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ADRIAN KNIEL      TRANSITION FROM SCHOOL TO WORKA HANDBOOK FOR PARENTS AND TEACHERS OF MENTALLY       HANDICAPPED ADOLESCE...
ADRIAN KNIEL  TRANSITION FROM SCHOOL TO WORKA HANDBOOK FOR PARENTS AND TEACHERSOF MENTALLY HANDICAPPED ADOLESCENTS        ...
UNIVERSITY OF WINNEBADRUCKEREI
CONTENTI. PREFACE ..........................................................................................5  1.1. A new ...
5.2. CROP FARMING ..................................................................... 62  5.2.1.  Citrus orchard assista...
5.5. FOOD PREPARATION AND PROCESSING ..............................153    5.5.1.  Bean cake preparation helper ..............
VII. AN OUTLINE OF PRE-VOCATIONAL TRAINING ......................... 240  7.1. An analysis of basic vocational skills .......
PREFACE________________________________________________________________________________________  I. PREFACESchools for the...
PREFACE________________________________________________________________________________________    •   Presenting informal...
PREFACE________________________________________________________________________________________In recent years, the concep...
PREFACE________________________________________________________________________________________In order to make reading le...
INTRODUCTION________________________________________________________________________________________    II. INTRODUCTIONEv...
INTRODUCTION________________________________________________________________________________________         2.1.     Oppo...
INTRODUCTION________________________________________________________________________________________Abilities also determi...
INTRODUCTION________________________________________________________________________________________III. THE PRESENT SITUA...
INTRODUCTION________________________________________________________________________________________   •   Craftsmanship s...
INTRODUCTION________________________________________________________________________________________     •   with few exce...
INTRODUCTION________________________________________________________________________________________as the mentally handic...
INTRODUCTION________________________________________________________________________________________This is not to say tha...
THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION________________________________________________________________________________________IV. THE P...
THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION________________________________________________________________________________________those chi...
THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION________________________________________________________________________________________In an Ind...
THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION________________________________________________________________________________________By compar...
THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION________________________________________________________________________________________necessary...
THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION________________________________________________________________________________________A stepwis...
THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION________________________________________________________________________________________      by ...
THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION________________________________________________________________________________________         ...
THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION________________________________________________________________________________________   •   pr...
THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION________________________________________________________________________________________         ...
THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION________________________________________________________________________________________difficult...
THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION             Tomato grower’s helper                                         Chop Bar AssistantDut...
THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION             Cannot light or use a fire but is aware of its danger (2)      Fire Hazards:        ...
THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION             supervision (3)                                                Is careful with equip...
THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION________________________________________________________________________________________The table...
THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION________________________________________________________________________________________Core work...
THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION________________________________________________________________________________________person po...
THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION________________________________________________________________________________________         ...
THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION________________________________________________________________________________________The list ...
THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION________________________________________________________________________________________The reade...
AN ANALYSIS OF VOCATIONAL OPTIONS FOR MENTALLY HANDICAPPED SCHOOL LEAVERS_________________________________________________...
AN ANALYSIS OF VOCATIONAL OPTIONS FOR MENTALLY HANDICAPPED SCHOOL LEAVERS_________________________________________________...
AN ANALYSIS OF VOCATIONAL OPTIONS FOR MENTALLY HANDICAPPED SCHOOL LEAVERS_________________________________________________...
AN ANALYSIS OF VOCATIONAL OPTIONS FOR MENTALLY HANDICAPPED SCHOOL LEAVERS_________________________________________________...
AN ANALYSIS OF VOCATIONAL OPTIONS FOR MENTALLY HANDICAPPED SCHOOL LEAVERS_________________________________________________...
AN ANALYSIS OF VOCATIONAL OPTIONS FOR MENTALLY HANDICAPPED SCHOOL LEAVERS_________________________________________________...
AN ANALYSIS OF VOCATIONAL OPTIONS FOR MENTALLY HANDICAPPED SCHOOL LEAVERS_________________________________________________...
AN ANALYSIS OF VOCATIONAL OPTIONS FOR MENTALLY HANDICAPPED SCHOOL LEAVERS_________________________________________________...
AN ANALYSIS OF VOCATIONAL OPTIONS FOR MENTALLY HANDICAPPED SCHOOL LEAVERS_________________________________________________...
AN ANALYSIS OF VOCATIONAL OPTIONS FOR MENTALLY HANDICAPPED SCHOOL LEAVERS_________________________________________________...
AN ANALYSIS OF VOCATIONAL OPTIONS FOR MENTALLY HANDICAPPED SCHOOL LEAVERS_________________________________________________...
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped
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Transcript of "Transition from School to Work: A Handbook for the Mentally Handicapped"

  1. 1. ADRIAN KNIEL TRANSITION FROM SCHOOL TO WORKA HANDBOOK FOR PARENTS AND TEACHERS OF MENTALLY HANDICAPPED ADOLESCENTS IN GHANA
  2. 2. ADRIAN KNIEL TRANSITION FROM SCHOOL TO WORKA HANDBOOK FOR PARENTS AND TEACHERSOF MENTALLY HANDICAPPED ADOLESCENTS IN GHANA
  3. 3. UNIVERSITY OF WINNEBADRUCKEREI
  4. 4. CONTENTI. PREFACE ..........................................................................................5 1.1. A new concept of transition .....................................................5 1.2. Decent work as the goal of transition ......................................6 1.3. Gender roles and work in Ghana ..............................................7 1.4. A word of thanks .....................................................................8II. INTRODUCTION ..............................................................................9 2.1. Opportunities, abilities and interests .....................................10 2.2. A stepwise approach .............................................................11III. THE PRESENT SITUATION OF SCHOOL LEAVERS .........................12 3.1. The situation of handicapped and non handicapped school leavers is comparable .....................................................................14 3.2. Employment related Legislation and Disability ......................14IV. THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION ....................................................17 4.1. School Learning .....................................................................17 4.2. Transition planning ................................................................19 4.3. How to analyze job opportunities ..........................................21 4.4. Vocational assessment ..........................................................23 4.5. Assessing vocational interest ................................................24 4.6. Assessing abilities .................................................................26 4.7. Job Analysis ...........................................................................31 4.8. Job matching .........................................................................33V. AN ANALYSIS OF VOCATIONAL OPTIONS FOR MENTALLYHANDICAPPED SCHOOL LEAVERS ......................................................37 5.1. ANIMAL REARING ..................................................................40 5.1.1. Animal manure maker ...................................................41 5.1.2. Beekeeping assistant ....................................................43 5.1.3. Feed attendant ..............................................................45 5.1.4. Fisherman’s assistant ...................................................47 5.1.5. Helper in grass cutter rearing .......................................49 5.1.6. Herdsman’s helper ........................................................51 5.1.7. Poultry feeder ...............................................................53 5.1.8. Rabbit rearing helper ....................................................55 5.1.9. Snail raising helper .......................................................58 5.1.10. Tilapia raising assistant ................................................60
  5. 5. 5.2. CROP FARMING ..................................................................... 62 5.2.1. Citrus orchard assistant ............................................... 63 5.2.2. Cocoa farmer’s assistant .............................................. 65 5.2.3. Cotton farming assistant .............................................. 67 5.2.4. Flower garden helper ................................................... 69 5.2.5. Garden eggs farming assistant ..................................... 71 5.2.6. Mushroom farming helper ............................................ 74 5.2.7. Okro farmer’s helper .................................................... 76 5.2.8. Onion farming assistant ............................................... 78 5.2.9. Pepper farming assistant ............................................. 81 5.2.10. Potato farming assistant .............................................. 84 5.2.11. Shallot farming assistant ............................................. 86 5.2.12. Tomato farmer’s assistant ............................................ 885.3. CRAFTS INVOLVING HEAVY PHYSICAL LABOUR .................... 92 5.3.1. Blacksmith’s helper ...................................................... 93 5.3.2. Block maker’s assistant ................................................ 95 5.3.3. Chain saw operator’s assistant ..................................... 97 5.3.4. Charcoal burner’s assistant .......................................... 99 5.3.5. Firewood splitter’s assistant ...................................... 101 5.3.6. Salt mining assistant .................................................. 103 5.3.7. Vulcanizer’s assistant ................................................. 1055.4. CRAFTS INVOLVING LIGHT PHYSICAL LABOUR ................... 107 5.4.1. Batik maker’s assistant .............................................. 108 5.4.2. Bead maker’s helper ................................................... 111 5.4.3. Body pomade maker’s helper ..................................... 113 5.4.4. Book binding assistant ............................................... 115 5.4.5. Broom maker’s helper ................................................ 117 5.4.6. Calabash maker’s helper ............................................ 119 5.4.7. Carver’s helper ........................................................... 121 5.4.8. Chew stick maker’s assistant ..................................... 123 5.4.9. Door mat weaver’s helper .......................................... 125 5.4.10. Dressmaker’s helper .................................................. 127 5.4.11. Envelope maker’s helper ............................................ 129 5.4.12. Leather bag maker’s helper ........................................ 131 5.4.13. Mat weaver’s helper ................................................... 133 5.4.14. Paper flower maker’s helper ...................................... 135 5.4.15. Polythene bag maker’s helper .................................... 137 5.4.16. Pure water bag packer ............................................... 139 5.4.17. Rope maker’s assistant .............................................. 141 5.4.18. Shea butter extractor’s helper .................................... 144 5.4.19. Soap maker’s helper ................................................... 147 5.4.20. Thatch weaver’s helper .............................................. 149 5.4.21. Yarn spinning assistant .............................................. 151
  6. 6. 5.5. FOOD PREPARATION AND PROCESSING ..............................153 5.5.1. Bean cake preparation helper .....................................154 5.5.2. Biscuit baker’s assistant .............................................157 5.5.3. Blackberry drink seller’s assistant ..............................160 5.5.4. Coconut flour preparation helper ................................162 5.5.5. Coconut seller’s helper ...............................................164 5.5.6. Corn dough preparation assistant ...............................166 5.5.7. Corn mill assistant ......................................................169 5.5.8. Fish descaler’s helper .................................................171 5.5.9. Fish smoking assistant ................................................173 5.5.10. Groundnut paste maker’s helper .................................176 5.5.11. Groundnut chips ‘Kulikuli’ preparation helper .............179 5.5.12. Kenkey seller’s helper .................................................181 5.5.13. Local corn drinks preparation helper ..........................184 5.5.14. Palm oil preparation helper .........................................187 5.5.15. Palm wine tapper’s assistant ......................................190 5.5.16. Pito brewing assistant ................................................192 5.5.17. Plantain griller’s helper ...............................................194 5.5.18. Porridge making assistant ..........................................196 5.5.19. Soya bean kebab seller’s helper ..................................198 5.5.20. Tea seller’s helping hand ............................................201 5.6. SERVICES AND COMMERCE ..................................................203 5.6.1. Bookman’s assistant ...................................................204 5.6.2. Car washer’s assistant ................................................206 5.6.3. Chop bar assistant ......................................................208 5.6.4. Clothes washer’s assistant ..........................................210 5.6.5. Cobbler’s helper ..........................................................212 5.6.6. Cocoa bean dryer’s assistant ......................................214 5.6.7. Female house helper ...................................................216 5.6.8. Garden boy .................................................................219 5.6.9. Hairdresser’s assistant ...............................................221 5.6.10. Houseboy ....................................................................224 5.6.11. Refuse collector’s helper .............................................226 5.6.12. Sales assistant ............................................................228 5.6.13. Second hand shoe seller’s helper ................................230 5.6.14. Ward assistant ............................................................232VI. ORGANIZING TRANSITION AND SUPPORT ................................234 6.1. Transition Team ...................................................................234 6.2. Information needed .............................................................235 6.3. Results and discussion ........................................................236
  7. 7. VII. AN OUTLINE OF PRE-VOCATIONAL TRAINING ......................... 240 7.1. An analysis of basic vocational skills .................................. 240 7.2. Prerequisite skills in animal rearing .................................... 243 7.3. Prerequisite skills in crop farming ...................................... 244 7.4. Prerequisite skills in crafts: light or heavy physical labor ... 245 7.6. Prerequisite skills in food preparation and processing ........ 247 7.7. Prerequisite skills in services and commerce ...................... 248 7.8. The school curriculum and prerequisite skills for vocations 249VIII. AN OUTLINE OF A PREVOCATIONAL TRAINING PROGRAM ..... 251 8.1. Task skills common to all vocational areas ......................... 251 8.2. Criteria for selecting pre-vocational activities in the Ghanaian setting ......................................................................................... 253 8.3. Time Frame ......................................................................... 257 8.4. School based vocational project phase ............................... 257 8.5. Job shadowing program ...................................................... 258 8.6. Onsite training program ...................................................... 258IX. A FINAL WORD .......................................................................... 261X. ANNEXE ...................................................................................... 262 10.1. WINNEBA VOCATIONAL READINESS SCALE (WVRS) ........... 262 10.2. WINNEBA SUPPORT NEEDS CHECKLIST .............................. 263 10.3. WINNEBA ACTIVITY LIST OF FAMILY MEMBERS (WALFM) .. 264XI. REFERENCES ............................................................................. 266
  8. 8. PREFACE________________________________________________________________________________________ I. PREFACESchools for the Mentally Retarded have been burdened with adult “pupils” formany years. Since teachers of pupils with a mental handicap not only feelresponsible for their schooling but also for their future life, the tendency wasto keep these persons in a school setting as long as possible. This “solution” isdue to a misunderstanding of the process of transition from school to work anda lack of confrontation with the realities of economic life and the socialorganization of families and communities in Ghana.The aim of some schools was to start production of food or other saleablearticles, ignoring the fact that none of the teachers were trained craftsmen orhad much business experience. Also, the prerequisites for successfulmarketing, such as market analysis, advertising goods and services, favorablelocation of the production site, etc. were often absent.Other establishments guided by the traditional training and rehabilitationapproach aimed at teaching their wards a skill (usually batik, basket orenvelope making, farming etc.) with the goal of achieving such a level ofcompetence that they could survive economic competition after graduation.High hopes were also placed in government laws and regulations that wouldoblige employers in Ghana to hire mentally retarded persons for the fewsalaried jobs available – though the majority of Ghanaians works in theinformal sector. 1.1. A new concept of transitionThis handbook attempts a radical departure from these strategies which havefailed in the past and attempts to outline a concept which takes into accountthe realities of Ghanaian society.This includes: • Focusing on the role of the family as the primary source of self- employment in Ghanaian economy • Guiding the process of (individualized) transition from school to work in describing the basic elements of each step in simple terms 5
  9. 9. PREFACE________________________________________________________________________________________ • Presenting informal tools for assessing work readiness and support needs of adolescents with mental retardation in order to judge the likelihood that they will be successful at a given job • Listing in detail a large number of vocational activities common to Ghanaian economy that can be mastered to different degrees by persons with mental retardation depending on their individual skill level • And finally describing what basic skills are the necessary foundations for a large number of jobs and should be trained at the prevocational level in school. 1.2. Decent work as the goal of transitionThe term “job” and “employment” will be used in this handbook in the sense ofproductive activity which includes self-employment and family labor as jobs forpersons with disabilities. Presently, these will be found predominantly in theinformal sector which does not exclude hiring persons with intellectualdisabilities in the formal sector. For example, a hospital could hire such aperson as a ward cleaner; or a senior secondary school could hire someone forgardening, maintenance work etc.Thirty five years ago, in 1971, the UN General Assembly proclaimed aDeclaration on the Rights of Mentally Retarded Persons. The Declarationaffirmed that mentally retarded persons had the same rights as everyone else.Specifically, they had a right to such education, training, rehabilitation andguidance that would enable them to develop their ability and maximumpotential; a right to economic security and a decent standard of living; a rightto perform productive work or to engage in any other meaningful occupationto the fullest possible extent of their capabilities.This idea was taken up again in the Standard Rules on the Equalization ofOpportunities for Persons with Disabilities that were adopted by the UnitedNations General Assembly on 20 December 1993. There are 22 rules, rangingfrom awareness-raising to international cooperation. Employment is coveredby Rule 7: ‘States should recognize the principle that persons with disabilitiesmust be empowered to exercise their human rights, particularly in the field ofemployment. In both rural and urban areas, they must have equalopportunities for productive and gainful employment in the labor market.6
  10. 10. PREFACE________________________________________________________________________________________In recent years, the concept of “decent work” has been propagated by theInternational Labor Organization (ILO). In the Decent Work Report of Mr. JuanSomavia, ILO Director-General, at the 87th session of the International LabourConference (1999) he defined this term as follows: "Decent work meansproductive work in which rights are protected, which generates an adequateincome, with adequate social protection. It also means sufficient work, in thesense that all should have full access to income-earning opportunities. Itmarks the high road to economic and social development, a road in whichemployment, income and social protection can be achieved without 1compromising workers rights and social standards.”Thus, the right to decent work has three right’s dimensions: • the right to work, • rights in work • and the right to adequate social protection.The right to decent work is not confined to wage employment, but extends toself-employment, home working and other income-generating activities. Thisis why we have decided to call the benefits a person with a mental handicapgets in the informal sector or a family business his “take home share”. Thefact that the person does not receive a steady wage and must be satisfied by ashare of the profits an economical activity applies to most family businessesand activities in the informal sector. Very often this “take home share” islimited to food, lodgings and some clothing from time to time. This does notonly apply to persons with an intellectual disability but seems a generalcharacteristic of work in the informal sector which dominates Ghana economy. 1.3. Gender roles and work in GhanaMany of the simple jobs described in this handbook are still gender bound.Blacksmithing or being a butcher, a musician, a palm oil extractor or pitobrewer is customarily done either by men or women. Though most jobs will beopen to both sexes in the future, in this handbook we stick to realities at thebeginning of the millennium.1 http://www.awid.org/go.php?pg=ilo 7
  11. 11. PREFACE________________________________________________________________________________________In order to make reading less cumbersome I have also avoided the “politicallycorrect” option of writing him or her him or her and himself/herself at everyoccasion where the designated person could be either female or male. Where ajob is customarily performed by women I have opted for “she” in the cases ofvocations usually taken by me I use “he”. I hope the reader will excuse thisprocedure. 1.4. A word of thanksThis handbook could not have been prepared without the help of threegenerations of students of the Education of the Mentally Handicapped unit atthe Special Education Department of the University of Education, Winneba(graduation years 2004, 2005 and 2006). Following guidelines, they analyzedthe tasks that comprise the helper jobs described in the chapter “An analysisof vocational options for mentally handicapped school leavers”.I would like to thank all of these students for their contribution and hope thatthe handbook will be useful for practicing teachers of mentally handicappedpersons.Christiane Kniel-Jurka, Sandy Weiler, Comfort Ahamenyo and Shadrack Majisiread through and commented on the draft version of this handbook. I wouldalso like to thank them for their ideas and support.The intention of this handbook can be summed up in two proverbs, one fromthe African and one from the European tradition: It takes a whole village to raise a childan African thought which means that everyone in a community needs toparticipate in the education of a child so that it fits into society. The Latinproverb Non scholae sed vitae discimustells us that we learn not for school but for life.It is with these thoughts in mind that the handbook has been writtenWinneba November 2006 Adrian Kniel8
  12. 12. INTRODUCTION________________________________________________________________________________________ II. INTRODUCTIONEvery parent and teacher hopes for a bright future for the children entrustedto them and worries about what type of work they can do to survive afterleaving school.In Ghana the majority of school leavers - be they handicapped or nonhandicapped - earn their living in the informal sector, which means that thereis no formal employment contract, no health benefits or social securitypayments and their earnings fluctuate from day to day. The GhanaDemographic and Health Survey 1998 (Ghana Statistical Service, 1999, 19-23) shows for example that three quarters of all working women are self-employed and that the majority earns cash. Others work seasonally oroccasionally. Those 10 percent of women who work for a relative in themajority of cases do not receive cash for their work. Very often a youngperson contributes with his work to the survival of the family as a unit but themajority of income is contributed by the parents or other relatives.According to recent estimates, 60% of the labor force is working in agriculture,15% in industry, and 25% are occupied in services. We can expect a similardistribution of work areas if we consider the transition from school to work foradolescents with mental retardation.In addition, as the unemployment rate in Ghana estimated for 2001 ispresently at 20% of the workforce, we can also assume that about one fifth ofall mentally handicapped persons of working age would not find a job.22 Information about youth unemployment and the informal sector in sub SaharanAfrica can be found in African Economic Outlook2004/2005, Chant & Jones(2005), Economic Commission for Africa (2002), EFA Global Monitoring Report2996), Fluitman 2001), United Nations Office for West Africa 2005), Xaba, Horn &Motala (2002). The location of these documents in the internet can be found inthe References at the end of this handbook. 9
  13. 13. INTRODUCTION________________________________________________________________________________________ 2.1. Opportunities, abilities and interestsIn any country of the world, what a person does depends on three factors: OPPORTUNITIES INTERESTS ABILITIESIn the case of Ghana opportunities depend to a large extent on theindividual’s situation. • Whether the person lives in an urban or rural environment. Obviously farming is a more common occupation in a rural environment, whereas services, manufacturing and trading dominate in an urban setting. • On the geographical location of the persons residence. Fishing and fish smoking is more frequent on the coast, whereas herding cattle is more likely to be a means of earning a living in the north. • And finally the financial means of the family are an important factor. If the father owns a cocoa farm, the son can work in this occupation. If the mother has the capital to start up a small shop, the daughter can sell there, etc.Interests are obviously influenced by experiences the person has made. Aperson who grows up in a setting where small animals are raised will oftendevelop an interest for this activity but is very unlikely to have the desire tobecome a fisherman. Usually young people tend to become interested inactivities in which they do well and where they are successful. One of thegoals of educating children with a mental disability is to offer them manyopportunities to increase the number of their interests, so that choice and selfdetermination will be possible when it is time to look for work.10
  14. 14. INTRODUCTION________________________________________________________________________________________Abilities also determine the type of work a young person will eventuallyperform. We have developed a scale that measures different competencelevels that are necessary for most simple jobs available in the Ghanaianenvironment. The scale also includes physical strength and agility, motivationand work behavior, orientation and travel and functional academics amongother skill areas. 2.2. A stepwise approachIn this handbook we use a stepwise procedure to analyze the elements thatneed to be considered and shaped in placing a person with a mental disabilityon the job market. Our approach differs from the usual procedure, for examplein a National Vocational Training Institute or a Rehabilitation Centre where aperson is trained in an activity up to a certain level of competence and thenleft to go out, to search for work or set up his own business. The basic idea ofthis former strategy can be described as TRAINING LEADS TO JOBAs we will show however, this has not been very successful with youths with amental handicap in Ghana as opportunities, interests and abilities have notbeen sufficiently considered in the past.The basic orientation of this handbook is therefore: FIRST THE JOB THEN THE TRAININGThis means that when a future job activity has been selected under theparticipation of all concerned parties (as a rule parents and the young personhim/herself), the gap between the skills the person has already acquired andthose still necessary for mastering the job at hand are directly trained on thejob site. 11
  15. 15. INTRODUCTION________________________________________________________________________________________III. THE PRESENT SITUATION OF SCHOOL LEAVERSBefore we look at specific studies in Ghana, it is important to view theemployment situation of persons with a disability in so-called developedcountries to avoid illusions. As Elwan (1997) reports in her review, the rate ofemployment of persons with a disability in high income countries is about halfof those of non disabled persons of the same age group. In developingcountries such as Mauritius only 16% of persons with a disability areeconomically active as compared to 53% of the total population; and, inBotswana, the figures are 34% of the disabled as compared to 51% in thegeneral population (SIDA, 1995).Just as there are no systematic follow-up studies of transition from school towork for graduates of regular schools in Ghana, information about youngsterswith an intellectual disability are mostly anecdotal.Hayford (2001) in a study of four Special Schools in Ghana found that in theperiod between 1992 and 1996, only five adolescents changed over fromschool to the world of work. In addition, none of these schools used formalassessment procedures to select trainees for specific vocational programs, andthe numbers of options were extremely limited: basketry, farming, batik andenvelope making.Even though Special Schools for the mentally handicapped have officiallyexisted in Ghana since 1968, a study by Kniel (1995) indicates these schoolswere not able to supply data on the situation of their graduates. Schools werenot in contact with school leavers who, in the case of boarding schools, comefrom all over the nation. This still applies to the present situation.In a survey of all school leavers of schools for mentally handicapped childrenin Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Togo and Zaire graduates had left schools on theaverage five and one half years previously and were in their early twenties(Kniel, 1995). The large majority (83%) was still living with their parents, andtheir vocational activities can be characterized as “helpers” or “assistants”. Ifwe combine male and female graduates • Most school leavers (35,5%) were helping at home • The second largest group was, in the opinion of their former teachers, doing nothing at all12
  16. 16. INTRODUCTION________________________________________________________________________________________ • Craftsmanship such as weaving, sewing or woodwork was the third most frequent activity (10, 5%) • Service activities such as sweeping in a hospital, transporting goods on a pushcart or peddling wares in front of the house were about as frequent as crafts (10%).This distribution of activities can only be understood if we consider that theexisting schools were all located in large towns (Abidjan, Lomé, Kinshasa andYaoundé) so that farming or animal raising was not an option. Unfortunately,with very few exceptions (Congo, Ghana, Nigeria and Togo) in the nations ofWestern and Central Africa, schools for mentally handicapped children arelimited to the capitals or do not exist at all.Four fifths of the sample (79,5%) worked at home or with relatives and only aminority (20,5%) worked away from home or with other persons than their(extended) family members. About half of the former pupils of Special Schools(51,5%) received no remuneration for their activities; about one third (32%)occasional gifts; and less than one fifth (16,5%) received a part of the profitor a salary. Even without exact data, it seems safe to assume that only a fewschool leavers could support themselves independently just as this applies to alarge sector of graduates in the general population.Except for general housekeeping training which seems to be useful, with sucha large number of mentally handicapped graduates helping at home, there is alack of fit between training at school and actual activity after leaving school.Only 14% of those trained in farming and animal husbandry were later activein this field, 32% were exercising the craft they had learned at school,whereas 67% of those trained in housework were actually helping in thehome.More graduates from poor homes were following some kind of activity ascompared to those from wealthier families and more girls were working thanboys. Good work habits and willingness to work, as observed by their formerteachers, correlated with actually working after leaving school.This situation seems quite comparable to anecdotic evidence given by teachersat the JSS level of their former pupils. Questioned on the present situation oftheir former pupils students from three consecutive years of Special EducationTraining in Winneba indicated • the majority were self employed with no steady income • average earnings were around 300 000 cedis a month 13
  17. 17. INTRODUCTION________________________________________________________________________________________ • with few exceptions these graduates in their early twenties still lived with their parents and could not afford to marry • Many helped in the (extended) family activities. 3.1. The situation of handicapped and non handicapped school leavers is comparableThere seems to be a comparable situation between school leavers of regularand special schools • the link between schools and the world of work in regular and special settings is extremely weak • the family environment and setting in which the graduate will return after graduation is not taken in accountThe main difference between these schools is that teachers in regular schoolsdo not accept responsibility for the vocational future of their graduates. Inspecial schools however, there is a tendency to keep even adults in the hopeof eventually training them to a level of competence so that they can succeedin working independently. This seems an illusion as, by definition, mentalretardation implies that although the person can attain a certain level ofindependence; he will need lifelong support and guidance. 3.2. Employment related Legislation and DisabilityVery often it is assumed that employment opportunities for persons with adisability can be enforced by national laws. As the International LabourOrganization (2004) outlines, legal frameworks include quota obligations,employment equity and non- discriminations laws and laws on job retention.Job retention laws require an employer to continue to hire an employee whohas acquired a disability while working for him. We can ignore these provisions14
  18. 18. INTRODUCTION________________________________________________________________________________________as the mentally handicapped school leaver changing over to the world of workhas not been employed before.In many European countries such as Germany, France and Italy quotaschemes oblige companies of a certain size to hire a percentage ofhandicapped workers. Otherwise they have to pay a contribution into a centralfund for the use of vocational rehabilitation, sheltered workshops oraccessibility of the workplace.Equity or non-discrimination laws require firms to offer equal employmentopportunities to persons with a disability and prohibit discrimination inrecruitment, promotion and other areas of employment. This model is appliedin the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom among others.In Ghana part II of the Legislative Instrument (L1632), Transfer LabourRegulation 1969 specifies among other • the establishment of Disablement Employment Centres (DEC), • a National Council in to advise and assist the Minister in matters and training of persons with a disability and • that a quota of posts in the public and private sectors (0,5% of the total labour force) should be set aside for sedentary jobs.None of these provisions have been applied.The recently discussed but not yet approved “Persons with Disability Bill”foresees • providing unemployed persons with a disability with training, • providing the person with the necessary tools or working materials • or assisting with the access to loan capital so the person can start a business.However the monitoring and implementation of a legal framework for personswith a disability assumes that the government and the individual have thenecessary means and powers to enforce these laws and regulations. Presentlythis does not seem to be the case in Ghana.In addition, studies have shown (Mont, 2004) that even in developed nationswith a legal support system and enforcement of these regulations by thejudiciary system and monitoring agencies, employment rates of persons with adisability are far higher than those of the general population. 15
  19. 19. INTRODUCTION________________________________________________________________________________________This is not to say that everyone interested in the welfare of school leavers witha mental handicap should not lobby for legal provisions. But a legal frameworkwithout implementation measures cannot be effective.This is why in this handbook we concentrate on a short term strategy forenabling the transition from school to work instead of counting on governmentmeasures that will probably not be implemented in the near future.16
  20. 20. THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION________________________________________________________________________________________IV. THE PROCESS OF TRANSITIONThressiakutty, A.T. & Rao, L.G. (2001) have reviewed numerous transitionmodels in a publication of the National Institute for the Mentally Handicapped,India and have developed a transition model for persons with mentalretardation. This can be adapted to the Ghanaian situation in a simplifiedform: Phase of Transition Elements of Transition Pre-primary Primary School learning Secondary Pre-vocational Job Identification Vocational assessment Transition Planning Job Analysis Job Matching On the job training Identifying support Job Placement Monitoring and fade out of support 4.1. School LearningIn school children do not only learn specific academic skills but they are alsosocialized in the norms and values of society. These behavioural dispositionsacquired in school allow the later integration into the world of work even of 17
  21. 21. THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION________________________________________________________________________________________those children with a mental retardation who have not been successful infunctional academics.The following table based on the ideas of a German psychologist Rudolf Oerterillustrates some of the elements which school learning and the world of workhave in common: School Work Learning a large number of contents Achieving tasks which are not which do not seem to be related necessarily related in the understanding of the worker Obligation to study subjects which may Obligation of achieving work, which not be interesting for the pupil may not be interesting or satisfying for the worker Tasks need to be achieved in a given Tasks need to be achieved in a time frame given time frame Tasks are expected to be achieved in Tasks are expected to be achieved good quality in good quality Pupil is expected to show interest for all Worker is expected to work with subjects and learning materials dedication at any type of task In most cases pupils are not able to In most cases workers are not able judge the fundamental reasons for the to judge the role his work plays in content they are expected to learn the economic structure of society Praise by teachers parents and other Money food or other advantages as students as reinforcement for learning reinforcement for work in schoolAs we shall see in a later analysis, quite a number of specific elements taughtin school help acquire skills needed in vocational activities: • being able to communicate and respond adequately to questions and conversation • following instructions • measuring equal distances • being able to distinguish clean from dirty, large from small, heavy from light etc.18
  22. 22. THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION________________________________________________________________________________________In an Indian study of vocational skills of persons with an intellectual disabilitySuresh & Santhanam (2002) distinguish between generic skills and vocationalskills and aptitudes.By generic skills they mean general skills such as self-help skills,communication, social behaviour, functional academics, safety skills, domesticbehaviour and motor skills.Vocational skills and aptitudes describe abilities such as perception, motorco-ordination, finger and manual dexterity, which relate more closely to thespecific job at hand.In addition we distinguish work traits which refer to motivation, promptnessof task achievement etc. and which determine the employability of a person.As a rule, the jobs which we will analyze in one of the following chapters donot demand a high level of academic skills. In fact, as a rule no skills inreading, writing or formal arithmetic are required. The majority of the nonhandicapped people exercising these vocations are barely literate.We will look at key skills that are necessary for the majority of simpleactivities described in this handbook and present tools that will enable thereader to judge if the young person with an intellectual disability is suitable forthe job at hand or what further training he would need. 4.2. Transition planningJob Identification includes surveying job opportunities available in theenvironment in which the person lives as well as the persons (usually familymembers) who are willing to have the person assist them in their occupation.Vocational Assessment consists of identifying the interests of the trainee,usually by observation as well as determining vocational readiness in differentskill areas which make it likely that he/she will succeed in a specific job.Job analysis consists of listing the different tasks which make up the job insequence as precisely as possible. Here we distinguish core elements, whichare those most frequently performed (i.e. stacking of firewood) and episodicelements which occur from time to time (i.e. bringing the wood to themarket). 19
  23. 23. THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION________________________________________________________________________________________By comparing the skills needed for the specific job and the individual’s presentlevel of competence we can decide what elements must be trained (JobMatching).A detailed guide to these procedures by Heron (2005) can be found in theinternet.Job PlacementFinally following the principle first the job, then the training, we need totrain the person to perform the tasks that make up the job sequence oridentify those elements which he can do efficiently.Carving sculptures consists of multiple elements from selecting wood,sharpening tools, designing the shape to be carved to finally polishing andexhibiting the product. But there is no reason why one or several simpleelements such as storing the tools, keeping the workplace clean or sandingand polishing the sculpture cannot be a full time job for a carver’s helper. Thismeans that in training we concentrate on those job elements which the personcan achieve with success. Some girls with a mental handicap can learn to sewwith a machine, some can learn to stitch evenly, and others can learn to sewbuttons depending on their individual skill level. This does not mean that eachone of these persons cannot become a helper to a seamstress depending onthe need for this type of assistance.There is no formula to determine the number of weeks and the degree ofintensity with which a person must be trained as this depends on theindividual’s motivation and ability. However, by using our own observation andcommon sense we can soon determine how much training and supervision willbe necessary.It should again be stressed, that job training can only be achieved underreal conditions: There is no way a charcoal burner’s helper can be trained atthe site of a special school or that a special school can offer the wide range ofactivities that exist as possible jobs for adolescents with a mental handicap.Therefore, the task of the school is to practice certain basic skills inprevocational training and follow the graduate into the community wherehe/she is trained by those persons actually performing the job. Teachers canonly assist in this process by coaching and supervising when20
  24. 24. THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION________________________________________________________________________________________necessary, not by assuming the role of a craftsman or farmerthemselves. 4.3. How to analyze job opportunitiesIf we are looking for potential jobs in the community in which the youngmentally retarded person lives, we can select a number of activities in takingthe following guidelines in consideration: • Look for simple jobs, where the same procedure is repeated without great variation • Look for jobs where the risk of accidents and injury is low • Look for jobs with low time pressure • Look for jobs which can be performed in a group so that help and supervision is possibleObviously, the first source of employment would be a family business. In asurvey of parents of children at Echoing Hills in Accra for example, Sarbah &Gidiglio (2003) found that the majority of mothers and aunties could imaginehaving their handicapped children working alongside their jobs as very manywere petty traders or doing small crafts in the house.But in approaching potential employers we can also think of the extendedfamily, aunties, uncles, brothers and sisters, cousins, grandparents etc. whomight need a helping hand and work in a field that appeals to the graduateand fits his abilities.In addition, there are church members and other person in the communitythat can be approached because they need some assistance and are willing tohelp their fellow man.Certainly, if the parents are well connected, they can attempt to find jobs suchas messenger/ cleaner in the public sector (hospitals, schools, district councils)if possible.This handbook gives a wide variety of job activities which can stimulate yourideas. 21
  25. 25. THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION________________________________________________________________________________________A stepwise approachUse a stepwise approach: 1. A list of all possible job options can be worked out with the parents in a brainstorming session. 2. This list of possible jobs can be evaluated together by looking at the young person’s abilities and interests to see, which options should really be attempted. 3. Work out, who is going to approach which potential employer3. 4. Decide when to meet again to report on results.Approaching potential employersIn approaching potential employers, even if they are relatives of the personconcerned, we cannot always count on an enthusiastic reception.Therefore we should use the following approach: 1. Contact the potential employer in a friendly and positive manner. 2. Choose a convenient time for the visit or offer to come back again if the time chosen is not practical. 3. Talk about what the person in question can do and not what he cannot do. 4. Give examples of positive job performance of other workers with mental retardation. 5. Underline that very often mentally handicapped persons enjoy simple repetitive tasks and are eager to work if they are treated well. 6. Remember, in talking to a potential employer or relative willing to work with the graduate it is your job to listen and understand the problems that this person might anticipate and not to preach or argue with him. 7. You are not there to expound the righteous sermon of brotherly love for the mentally retarded but to understand and analyze what obstacles the potential employers or family member sees in working with the young mentally handicapped person. These doubts must be overcome3 The employer will in the majority of cases be a relative sharing his work and some of theprofits with his mentally handicapped helper22
  26. 26. THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION________________________________________________________________________________________ by your input and active assistance, not by sermonizing or giving verbal advice. Talk is cheap; it is direct help from you that the potential employer or family member expects. 8. It is also possible that some member of the family perhaps an elder brother or sister or the mother would like to start a small business, where the person with a mental disability could be of help. The National Board for Small Scale Industries (NBSSI) has an Entrepreneurship Development Programme (EDP) which trains persons in starting and running a successful business and has regional secretariats in all regional capitals throughout Ghana as well advisors in some district capitals. 9. You should therefore be familiar with the location of advisory services, of micro credit schemes and of NGOs active in your area in order to help the family or potential employers. 4.4. Vocational assessmentVocational assessment consists of analyzing the vocational interests of ayoung person with an intellectual disability as well as testing those abilitiesthat make it likely that he will succeed at a specific task.The goal of assessment is making an informed decision as to whether theyoung person has the prerequisite skills to handle a specific job and if hispersonality and interests are suitable so that he will be willing to work at thisspecific task.Work is a very important part of our life and we spend most of the time we areawake working. A job can be a source of accomplishment and pride and havean enormous effect on our overall life satisfaction, or it can be a cause forfrustration and dissatisfaction. That is why it is so important to spend sometime in analyzing what type of work is available (i.e. opportunities), and couldbe done by the young person, as well as to include the graduate in thedecision making process. Not the teacher or the school decides thevocational future of the graduate but the young person and hisparents or tutors. 23
  27. 27. THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION________________________________________________________________________________________ 4.5. Assessing vocational interestMost formal tools for assessing vocational interests are paper and pencil testswhich look at general interests and compare choices of activities and work thatmatches this interest (e.g. the Strong Interest Inventory4). However, these assessment tools demand reading and writing skills that thevast majority of students with a mental handicap do not possess. They havebeen developed for industrialized society so their use is questionable in Ghana.Even the Reading Free Vocational Interest Inventory (R-FVII)5 which isdesigned specifically for persons with mental retardation or learning difficultiesand uses pictures in order to assess interest for different service areas cannotbe used in our context because of different vocational activities in Americanand Ghanaian society.Therefore until such tools have been developed, parents, teachers and thegraduates themselves will need to base their decisions as to interest invocational activities on observation and informal questioning.Three simple methodsThere are three simple methods of finding out the vocational interests of ayoung school leaver. These are: • Asking the young mentally handicapped person himself in a formal interview or informal conversation • Questioning the parents, teachers and other individuals familiar with the person • Observing if the person shows enthusiasm and satisfaction as he performs different prevocational activitiesVery often by observing the young person in the school context, talking to himabout his preferences and interviewing individuals close to him, we can easilydecide, if the student:4 http://www.careers-by-design.com/strong_interest_inventory.htm5 http://www.psychcorp.com/catalogs/paipc/psy132dpri.htm24
  28. 28. THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION________________________________________________________________________________________ • prefers activities in the classroom to those out on the grounds • likes gross motor physical activities as compared to fine motor activities while sitting down • prefers to work alone or in a group • likes being around animals or prefers working the soil • can tolerate dirty work and noise or would prefer a quiet indoor environmentUnfortunately, in Ghana education often seems to mean staying in a schoolbuilding. However, especially for the prevocational classes getting to know alarge number of vocational activities is very important for developing careerinterests.Visiting a cobbler at the work site, seeing how a food seller prepares her mealsand accompanying a cattle herdsman for a day or two can be moreeducational than sitting in a classroom looking at a blackboard.The syllabus of prevocational training should include a large number of sucheducational visits.Very often in informal conversation young mentally handicapped pupils willexpress interest in jobs that are very probably “out of their reach”, such asbecoming a bus driver or repairing televisions and cassette decks. We shouldnot make fun of them and ridicule them for misjudging their abilities but taketheir wish seriously.An older boy in a unit for mentally handicapped children was very interested inand friendly with craftsmen in an electronics workshop near his family house.He expressed a strong desire to work as a TV and radio repairman. Since thefine motor and cognitive skills involved in this work were considered toocomplex for his abilities, the mother and the school looked for a solution thatwould reconcile his interest and abilities. As there were people in the housethat could always be called on to help, the young man was installed in front ofthe house to sell DVDs and play cassettes to people passing by which he didwith great enthusiasm and some success. 25
  29. 29. THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION________________________________________________________________________________________ 4.6. Assessing abilitiesIn our stepwise approach, an analysis of abilities of the young person with amental handicap is intended to analyze prerequisite skills that make it likelythat the person will succeed in the job that he and his family have selected.It can only be underlined again that many simple jobs in which mentallyretarded school leavers can work as assistants or helpers do not demand veryhigh prerequisite skill levels, especially if the person is not expected toperform the entire task involved from beginning to end. This means, forexample, in helping with making pottery the activities of the helper can belimited to preparing the clay or firing the kiln, so that dexterity at shaping potsis not essential. Just as many jobs do not demand a great deal of physicalstrength, in others language skills or a pleasing appearance or reading skillsare not essential.Our Winneba Vocational Readiness Scale (WVRS) which is printed in theannexe can be used to determine whether a mentally handicapped individualhas those necessary skills which make it likely that he can work in a certainoccupation. This scale permits a judgement if the person possesses thenecessary prerequisite skills that make it probable that he will succeed ineffectively training for a certain jobEach of the eight dimensions (social competence, safety awareness, self careskills, orientation and travel, functional academics, social behaviour,motivation and work behaviour, physical strength and agility) may be ofdifferent importance for different occupations. For example, skills concerningorientation in the community and travel competencies are important forsomeone moving around and collecting rubbish whereas functional academicskills are irrelevant for this job. On the other hand, a person working as a shopassistant would in some cases need certain functional academic skills such asreading product labels or making change whereas travel competencies wouldusually not be important.Therefore observing the level of competence in the eight skill areas ofprerequisite skills at the school level can give valuable information as to theselection of possible occupations for school leavers.To make this point more clear let us compare profiles in the WinnebaVocational Readiness Scale (WVRS ) that would make it likely that aperson could successfully be trained to work effectively as a tomato grower’shelper; whereas successful training as a chop bar cleaner would be quite26
  30. 30. THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION________________________________________________________________________________________difficult because the prerequisite skills are mostly missing. In the followingtable, the minimum competencies have been listed according to the WinnebaVocational Readiness Scale. Even though a higher level of competence maybe desirable and would make collaboration with the helper who is mentallyhandicapped easier, this readiness level would be sufficient to perform the jobat hand, if specific training on the job is added.Please compare the total scores in the different skill areas to get an idea ofhow these can be used to judge whether a person has the necessaryprerequisite skills to be likely to accomplish certain jobs6.6 Of course some of the scores deemed necessary for certain skills are somewhat arbitrary.we have tried to define the minimum level of competence that would be required as astarting point for on the job training 27
  31. 31. THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION Tomato grower’s helper Chop Bar AssistantDuties Clearing of the land Selling of drinking water to customers, Planting of Tomato seedlings Collecting of the plates after customers finish eating Weeding Cleaning of the tables Supporting plants with sticks Sweeping of the roomSocial Communication: Communication:Interaction Makes himself understood only by gestures (1) Makes himself understood easily and to everybody (4) Greeting: Greeting: Recognizes familiar persons (2) Greets politely and spontaneously (4) Offers Help or Assistance: Offers Help or Assistance: Does not offer to assist (1) Assists when prompted (3) Social Behaviour: Social Behaviour: Is distinctly unsociable (1) Shows age and culturally appropriate behaviour towards peers as well as strangers (4) TOTAL: 5 TOTAL:15Self Care Toileting: Toileting:Skills Has an occasional “Accident “ (2) Has effective control of toilet needs (4) Personal Hygiene: Personal Hygiene: Needs some assistance (2) Can wash independently in any familiar environment (3) Eating: Eating: Needs to be served but can eat in a group (3) Can serve himself and eat in a group (4) Grooming: Grooming: Needs assistance for clean dress, hair and finger nails (1) Can groom himself independently but forgets some aspects(3) TOTAL:8 TOTAL:14Safety Use of sharp objects: Use of sharp objects:Awareness Can use sharp objects under very close supervision (2) Can use sharp objects under loose supervision (3) Electrical Hazards: Electrical Hazards: Cannot use switches and electrical appliances (1) Can operate switches and electrical appliances safely under loose supervision (3) Fire Hazards: 28
  32. 32. THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION Cannot light or use a fire but is aware of its danger (2) Fire Hazards: Can light and use a fire under supervision (3) Threats by Animals (Scorpions, Snakes): Runs away and informs others of Threats by Animals danger (4) (Scorpions, Snakes): Stands and shouts for help (2) TOTAL:9 TOTAL:11Orientation Orientation in the community: Orientation in the community:and Travel Walks independently in the community (4) Remembers routes in the neighbourhood when sufficiently trained (3) Directions and Sign Boards: Can follow difficult directions (4) Directions and Sign Boards: Can follow one-component directions (2) Public Transport: Needs help in ticket purchasing and where to get off (2) Public Transport: Needs help in ticket purchasing and where to get off (2) Traffic Hazard: Can use certain busy roads after intensive training (3) Traffic Hazard: Can use certain busy roads after intensive training (3) TOTAL:13 TOTAL:10Functional Reading & Writing: Reading& Writing:Academics Cannot read or write (1) Cannot read or write (1) Measurement: Measurement: Can measure with a string or measuring bowl (3) Can distinguish larger or smaller (2) Money skills: Money skills: Does not know the value of coins or bills (1) Can give correct change for a sum of up to 5000 c (4) Number skills: Number skills: Can count objects up to ten (2) Can add / subtract two digit numbers and has concepts of them (3) TOTAL:7 TOTAL:10Task Group functioning: Group functioning:Behaviour Can work together in small groups of up to 5 persons under Can function in small groups under loose supervision (3) close supervision (2) Responsibility: Responsibility: Is careful with equipment given to him under close 29
  33. 33. THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION supervision (3) Is careful with equipment given to him under close supervision (3) Reaction to Instruction: Follows instructions for one step at a time (3) Reaction to Instruction: Follows instructions of several steps at a time (4) Tolerance of criticism: Accepts criticism and tries to correct (3) Tolerance of criticism: Accepts criticism and corrects as needed (4) TOTAL: 11 TOTAL:14Motivations Perseverance: Perseverance:and Work Can carry out a work activity for 15 minutes without Can carry out a work activity for 15 minutes withoutBehaviour stoppages (3) stoppages (3) Willingness: Willingness: Is willing to take up only familiar assignments (3) Is willing to take up only familiar assignments (3) Punctuality: Punctuality: Is punctual only 50% of the time (2) Is punctual for almost all of the time (3) Remaining in workplace: Remaining in workplace: Occasionally leaves workplace without permission (2) Leaves workplace only with permission (3) TOTAL: 10 TOTAL:12Physical Lifting and Carrying: Lifting and Carrying:Strength Can lift and carry weight up to 15 kg (3) Can lift and carry small weights up to 5 kg (2)and Agility Walking and Running: Walking and Running : Can walk for more than an hour without resting (4) Can walk steadily for 10 minutes (2) Holding and Grasping: Holding and Grasping: Can grasp and hold objects firmly of any site or weight (4) Can grasp and hold objects firmly of any site or weight (4) Bending and Balancing: Bending and Balancing: Can bend down (for example for sweeping or weeding) for at Can bend down (for example for sweeping or weeding) for at least 10 minutes (2) least 10 minutes (2) TOTAL:13 TOTAL:10 30
  34. 34. THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION________________________________________________________________________________________The table illustrates clearly that level of competence for a tomato grower’shelper need to be slightly higher in the areas of physical strength and agilityas well as in orientation and travel skills as he perhaps has to move around totend to different fields. On the other hand, a chop bar assistant needs apleasing appearance (self care skills), positive social interaction and good taskbehavior in order to be accepted by the customers. Safety awareness,functional academics and motivation and work behavior have almost the samenecessary skill level for both types of jobs, even though it is evident that thehazards for chop bar assistant would consist of dealing with electricalappliances and cooking fires. A tomato grower’s helper would need to insteadreact safely to bush fires and dangerous animals such as snakes andscorpions.However it also becomes clear that, given the necessary supervision andtraining, most graduates of a school for mentally retarded children would becapable of performing the necessary skills in both jobs.However, if some of the core prerequisite skills for a certain occupation havenot been acquired during the whole period of schooling due to physical orother limitations despite intensive training, then this is an indication that theabilities of the graduate are not sufficient for this job. 4.7. Job AnalysisA breakdown of all the tasks involved in a job (Task Analysis) serves as aguideline for the necessary steps in the job training of the person with anintellectual disability. All the components of the job need to be described asprecisely as possible to develop a training plan and a checklist to find outwhich elements of the job have been mastered.Task analysis goes back to the nineteen twenties when assembly lines werebeing installed for manufacturing and time motion studies were used todetermine the quickest and least wasteful way of performing certain tasks.Following Thressiakutty & Rao (2001, 67) we can distinguish four usefulelements for analyzing a work sequence: • core work routines • episodic work routines • work behaviors • and work related skills 31
  35. 35. THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION________________________________________________________________________________________Core work routines are those that occur very frequently or daily in a job. Forexample, fowls must be fed every day and given drinking water and also thechicken coops must be cleaned every day to avoid contagious disease. Thegoal of task analysis is to arrange these recurring tasks into simple sequentialsteps that can be trained until the person has mastered them.Episodic work routines are those tasks that occur more seldom in a job,such as once a week. For example, carrying feed sacks to a storage shed on achicken farm will only be necessary when new grain for feeding has beenbought. Catching and preparing chickens for inoculations will only benecessary on the day when the veterinarian is expected.Work behaviors are those “soft skills” expected from a worker such aspunctuality, getting along with co-workers, being able to stand time pressure,etc. In many cases, feedback from the job trainer will be necessary to makethe trainee with a mental disability aware of these expectations.Work related skills are skills associated with successful performance but notdirectly linked to the job itself. For example, someone working in agriculturemust be able to find his way to the outlying fields where yams are beingplanted (orientation and mobility skills), must be capable of identifying labelsthat signal “Poison” when spraying plants (functional academics) etc.Some work behaviors and work related skills have been identified and areincluded in the Winneba Vocational Readiness Scale. They will be underlined inour Task Analysis of different jobs available for persons with a mentalretardation in the Ghanaian context.How to develop a job analysisThe different elements making up a job can be observed and analyzed bywatching other persons perform the core and episodic activities.You can ask someone to directly instruct you in performing all elements of thejob.Then perform these activities yourself. Look at how well you have done andask someone who customarily does this activity to criticize your work. Let the32
  36. 36. THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION________________________________________________________________________________________person point out to you which elements are correct and which activities couldbe improved. Do not assume you know it all before trying to do the jobyourself.On this basis, develop a task analysis by writing down the sequence ofactivities that follow one upon the other.This handbook contains a large number of jobs accessible to adolescents witha mental handicap who will leave school. They have been put in alphabeticalorder and can also be sorted as to activity areas. All these jobs have beenanalyzed as to their sequence of tasks. Some hints are given as to theprerequisite skills that would make it very probable that a school leaver couldbe trained for this job following the results in the Winneba VocationalReadiness Scale.In the following chapter these task analyses will be listed so that the readercan choose professions which will be suited for an individual school leaver afterhaving looked at • the job opportunities that are available in the environment in which the person lives • the young school leaver’s interests and abilities • and having discussed these options with the adolescent and his parents. 4.8. Job matchingAs we have already mentioned, job matching consists of comparing the skillsneeded for performing the selected job and the skills which the person hasalready acquired in order to decide what must be trained so that a high levelof performance can be achieved.To give an example: most adolescents with a mental handicap have learnedhow to sweep a room or wash their clothing by hand. However, in some casesthey fail to notice areas of the floor that are still dirty or cannot judge theamount of soap that must be used for the amount of washing and water given.These steps must be patiently demonstrated and repeated until the person hasmastered these steps.Two issues are important to keep in mind: • The person who is doing the training on site (we will call him the job coach) will usually be a co-worker and family member. The job coach must be well selected and trained. The person must be patient and 33
  37. 37. THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION________________________________________________________________________________________ willing to take the time to show each step as often as necessary. In addition he must be able to give feedback without becoming abusive or overly critical. Otherwise the young school leaver will not learn. • Not all elements of the job must be mastered for the young mentally handicapped person to be useful. There is no reason why the person should not concentrate on a few simple elements, such as hoeing, weeding and watering. Preparing the mixture and spraying the plants would be done by another person. This type of division of labor is very common in settings where persons considered “normal” often work.A 15 year old girl enrolled in a unit for mentally handicapped children in aregular school was quite competent in assisting her mother in preparing friedplantains and “red red”. The mother sold the prepared food to customersmostly at noon. The girl was able to peel the plantains, wash the dishes, runerrands such as buying beans and firewood and call the mother if customersarrived. However, even though many efforts had been made to help the girldistinguish different kinds of coins and bills in order to make change, she wasnot able to learn these skills. Since the parents unrealistically expected the girlto master all the necessary tasks for selling prepared food, the mother brokeoff the vocational training and sent the girl back to school and could not beconvinced that her expectations were not matched to the adolescent’s abilities.Vocational activitiesVocational activities can be classified in different ways either as analphabetical listing or grouped as to activity areas such as: • Animal rearing • Crop farming • Food and drink preparation • Crafts and manufacturing • Services and commerceAs we will later see, most of the activities that belong to a common vocationalfield are based on similar skills, which can be analyzed and used as a basis forprevocational training. We will discuss this point in a later chapter.34
  38. 38. THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION________________________________________________________________________________________The list of vocational activities - which is by no means exhaustive - isstructured as follows: • Job title and brief description of duties • Main activities • Analysis of prerequisite skills that make it likely that a person can be successful at this job • Description of main task areas • Take home share (expected earnings) • Necessary equipment and investments for working in this job • Risks involved and safety measures • Gender factors and seasonality of workThese brief descriptions of job activities for mentally handicapped youths willenable the reader to select certain areas which could be a future way ofearning a living for a specific young school leaver if the following conditionsare given: • Opportunity, i.e., this is a job activity that is common in the region, and a family member is working in this field and willing to let the young person help on the job • Interest, i.e., the school leaver has demonstrated interest in this or similar areas of work in school or at home • Ability, i.e., the pupil has the necessary prerequisite skills such as physical strength and ability or communication skills that make it likely that he will be able to master the tasks that make up the job.Again let it be understood that not all elements of the job must bemastered in order that a person can work in this field, but a minimalcompetence must be achieved in order for a mentally handicapped youth tobecome active in a certain job area.All these job descriptions are based on an analysis of different vocational areasby students of Education of the Mentally Handicapped at the University ofEducation in Winneba in the years 2003 to 2006 7 and, of course; do not coverall possible activities. In addition, some elements may be erroneous asteachers and the author are not professionals in these job areas.7 Without naming each individual student I would like to thank them for their work whichwas achieved as an assignment in the course „Vocational Training and Transition“. 35
  39. 39. THE PROCESS OF TRANSITION________________________________________________________________________________________The reader is therefore encouraged to add new job activities which are withinthe reach of mentally handicapped youths to this collection, as well as reviseand correct some of the job descriptions where it is necessary.The job catalog is meant to serve as a stimulus to generate ideas about what ayoung person could do to earn a living and not as a definite list of jobs for thementally handicapped. In fact, as the reader will observe, the majority ofthese simple activities are performed by average Ghanaian citizens and are byno means unique to persons with a mental handicap.It would make no sense at all to focus prevocational training in special schoolson a selection of these activities as they can only be learned in the field and byactually performing the duties involved. However, as we shall see in a laterchapter some common elements of most job activities can be trained in schoolby a careful selection and monitoring of prevocational projects.36
  40. 40. AN ANALYSIS OF VOCATIONAL OPTIONS FOR MENTALLY HANDICAPPED SCHOOL LEAVERS________________________________________________________________________________________ V. AN ANALYSIS OF VOCATIONAL OPTIONS FOR MENTALLY HANDICAPPED SCHOOL LEAVERSAs has already been explained in detail, vocational choice for mentallyhandicapped school leavers needs to take in account: • the interests of the person leaving school • the abilities he has shown during the school years • as well as the job opportunities that exist among members of the extended family and the community in which he lives or where he will return.The following selection of job activities can serve as a guide as to whatcommon vocational activities are accessible to mentally handicapped schoolleavers if they have the necessary prerequisite skills and are trained on thejob.As was explained before, vocational activities have been selected, if • the tasks are simple and repetitive • the risk of accidents and injury is low • there is low time pressure involved • they can be performed in a group so that help and supervision are possible.In addition, since the majority of parents of mentally handicapped children arenot affluent, we have also made an effort to give information as to thenecessary investments and tools important for working in this job andestimated possible earnings, so that parents could decide if they have themeans to set up their child in this type of work. Also some information is givenas to risk of injury and possible safety measures.As we are looking at vocational activities in the informal sector where themajority of young Ghanaians find work, we have divided these jobs intogroups according to the areas the different jobs focus on.The following areas have been selected: • Farming (animal rearing and crop farming) • Crafts (involving heavy or light physical labor) • Food preparation and processing • Services and Commerce 37
  41. 41. AN ANALYSIS OF VOCATIONAL OPTIONS FOR MENTALLY HANDICAPPED SCHOOL LEAVERS________________________________________________________________________________________Information is also given as to the customary performance of certain jobs bymales or females and if the job can be performed all year round or is limited tocertain seasons. It goes without saying that the majority of the jobs presentedin this handbook is not restricted to a single sex and contain information aboutwork that is regular and maintained throughout the year.The main tasks of these activities have been analyzed in order to help parentsand teachers decide, if the school leaver has the necessary skills that make itlikely that he or she can master this vocation.Again we need to underline, that not all tasks that make up a helper’s roleneed to be mastered in order to work in a certain vocation: certainselected tasks can be performed by the mentally handicapped school leaver inorder to make a valuable contribution to the family income.38
  42. 42. AN ANALYSIS OF VOCATIONAL OPTIONS FOR MENTALLY HANDICAPPED SCHOOL LEAVERS________________________________________________________________________________________FARMINGAbout 60% of the work force in Ghana is involved in farming, which includesgrowing vegetables or raising animals. In addition, many families in Ghanamay raise goats and chicken or plant vegetables or maize in order tosupplement their diet. In our job analysis we will concentrate on the mostcommon types of food production without attempting to provide an exhaustivelist.Since farming is usually a family enterprise and depends on the amount ofarable land, the investment in seeds and livestock etc. no exact statementabout expected income can be given. Again we would like to underscore thatin most cases the helper is likely to get a “take home share” and not regularwages or a steady income. The amount earned can be quite low just as a largepercentage of the Ghanaian population is forced to exist on less than one US $a day. ANIMAL FARMING Snail raising helper CROP FARMING Nursery bed helper 39
  43. 43. AN ANALYSIS OF VOCATIONAL OPTIONS FOR MENTALLY HANDICAPPED SCHOOL LEAVERS________________________________________________________________________________________ 5.1. ANIMAL REARINGIn Ghana, we find a wide range of activities related to animal rearing. Work inthis area can include being a feeding attendant on a poultry farm raisinghundreds of chickens or attending to large herds of cattle, as well as to caringfor a small number of chicken or goats for home consumption.Even though many activities in rearing different types of animals are similarin nature we have included them in order to show what a wide variety ofpossible jobs in this field exist for persons with a mental handicap. SNAIL RAISING HELPER40
  44. 44. AN ANALYSIS OF VOCATIONAL OPTIONS FOR MENTALLY HANDICAPPED SCHOOL LEAVERS________________________________________________________________________________________ 5.1.1. Animal manure makerPrepares fertilizer which needs little cash input. He collects manure andprepares it for decomposing in four to six months by adding plant waste andwater.Main activities • collecting animal manure • storing the manure • preparing the manurePrerequisite skillsAn animal manure maker needs only limited social skills (ex. cancommunicate by gestures) but needs to be willing to assist and accept somecriticism. The person needs only a very limited self-care skill as the job itselfis not clean. However, the person needs to be able to wash carefully afterwork. The only safety hazards could be encountering wild animals or snakes.Orientation and travel skills are important as he needs to roam aboutsearching for manure. Functional academics are of no importance. However,responsibility, motivation and work behavior must be given and a certaindegree of physical strength and agility is needed.Main task areas Collecting animal manure • distinguishes between animal manure and other waste matter • mixes manure of different species if possible • uses shovel or scraper to put it into a bucket • puts leaves on top, when the bucket is full • carries the manure to a storage place Storing the manure • locates site on a solid surface • digs a shallow pit • provides shade either under a tree or by providing a roof 41
  45. 45. AN ANALYSIS OF VOCATIONAL OPTIONS FOR MENTALLY HANDICAPPED SCHOOL LEAVERS________________________________________________________________________________________ Preparing the manure • adds leaves and grass and mixes it with the animal manure • stirs the manure heap to let air in • waters lightly to speed up decomposition process • checks the heat and moisture level by placing a stick in the middleNecessary tools and investmentsBucket, gloves, shovel or scraper. The total investment amounts to less than50 000 Cedis at present prices.Take home shareManure is usually not sold but used for own farming, so no figures can begiven.Risk of injuryLow, but animal manure can be a health risk if the manure contains diseasedorganisms or is allowed to contaminate ground or surface water resources.Safety measuresDuring collection, transport and application, the helper should avoid directcontact and inhalation of manure by wearing gloves as well as mouth andnose protection (wet rag) and wash carefully after workThe manure heap should not be stored close to water sources to avoidcontamination.Gender factorThis job could be done by both sexes.SeasonalityCollecting and preparing manure is an all year round job.42
  46. 46. AN ANALYSIS OF VOCATIONAL OPTIONS FOR MENTALLY HANDICAPPED SCHOOL LEAVERS________________________________________________________________________________________ 5.1.2. Beekeeping assistantHelps in the production and extraction of honey, bottling the product andselling it.Main activities • setting up of beehives for the production of honey • extraction of honey • packaging and marketing the productPrerequisite skillsA beekeeping assistant will need only limited social skills (ex. cancommunicate by gestures) if not dealing with the public but needs to bewilling to assist and accept some criticism. However since he is involved infood production the person must be clean when preparing and selling honey.Safety awareness can be limited to safely using a cutlass and using fire forgenerating smoke. Orientation and travel skills, as well as functionalacademics can be minimal if the person is not involved in selling or bringingthe products to the market. However, responsibility, motivation and workbehavior must be given, and a certain degree of physical strength and agilityis needed.Main task areas Setting up beehives for the production of honey • carries wooden boxes (beehives) to the site and places them on stands • captures swarms on flowering plants during the swarming season in February and March • places the swarms in the beehives which have been treated with wax • checks after two to three months to see if combs are ready for harvesting Extraction of honey • smokes boxes to drive away the swarm • retrieves the combs with a clean sieve or cloth • collects and strains the honey by squeezing it through a cloth • removes dirt and impurities from the strained honey 43
  47. 47. AN ANALYSIS OF VOCATIONAL OPTIONS FOR MENTALLY HANDICAPPED SCHOOL LEAVERS________________________________________________________________________________________ Packaging and marketing the product • fills the honey into bottles or other containers using a funnel 8 • carries the honey bottles in a container to the sales point • assists in selling the honeyEarningsDepend on the amount of honey harvested and soldNecessary tools and investmentsFor buying catcher and hiving boxes, metal stands, smokers, bucket, strainer,wax and insecticide and bottles for filling with honey investment costs ofabout 700 000 Cedis can be expected. However the assistant would onlyneed some protective clothing and a cutlass and a knife with the cost notexceeding 50 000 cedis.Risks of injuryThe assistant can be stung by bee swarms or step on snakes in the bush. Herisks being cut while weeding and burns from fire while smoking the bees.Safety measuresThe helper should learn to work carefully with a knife or cutlass. Protectiveclothing can be worn when working with the bees.Gender factorsCustomarily bee keeping is a male occupation but of course it is also possiblefor females.SeasonalityKeeping of bees and harvesting of honey is a year round occupation but hasits peak in the Harmattan season with hot weather.8 The empty combs can be heated for extracting bee wax used for making candles orother purposes44
  48. 48. AN ANALYSIS OF VOCATIONAL OPTIONS FOR MENTALLY HANDICAPPED SCHOOL LEAVERS________________________________________________________________________________________ 5.1.3. Feed attendantAnimals such as pigs, sheep and goats are kept in a pen to prevent accidentsor stealing. The caretaker feeds these animals three times a day.Main activities • collecting feed • watering and feeding the animals • cleaning the pens • carrying out additional tasks as neededPrerequisite skillsA high level of communication skills is not important, but the attendant mustbe able to accept some criticism and be willing to help. Self care skills can belimited as the feed attendant does not deal with the public. He needs to beable to use sharp objects such as a cutlass and a knife safely; and orientationand travel skills are essential in collecting animal feed. Functional academicsand social behavior can be quite rudimentary, but good motivation and workbehavior with a certain degree of physical strength and agility is a must.Main task areas Collecting feed • looks for grass for the animals • cuts grass using a cutlass or a sickle • removes sticks and inedible material • collects husks and peels from houses and chop bars in the locality • carries the feed home for the animals Watering and feeding • shares the feed proportionally into the troughs or the containers for the animals • makes sure there is always water for drinking. Cleaning the pens • cleans the pen, the feed and water troughs • throws left-over feed (grass, cassava, peels ) away • stores feed in the appropriate place 45
  49. 49. AN ANALYSIS OF VOCATIONAL OPTIONS FOR MENTALLY HANDICAPPED SCHOOL LEAVERS________________________________________________________________________________________ Additional tasks • helps in carrying out periodic repairs of the pen. • helps separate sick and pregnant animals from the othersNecessary tools and investmentsCutlass, wheelbarrow, sickle, basket, broom, Wellington boots. The necessaryequipment costs below 200 000 Cedis at present prices.Take home shareCan earn up to 250 000 Cedis a month.Risk of injuryThe assistant can hurt himself with a cutlass or a sickle while cutting grassbut, in general, risk of injury is low.Safety measuresA first aid kit should be available. The attendant should wear Wellington bootsand gloves when necessary. After work the attendant should wash carefullyto avoid infection.Gender factorsThis job can be performed by both sexes.SeasonalityThe activity of a feed attendant does not depend on a season.46
  50. 50. AN ANALYSIS OF VOCATIONAL OPTIONS FOR MENTALLY HANDICAPPED SCHOOL LEAVERS________________________________________________________________________________________ 5.1.4. Fisherman’s assistantHelps prepare the boot for fishing, unloads the catch and brings it to themarket and assists in small repairs of the equipment.Main activities • preparation for fishing • fishing at sea • small repairs and marketingPrerequisite skillsA fisherman’s assistant needs only limited social skills (ex. can communicateby gestures), but needs to be willing to assist and accept some criticism. Theperson needs only very limited self-care skills, as he is not working in public.Safety skills include being able to swim and not getting to close to theoutboard motor. Orientation and travel skills as well as functional academicscan be minimal if the person is not involved in selling or bringing the productsto the market. However, responsibility, motivation and work behavior mustbe given, and a good degree of physical strength and agility is needed.Main task areas Preparation for fishing • carries ropes, nets and container to the boat • stores them in their proper place • carries the outboard motor to and from the boat • on instruction goes to buy fuel for the motor • helps push the boat into the sea Fishing at sea • assists in casting the net • helps in pulling in the net • removes fish from the net • drains water from the boat with a tin or bucket 47

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