply for the living conditions of the workers posed quickly as a huge problem
Mulholland had no training in civil engineering and had not even graduated from grade school
The exhausting and dangerous work had to keep workers fluctuating between shifts for sake of survival in 110 degree heat</li></li></ul><li>Los Angeles Aqueduct<br />The chief and his lieutenants finished the job under budget and ahead of schedule<br />Still carries the Owens river to the people of Los Angeles to this day<br />Mulholland's predictions calculated it as FOUR times more water than Los Angeles could even use<br /><ul><li>The water was thought to have build modern Los Angeles in a way, for it was originally a hopeless town in a desert without a prosperous source of water</li></ul>Palm trees became an abundant tree in a place originally dominated by tumbleweeds and wolves, making the story of Los Angeles very unique<br />
Los Angeles Aqueduct<br />“The desert became an Eden”<br />After world war II the city began the Mono Basin Project to provide a more reliable flow to the original Los Angeles Aqueduct<br />To increase the aqueduct capacity, a second aqueduct was built from the Haiwee reservoir in Southern Inyo County to Los Angeles<br />In 1970 the second aqueduct was completed yet from this Inyo county filed law suits against Los Angeles under the new California Environmental Quality Act<br />Eventually entered an agreement in 1984 producing an EIR<br />Los Angeles has become the nation’s second largest city because of Mulholland's dreams and decisions regarding the Aqueduct and all its various supply projects of water that he had decided.<br />
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