Module 2 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS]
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Engineering ethics is the field of applied ethics and system of moral principles that app...
Module 2 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS]
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Over the following decades most American states and Canadian provinces either required
en...
Module 2 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS]
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the safety, health, and welfare of the public
—National Society of Professional Engineers...
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Obligation to society[edit]
The paramount value recognized by engineers is the safety and...
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Responsibility of engineers
The engineer recognizes that the greatest merit is the work a...
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courts have often sided with engineers in such cases, overruling duties to employers and
...
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Code of practice (professional ethics)
A code of practice is adopted by a profession or b...
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inventing the virtues, but drawing from his culture. His description of the virtues is no...
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situations. A person who possesses prudence cannot easily impart to others his art of mak...
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Some things are owed to others not by natural right, but because of a contract. In gener...
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we were born and raised. And so, after God, man is most indebted to his parents and coun...
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person may "stick to his guns", but he is persevering at something even when he should y...
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TERMS IN AND TYPES OF ETHICAL THEORY
TELEOLOGICAL - This describes an ethical theory whi...
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Problems - 1. Consequences are difficult to predict. Your actions may have good intentio...
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Benefits - 1. Right and wrong actions are easily determined by considering one's duties....
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virtuous is excelling at all of the virtues that make a good human being, health care pr...
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Kohlberg asked a series of questions such as:
1. Should Heinz have stolen the drug?
2. W...
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Authority is internalized but not questioned and reasoning is based on the norms of the ...
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2. The sample is biased
According to Gilligan (1977), because Kohlberg‘s theory was base...
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Kohlberg claims that there are but the evidence does not always support this conclusion....
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―the very traits that have traditionally defined the goodness of women, their care for a...
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Pre Conventional
-Person only cares for themselves in order to ensure survival
-This is ...
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really like to help others, however they should care just as much about themselves as th...
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Like anger, humour springs from disappointment, but it's disappointment optimally channe...
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The 3 phases of habit formation:
Phase 1: THE HONEYMOON
This phase of habit formation is...
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2. DISRUPTIONS: An individual experiences significant change to his or her current patte...
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Professional Ethics Module 2 Notes

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Code of ethics, 4 main virtues, Ethical theories

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Professional Ethics Module 2 Notes

  1. 1. Module 2 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 1 Engineering ethics is the field of applied ethics and system of moral principles that apply to the practice of engineering. The field examines and sets the obligations by engineers to society, to their clients, and to the profession. As a scholarly discipline, it is closely related to subjects such as the philosophy of science, the philosophy of engineering, and the ethics of technology. As engineering rose as a distinct profession during the 19th century, engineers saw themselves as either independent professional practitioners or technical employees of large enterprises. There was considerable tension between the two sides as large industrial employers fought to maintain control of their employees.[1] In the United States growing professionalism gave rise to the development of four founding engineering societies: The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) (1851), theAmerican Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) (1884),[2] the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) (1880), and the American Institute of Mining Engineers(AIME) (1871).[3] ASCE and AIEE were more closely identified with the engineer as learned professional, where ASME, to an extent, and AIME almost entirely, identified with the view that the engineer is a technical employee.[4] Even so, at that time ethics was viewed as a personal rather than a broad professional concern. Turning of the 20th century and turning point The Boston molasses disaster provided a strong impetus for the establishment of professional licensing and codes of ethics in the United States. When the 19th century drew to a close and the 20th century began, there had been series of significant structural failures, including some spectacular bridge failures, notably theAshtabula River Railroad Disaster (1876), Tay Bridge Disaster (1879), and the Quebec Bridge collapse (1907). These had a profound effect on engineers and forced the profession to confront shortcomings in technical and construction practice, as well as ethical standards.[7] One response was the development of formal codes of ethics by three of the four founding engineering societies. AIEE adopted theirs in 1912. ASCE and ASME did so in 1914.[8] AIME did not adopt a code of ethics in its history.[4] Concerns for professional practice and protecting the public highlighted by these bridge failures, as well as the Boston molasses disaster (1919), provided impetus for another movement that had been underway for some time: to require formal credentials (Professional licensure in the US.) as a requirement to practice. This involves meeting some combination of educational, experience, and testing requirements.[9]
  2. 2. Module 2 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 2 Over the following decades most American states and Canadian provinces either required engineers to be licensed, or passed special legislation reserving title rights to organization of professional engineers.[10] The Canadian model is to require all persons working in fields of engineering that posed a risk to life, health, property, the public welfare and the environment to be licensed, and all provinces required licensing by the 1950s. The US model has generally been only to require those practicing independently (i.e. consulting engineers) to be licensed, while engineers working in industry, education, and sometimes government need not be licensed. This has perpetuated the split between professional engineers and those in industry.[11] Professional societies have adopted generally uniform codes of ethics. On the other hand technical societies have generally not adopted these, but instead sometimes offer ethics education and resources to members similar to those of the professional societies. This is not uniform, and the question of who is to be held in the highest regard: the public or the employer, is still an open one in industry, and sometimes in professional practice. Recent developments William LeMessurier's response to design deficiencies uncovered after construction of the Citigroup Center is often cited as an example of ethical conduct. Efforts to promote ethical practice continue. In addition to the professional societies and chartering organizations efforts with their members, the Canadian Iron Ring and AmericanOrder of the Engineer trace their roots to the 1907 Quebec Bridge collapse. Both require members to swear an oath to uphold ethical practice and wear a symbolic ring as a reminder. In the United States, the National Society of Professional Engineers released in 1946 its Canons of Ethics for Engineers and Rules of Professional Conduct, which evolved to the current Code of Ethics, adopted in 1964. These requests ultimately led to the creation of the Board of Ethical Review in 1954. Ethics cases rarely have easy answers, but the BER's nearly 500 advisory opinions have helped bring clarity to the ethical issues engineers face daily.[12] Currently, bribery and political corruption is being addressed very directly by several professional societies and business groups around the world.[13][14] However, new issues have arisen, such as offshoring, sustainable development, and environmental protection, that the profession is having to consider and address. General principles[edit] “ Engineers, in the fulfillment of their professional duties, shall hold paramount ”
  3. 3. Module 2 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 3 the safety, health, and welfare of the public —National Society of Professional Engineers, [15] “ A practitioner shall, regard the practitioner's duty to public welfare as paramount." ” —Professional Engineers Ontario, [16] Codes of engineering ethics identify a specific precedence with respect to the engineer's consideration for the public, clients, employers, and the profession. Many engineering professional societies have prepared codes of ethics. Some go back to the early decades of the twentieth century.[10] These have been incorporated to a greater or lesser degree into the regulatory laws of several jurisdictions. While these statements of general principles served as a guide, engineers still require sound judgment to interpret how the code would apply to specific circumstances. The general principles of the codes of ethics are largely similar across the various engineering societies and chartering authorities of the world,[17] which further extend the code and publish specific guidance. The following is an example from theAmerican Society of Civil Engineers: 1. Engineers shall hold paramount the safety, health and welfare of the public and shall strive to comply with the principles of sustainable development in the performance of their professional duties.[19] 2. Engineers shall perform services only in areas of their competence.[19] 3. Engineers shall issue public statements only in an objective and truthful manner.[19] 4. Engineers shall act in professional matters for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees, and shall avoid conflicts of interest.[19] 5. Engineers shall build their professional reputation on the merit of their services and shall not compete unfairly with others. 6. Engineers shall act in such a manner as to uphold and enhance the honor, integrity, and dignity of the engineering profession and shall act with zero-tolerance for bribery, fraud, and corruption.[19] 7. Engineers shall continue their professional development throughout their careers, and shall provide opportunities for the professional development of those engineers under their supervision.[19]
  4. 4. Module 2 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 4 Obligation to society[edit] The paramount value recognized by engineers is the safety and welfare of the public. As demonstrated by the following selected excerpts, this is the case for professional engineering organizations in nearly every jurisdiction and engineering discipline: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers: "We, the members of the IEEE, … do hereby commit ourselves to the highest ethical and professional conduct and agree: 1. to accept responsibility in making decisions consistent with the safety, health and welfare of the public, and to disclose promptly factors that might endanger the public or the environment;"[20] Institution of Civil Engineers: "Members of the ICE should always be aware of their overriding responsibility to the public good. A member‘s obligations to the client can never override this, and members of the ICE should not enter undertakings which compromise this responsibility. The ‗public good‘ encompasses care and respect for the environment, and for humanity‘s cultural, historical and archaeological heritage, as well as the primary responsibility members have to protect the health and well being of present and future generations."[21] Professional Engineers Ontario: "A practitioner shall, regard the practitioner's duty to public welfare as paramount."[16] National Society of Professional Engineers: "Engineers, in the fulfillment of their professional duties, shall: Hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public."[15] American Society of Mechanical Engineers: "Engineers shall hold paramount the safety, health and welfare of the public in the performance of their professional duties."[22] Institute of Industrial Engineers: "Engineers uphold and advance the integrity, honor and dignity of the engineering profession by: 2. Being honest and impartial, and serving with fidelity the public, their employers and clients."[23] American Institute of Chemical Engineers: "To achieve these goals, members shall hold paramount the safety, health and welfare of the public and protect the environment in performance of their professional duties."[24] American Nuclear Society: "ANS members uphold and advance the integrity and honor of their professions by using their knowledge and skill for the enhancement of human welfare and the environment; being honest and impartial; serving with fidelity the public, their employers, and their clients; and striving to continuously improve the competence and prestige of their various professions."[25]
  5. 5. Module 2 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 5 Responsibility of engineers The engineer recognizes that the greatest merit is the work and exercises his profession committed to serving society, attending to the welfare and progress of the majority. By transforming nature for the benefit of mankind, the engineer must increase his awareness of the world as the abode of man, his interest in the universe as a guarantee of overcoming his spirit, and knowledge of reality to make the world fairer and happier. The engineer should reject any paper that is intended to harm the general interest, thus avoiding a situation that might be hazardous or threatening to the environment, life, health, or other rights of human beings. It is an inescapable duty of the engineer to uphold the prestige of the profession, to ensure its proper discharge, and to maintain a professional demeanor rooted in ability, honesty, fortitude, temperance, magnanimity, modesty, honesty, and justice; with the consciousness of individual well-being subordinate to the social good. The engineer and his employer must ensure the continuous improvement of his knowledge, particularly of his profession, disseminate his knowledge, share his experience, provide opportunities for education and training of workers, provide recognition, moral and material support to the school where he studied, thus returning the benefits and opportunities he and his employer have received. It is the responsibility of the engineer to carry out his work efficiently and to support the law. In particular, he must ensure compliance with the standards of worker protection as provided by the law. As a professional, the engineer is expected to commit himself to high standards of conduct (NSPE). Whistle blowing The Space Shuttle Challenger disaster is used as a case study of whistleblowing and organizational behavior including groupthink. Main article: Whistleblower A basic ethical dilemma is that an engineer has the duty to report to the appropriate authority a possible risk to others from a client or employer failing to follow the engineer's directions. According to first principles, this duty overrides the duty to a client and/or employer.[26] An engineer may be disciplined, or have their license revoked, even if the failure to report such a danger does not result in the loss of life or health. In many cases, this duty can be discharged by advising the client of the consequences in a forthright matter, and ensuring the client takes the engineer's advice. However, the engineer must ensure that the remedial steps are taken and, if they are not, the situation must be reported to the appropriate authority.[28] In very rare cases, where even a governmental authority may not take appropriate action, the engineer can only discharge the duty by making the situation public.[29] As a result, whistle blowing by professional engineers is not an unusual event, and
  6. 6. Module 2 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 6 courts have often sided with engineers in such cases, overruling duties to employers and confidentiality considerations that otherwise would have prevented the engineer from speaking out.[30] Conduct There are several other ethical issues that engineers may face. Some have to do with technical practice, but many others have to do with broader considerations of business conduct. These include: Relationships with clients, consultants, competitors, and contractors Ensuring legal compliance by clients, client's contractors, and others Conflict of interest Bribery and kickbacks, which also may include: Gifts, meals, services, and entertainment Treatment of confidential or proprietary information Consideration of the employer‘s assets Outside employment/activities (Moonlighting) Some engineering societies are addressing environmental protection as a stand-alone question of ethics.[19] The field of business ethics often overlaps and informs ethical decision making for engineers. Ethical codes are adopted by organizations to assist members in understanding the difference between 'right' and 'wrong' and in applying that understanding to their decisions. An ethical code generally implies documents at three levels: codes of business ethics,codes of conduct for employees, and codes of professional practice. Code of ethics or a code of conduct? (corporate or business ethics) Many companies use the phrases 'ethical code' and 'code of conduct' interchangeably but it may be useful to make a distinction. A code of ethics will start by setting out the values that underpin the code and will describe a company's obligation to its stakeholders. The code is publicly available and addressed to anyone with an interest in the company's activities and the way it does business. It will include details of how the company plans to implement its values and vision, as well as guidance to staff on ethical standards and how to achieve them. However, a code of conduct is generally addressed to and intended for employees alone. It usually sets out restrictions on behavior, and will be far more compliance or rules focused than value or principle focused.
  7. 7. Module 2 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 7 Code of practice (professional ethics) A code of practice is adopted by a profession or by a governmental or non-governmental organization to regulate that profession. A code of practice may be styled as a code of professional responsibility, which will discuss difficult issues, difficult decisions that will often need to be made, and provide a clear account of what behavior is considered "ethical" or "correct" or "right" in the circumstances. In a membership context, failure to comply with a code of practice can result in expulsion from the professional organization. In its 2007 International Good Practice Guidance, Defining and Developing an Effective Code of Conduct for Organizations, the International Federation of Accountants provided the following working definition: "Principles, values, standards, or rules of behavior that guide the decisions, procedures and systems of an organization in a way that (a) contributes to the welfare of its key stakeholders, and (b) respects the rights of all constituents affected by its operations." General notes Ethical codes are often adopted by management, not to promote a particular moral theory, but rather because they are seen as pragmatic necessities for running an organization in a complex society in which moral concepts play an important part. They are distinct from moral codes that may apply to the culture, education, and religion of a whole society. Often, acts that violate ethical codes may also violate a law or regulation and can be punishable at law or by government agency remedies. Even organizations and communities that may be considered criminal in nature may have ethical codes of conduct, official or unofficial. Examples could include hacker communities, bands of thieves, and street gangs. Eg- Ten commandments, Hippocratic oath, 5 pillars of Islam etc A code of conduct is a set of rules outlining the responsibilities of or proper practices for an individual, party or organization. Related concepts include ethical, honor and moral codes, as well as halachic and religious laws. The Four Cardinal Virtues in General The term "virtue" is from Latin and originally meant "strength" or "power". It is based on the word vir - man.. The ancient Greeks, starting with Homer, praised virtue. The Greek term for virtue was arete, and the earliest writers applied it particularly to fortitude in battle, and secondarily to wisdom. Aristotle developed a whole science of the virtues, but he was not
  8. 8. Module 2 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 8 inventing the virtues, but drawing from his culture. His description of the virtues is not merely a reflection of ancient Greek culture. When we study the virtues, we are not putting ancient customs into a Petri dish, but we are drawing upon the insight of the ancient Greeks into the human condition in general. The virtues praised by the Greeks are known to all cultures. For example, you will find many of the same insights in the Old Testament, in particular the book of Proverbs and the book of Wisdom. You could find the praise of these virtues in every culture, but Aristotle is outstanding because he took a scientific look at the virtues as part of his study of human nature. The four cardinal virtues of Prudence, Justice, Fortitude and Temperance are interconnected. This means that if you do not possess one of them, all the others are spoiled, and so you do not possess virtue at all. A few examples. A man might know what is good, know what he must do to get good results, but if he lacks temperance his decisions will be swayed by his love of pleasure. Or a man might be willing to risk his life, yet his actions are not guided by a right purpose. A bank robber who risks his life is not a prudent man, and so he is not truly a brave man. The other point about the virtues is that in many cases we cannot say precisely where virtue lies. The right measure is very difficult to achieve, and it is often different for different individuals. The idea of "The Golden Mean" is that in our actions we must seek the right measure and proportion. Excess or defect is a departure from virtue. The cardinal virtues are a set of four virtues recognized in the writings of Classical Antiquity and, along with the theological virtues, also in Christian tradition. They consist of: Prudence also called "wisdom," the ability to judge between actions with regard to appropriate actions at a given time. Justice also called "fairness," the perpetual and constant will of rendering to each one his right.[1] Temperance also called "restraint," the practice of self-control, abstention, and moderation; tempering the appetition. Courage also called "fortitude," forbearance, endurance, and the ability to confront fear, uncertainty, and intimidation. Prudence in Particular Prudence is the most important of the four cardinal virtues. The most important part of prudence is knowledge. The shortest definition of prudence isrecta ratio agilbilium - right reason about things to be done. Prudence is not theoretical knowledge, such as philosophical wisdom, but practical knowledge. Prudence is not concerned only with universal and unchanging truths, but also with the singular, unique and variable things of daily life. A person can be wise when he reasons about the meaning and purpose of life, yet because of inexperience he cannot yet make good decisions in real-life situations. He must know how to apply universal principles in daily
  9. 9. Module 2 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 9 situations. A person who possesses prudence cannot easily impart to others his art of making good decisions. He cannot always even explain his own processes of thought, but after long practice he has a feeling for what he should do. When we know something in this way, it called connatural knowledge, and it is important in the moral life. For example, a child who is brought up in a certain way will understand many things about life without needing to be told. Thomas Aquinas lists many different components of prudence, but we will limit ourselves to three: 1. MEMORY - in order to know the meaning of the present, we must have a good memory of the past. 2. DOCILITY - we must remain open to reality, always willing to learn as situations change. 3. CLEAR-HEADED DECISIVENESS - prudence is not merely knowing what we should do, but also making the decision in a timely way. Although we should learn basic principles of action, we cannot put in a book or code what should be done in each and every situation. There was an approach to ethics, called Casuistry that tried to do this, popular among the Jesuits. However, this approach is not useful in real situations, because it is not possible to anticipate all possible circumstances. Justice in Particular Justice is the virtue whereby we give to each person what is due to him, and we do this consistently, promptly and pleasurably. For a simple example, a just person wants to pay his bills on time, and he has a feeling of satisfaction when he is able to do so. Justice is the social virtue. It concerns right relations with others in society. What is just is summed up in a simple motto: cuique suum - to each his own, but it not always easy to establish what we owe to others. The simplest obligations are defined by the natural law, and that is based on the natural inclinations of each man, for example, to stay alive, to be part of society, to grow in knowledge. We have obligations therefore not to deprive others of life or health. We should not deprive others of the necessary means to stay alive, even though this may involve complex social issues. We owe the truth to others, and at least a basic minimum of friendship as members of the same society. By the same token, others owe these things to us. A further conclusion. If I have a right to life, I also have the right to use the necessary means to defend my right against an unjust aggressor. Thomas Higgins (p. 246) also mentions certain goods that we may value as much as life itself. 4. material goods of great value: things necessary to support life or maintain's our state in life. 5. personal liberty. 6. chastity 7. integrity of limb. If there is any progress in Western Civilization, it is not in our technology, because that can be used for man or against man, and so it is morally neutral, but in increased knowledge and recognition of human rights.
  10. 10. Module 2 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 10 Some things are owed to others not by natural right, but because of a contract. In general, it is good to keep agreements, and a person who does so is considered to be loyal and trustworthy. However, this is not always the case. I may have agreed always to stand by and support a friend, but it would be wrong to do so if by doing so I would be an accomplice in wrong-doing. The three divisions of justice according to the parties involved are: 8. legal justice - what the individual owes to society as a whole. Generally speaking, these are the obligations defined by the law of the land. Exceptions would be when the law requires someone to do something that is morally wrong, in which case he must obey the higher law. Over and above the requirements of law, a citizen should also be civic-minded, willing to participate in the political process and concerned about the welfare of the community. 9. commutative justice - what one individual owes to another. First, he must respect the natural rights of other individuals. Second, he may have obligations that arise because of an agreement or contract. These obligations are usually clear-cut. 10. distributive justice - what the society owes to individuals. In some cases, this is simple. Equal protection under the law, for example. However, there are complex situations. For example, the state would have the right under certain extreme circumstances to expropriate property, in which case it must give fair compensation. If individuals or groups of individuals have been unjustly deprived of their rights, some sort of compensation is due to them, but how much and for how long is difficult to settle. The person who acts in the name of the community does not act in his own name. If he shows special favor to certain individuals or groups, he is acting unjustly, and this is called "respect of persons". For this reason, the person who is in charge of the common good must keep a certain distance and play his role. One thing that destroys justice is informality. For example, if a judge or police officer, or for that matter a professor, allows some people to address him on a first name basis, he risks subverting justice. It does not matter if such familiarity does not affect his official decisions. It can give scandal to others. An old proverb says that it is not enough for a thing to be just, it must also appear just. There are certain situations where we have debts that we cannot possibly repay. For example, what we owe to God, to our country, to our parents and teachers. In these cases we must always remember that any actions we perform fall short. It is not possible to say to God that we have paid back what we owe, that now we are even, and likewise in the other cases. In ordinary English we do not have a single term for all of these things, but we have the word "Piety", which at one time covered all these things. Thomas Aquinas writes: A man becomes the debtor of others according to their different excellences and the diverse benefits received from them. Now, on both counts, God holds the highest place: He is most excellent and he is the first principle of our existence and our governance. Secondarily, however, the sources of our being and governance are our parents and country; from whom, and in which,
  11. 11. Module 2 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 11 we were born and raised. And so, after God, man is most indebted to his parents and country. Hence, just as the act of showing reverence to God belongs to religion, so on a secondary level the showing of reverence to parents and country belongs to piety. Under the reverence of parents is included the respect for all blood relatives, because they are called such by virtue of their descent from the same parents. ... Under the reverence of country is understood respect for all fellow citizens and friends of one's country. Fortitude Fortitude is synonymous with courage and bravery. It must be based on justice. The purpose of fortitude is to remove obstacles to justice. In its extreme form, it is the willingness and readiness to risk one's life for the sake of that which is just. Justice can be destroyed in two ways. First, because something pleasant draws us away from what is just, and it is the purpose of temperance to govern our desire for pleasure. In the second way, we may be unwilling to do what is just because we face some difficult obstacle. Fortitude enables us to face these difficulties for the sake of justice. A brave person still has fear. Fear is the natural reaction to anything that threatens us, and it is necessary in the face of evil. It is unreasonable to say that we can extinguish all our fears simply by positive thinking. The brave man acts in the face of his reasonable fear. While the most obvious part of fortitude is to attack evil at the risk of injury or death, the more important part is to stand firm patiently in the face of threats. Fortitude is principally in the mind, because the brave man must hold firmly to the thought of some future good when all he faces in the present is evil. He can and should harness his emotional powers to cooperate. For that reason, the brave person uses his anger in his actions in order to act or to stand firm. In the ancient world, the Stoic philosophers praised virtue and taught that we should develop the power of our mind to face all difficulties with equanimity. They disparaged emotion, and taught that the wise man should shut out anger and other strong emotions from his soul. They even called the passions sicknesses of the soul. Immanuel Kant was following the Stoic philosophers when he said that the man who acted for the sake of happiness had a "pathological will". Aristotle and the philosophers who followed him said that the virtuous man will be angry, but that his anger must be ruled by reason. The brave man must have an intelligent anger. The vices opposed to fortitude are cowardice as the defect, and fearlessness and recklessness are both defects. In the coward, fear overcomes his reason and prevents him from doing what he should do for the sake of justice. The fearless person is not precisely brave, because the brave person knows the risks he faces, has a respectful fear of them, and acts in the face of his fears. The reckless person rushes into battle in an untimely way, ready to risk everything even when this is not the best course. Perserverance or standing firm is the most necessary part of fortitude, and the most common. According to the philosophers (Aristotle and Aquinas), perserverance is undermined by a soft life. The person who indulges in pleasure and always avoids discomfort will be unwilling to put up with the sadness he must experience if he is to stand firm in difficulty. For this reason, part of military training and monastic life is to do without many of the superfluous comforts of daily life. Also, there is an excess of perseverance which is a vice, and this is obstinacy. A stubborn
  12. 12. Module 2 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 12 person may "stick to his guns", but he is persevering at something even when he should yield to others. The Virtue of Temperance The virtue of temperance governs our appetites for pleasure. By nature we desire the pleasure that is suitable to us. Since man by definition is rational, the pleasures that are in accord with reason are suitable to man. Temperance does not restrain us from the pleasures that are reasonable, but from those that are contrary to our reason. Temperance does not act against our natural human inclinations, but works with them. Temperance is opposed to the inclinations of nature when they are like a beast that is not ruled by reason. First and foremost, temperance governs the pleasures of the senses, and especially the sense of touch. These are the greatest and most forceful pleasures, because our sense of touch is closest to our existence, and it is also involved in reproduction, and so is concerned with the existence of offspring. The other senses are not as forceful. For example, the glutton is not motivated by the taste of food, but by the feeling of a full stomach. The virtue of temperance also requires us to prepare ourselves. There is a place for asceticism in daily life. I've already mentioned how soft-living can undermine fortititude. Temperance requires us to train ourselves and prepare ourselves even when we are not faced with an immediate temptation. For this reason, Thomas Aquinas teaches that fasting is not merely a religious custom, but it is part of the natural law. All men are required to develop the virtue of temperance and govern their desire for pleasure by reason, and so all must take the necessary steps to prepare themselves. The purpose of fasting and other ascetical practices is not to destroy our natural inclinations, but to become master of them. He even writes that if a man would be committing a sin if he fasted to the point where he actually lost his sexual desire. A lack of temperance undermines prudence, and if prudence is destroyed, all the virtues are undermined. Temperance itself needs to be nurtured, and this is part of the role of culture. If we are surrounded by images of self-indulgence and appeals to our senses, our reason is undermined. The mass media deliberately exploit our desires, but there is a saying: no injury is done if the other party was willing . We can select what we want to watch, and when we watch television or use the Internet, we can choose to reflect upon what we see or to surrender our judgment. A culture of temperance will be reflected in the way we speak and act as well. While temperance primarily concerns tactile pleasures, it also concerns our emotions. Part of temperance is to control our anger. Part of temperance is to govern our sexual desire, and temperance in that department is generally called chastity. Chastity is not synonymous with celibacy, but it means governing our sexual desire in accordance with our state in life. Temperance also concerns our desire for knowledge. An uncontrolled desire is curiosity, exemplified as Ulysses who took ten years to return home because he was always seeking new adventures and experiences. The right measure is called studiosity or studiousness, which is the disciplined search for the truth. It is also possible for our natural desire for the truth to be dulled because of a life of comfort and pleasure, and then we may suffer from a dullness of the intellect for which we are morally responsible.
  13. 13. Module 2 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 13 TERMS IN AND TYPES OF ETHICAL THEORY TELEOLOGICAL - This describes an ethical theory which judges the rightness of an action in terms of an external goal or purpose. So, according to a teleological theory, consequences always play some part, be it small or large, in the determination of what one should or should not do. Not all teleological theories are consequentialist. John Rawls' theory of justice is teleological, but not consequentialist because it claims that consequences are only part of what must be considered when determining what policy is morally just. (Rawls) Benefits - 1. There is room in some theories for good intentions, even if the action didn‘t active the desired end. 2. Active attempt to connect morality with the ―real‖ world. 3. By allowing for the consideration of consequences, teleological theories can adapt to different circumstances and situations. (Also see ―utilitarianism‖) Problems - Depends on the theory. See ―utilitarianism‖ for an example. CONSEQUENTIALIST - Under a consequentialist theory, the consequences of an action determine its moral value. A key question in consequentialist theory is how to measure the moral worth of the consequences. Consequences can be good, neutral, or evil. Another relevant question is which consequences count (intended or actual). If only actual consequences count, then do all consequences count? Consequences can be distinguished by direct/indirect, individuals/objects affected, influence of complicating factors, etc. All of these considerations go into shaping the ethical theory. For example, Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill were both act utilitarians. So they judged individual an action to be good or bad depending on the actual consequences of that action. Bentham defined good as pleasure and evil as pain. (Bentham) Thus when choosing an action, according to Bentham, one should the action which produces the greatest amount of pleasure compared to pain for all affected. Since pleasure and pain were the foundation for good and evil, ―all affected‖ would include all sentient things. J. S. Mill differed from Bentham in that he believed that happiness and unhappiness were the basis for good and evil. (Mill) Under his evaluation then, while pleasure and pain were important considerations, they were only the basic minimum. This sets up an ability for Mill to claim that consequences to more sentient beings may be more important than those to less sentient beings and to characterize some pleasures as higher than others. Benefits - 1. Consequentialism is grounded in actual effect. So, moral action always improves life on earth (in some manner). Acting morally can improve your lot in life. So, there is an incentive to act morally even if you do not believe in an afterlife. 2. Consequentialist theories are often attentive to the particulars of the situation. 3. These theories will allow for exceptions to the rule when warranted by the outcome. 4. Utilitarianism follows the cause and effect reasoning in science. It can be proven wrong or right by referring to empirical evidence, instead of a theoretical ideal. 5. All sentient beings understand pain and pleasure. Thus many have claimed that utilitarianism is transcultural. 6. On a related note, utilitarianism avoids the charge of speciesism in ethical theory by using a moral foundation that is shared by other species, thus requiring their consideration.
  14. 14. Module 2 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 14 Problems - 1. Consequences are difficult to predict. Your actions may have good intentions and a high probability of causing good results. But, if something happens and the consequences are actually bad, then your action was morally wrong. Also, as the situation involves more people and alternatives, it becomes more difficult to determine which action would produce the best consequences. How can we ever know that we actually chose the ―best‖ alternative. There is no opportunity for comparison of actual cases, just similar ones. 2. "Does the end always justify the means?" A consequentialist theory would justify many actions that we normally would consider wrong, if it turned out that the consequences were good. 3. This theory undermines trust in others and intimate relationships since we can never be sure that the consequences might not justify a betrayal of trust and in many of these theories, each individual is treated the same regardless of one's relationship. So, for example, one‘s duty to prevent pain to a stray cat would be equal to one‘s duty to prevent pain to one‘s own cat. DEONTOLOGICAL - This type of theory claims that there are features within the actions themselves which determine whether or not they are right. These features define the extent to which the actions conform with recognized moral duties. For example, driving while drunk violates the duty to ―above all do no harm.‖ The duties derive from various sources, such as religion, biology, psychology, metaphysics, culture, language, etc. Depending on the deontological theory, these duties may be absolute (no exceptions), prima facie (can only be overridden by a more important duty), or conditional (only hold under specified circumstances). Deontological theories do not consider consequences to be important when determining whether or not an action is ethical. It doesn‘t matter if the drunk driver made it home safely. Driving drunk was still wrong because the intention to drive drunk was wrong (or to drink alcohol when one knows one needs to drive). Immanuel Kant's ethical theory is deontological. He claims that actions are only morally right when they are done out of duty. He sees moral duties as unchanging laws for human conduct. He believes that morality is derived from the ability to think rationally, which enables beings to be free. If one is not free, then one cannot be held responsible. Thus only free individuals are moral agents and all free individuals are capable of acting out of reason. Kant‘s moral theory is largely focused on protecting and promoting the free action of rational beings. Three formulations of his categorical imperative are derived from this moral foundation: (Kant) Always act out of duty, in accordance with a good will (I.e. One does the right thing because one recognizes that it is the right thing to do, not because it pleases you to do it or will promote good consequences.). (pp. 25-26.) Always act as if the maxim of thy action were to become by thy will a Universal Law of Nature (i.e. Are you willing to allow any other rational being to act on the same reasoning you used to justify your action?) (p. 49.) Act as to treat the capacity for rationality, whether in thine own person or in that of any other, in every case as an end withal, never as a means only. (i.e. Never treat a rational being as a mere means to an end.) (p. 62.)
  15. 15. Module 2 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 15 Benefits - 1. Right and wrong actions are easily determined by considering one's duties. In some cases, these are explicitly spelled out (i.e. religion). However, the use of judgement is usually necessary to determine which duties apply and how. 2. Unlike utilitarianism, the end does not justify the means. Deontological theories provide a sound basis for inalienable rights and inherent value. 3. Since duties do not change, there is a greater sense of security/predictability in the accepted behavior of others. Right and wrong don‘t vary with the consequences, although there may be a various according to circumstances (i.e. in the case of conflicting duties). 4. Good motives are valued, even if the outcome wasn‘t what you expected.. Problems - 1. There is no agreement on a single standard for morality. 2. Ignoring consequences can cause pain and suffering. 3. The imposition of a specific moral belief system on others has been a cause of significant harm throughout history. Some deontological theories are not equipped to respect diverse beliefs. However there are some deontological theories that incorporate respect for the beliefs of others. There are even some religious-based theories which, while espousing one true way also respect diverse beliefs amongst individuals (i.e. Buddhist ethics). RELATIVISM/SUBJECTIVISM - This type of theory denies that there is any uniquely right moral theory, standard, or value. Everything is subjective. For example, Jean Paul Sartre claimed that each individual creates his or her own morality based solely on one's own decisions about what is valuable. There are no moral standards to turn to that have any more authority than those that you create. Things (including other people) only have value because you gave them value.(Sartre) Benefits - 1. Adjusts for changing factors in society and allows for true multiculturalism. 2. Each individual is fully responsible for his/her own moral beliefs since he/she chose to create and value them. Problems - 1. This leads to social anarchy. Moral theories are tools that are supposed to help people live together with some degree of harmony and security. But, if you accept that morality is truly relative, you have to accept that there is no standard by which you can judge the moral beliefs of others.(ex. The Nazis, KKK, etc.) 2. What is the meaning of morality if it lacks any standard to judge such claims other than individual choice? VIRTUE BASED THEORIES - Teleological theories consider the goals of actions. Deontological theories focus on acting in accordance with moral duties and obligations. Virtue based theories focus on the character of the person. According to virtue based theories, ethics is about what sort of person one should strive to become. The qualities that one should develop in oneself are called virtues (ex. honesty, fairness, kindness, faithfulness, generosity, prudence, integrity, bravery, etc.). One should act in ways that develop these virtuous qualities within oneself. For example, Aristotle claimed that in order to become an honest person, one should tell the truth. (Aristotle) Eventually it becomes a habit. Along, the way one learns how to tell the truth appropriately, without being brutally honest all of the time or lying whenever it is easier to do so. There are many virtues that one ought to develop through practice over one‘s lifetime. Becoming
  16. 16. Module 2 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 16 virtuous is excelling at all of the virtues that make a good human being, health care professional, etc. It is a learning process that continues throughout your life. Benefits - 1. This type of theory recognizes that individuals and circumstances are unique. For example, the virtue of compassion may be expressed by two people in two different ways. Similarly, running into a burning building may be courageous action for a fire professional but foolhardy for an untrained individual with no protective equipment. 2. Virtue ethics allows each individual to use his/her own judgement when making difficult moral decisions, yet recognizes certain common goals. 3. Mistakes are expected and recognized as learning opportunities. Problems - 1. Some argue that too much is left to individual judgement, thus opening the door to bias and prejudice. 2. Similarly, virtues can be interpreted very differently. For example, consider the many ways that fairness may be interpreted. 3. Virtue ethics depends on modeling for some of the education. However, one may choose a poor role-model and therefore develop a false sense of virtue. Kohlberg’s Theory Lawrence Kohlberg – an American Psychologist (1958) agreed with Piaget's (1932) theory of moral development in principle but wanted to develop his ideas further. He used Piaget‘s story-telling technique to tell people stories involving moral dilemmas. In each case he presented a choice to be considered for example between the rights of some authority and the needs of some deserving individual who is being unfairly treated. One of the best known of Kohlberg‘s (1958) stories concerns a man called Heinz who lived somewhere in Europe. Heinz’s wife was dying from a particular type of cancer. Doctors said a new drug might save her. The drug had been discovered by a local chemist and the Heinz tried desperately to buy some, but the chemist was charging ten times the money it cost to make the drug and this was much more than the Heinz could afford. Heinz could only raise half the money, even after help from family and friends. He explained to the chemist that his wife was dying and asked if he could have the drug cheaper or pay the rest of the money later. The chemist refused saying that he had discovered the drug and was going to make money from it. The husband was desperate to save his wife, so later that night he broke into the chemist’s and stole the drug.
  17. 17. Module 2 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 17 Kohlberg asked a series of questions such as: 1. Should Heinz have stolen the drug? 2. Would it change anything if Heinz did not love his wife? 3. What if the person dying was a stranger, would it make any difference? 4. Should the police arrest the chemist for murder if the woman died? By studying the answers from children of different ages to these questions Kohlberg hoped to discover the ways in which moral reasoning changed as people grew. The sample comprised 72 Chicago boys aged 10–16 years, 58 of whom were followed up at three-yearly intervals for 20 years (Kohlberg, 1984). Kohlberg told several dilemma stories and asked many such questions to discover how people reasoned about moral issues. He identified three distinct levels of moral reasoning each with two sub stages. People can only pass through these levels in the order listed. Each new stage replaces the reasoning typical of the earlier stage. Not everyone achieves all the stages. Kohlberg Stages of Moral Development Level 1 -Pre-conventional morality At the pre-conventional level (most nine-year-olds and younger, some over nine), we don‘t have a personal code of morality. Instead, our moral code is shaped by the standards of adults and the consequences of following or breaking their rules. Authority is outside the individual and reasoning is based on the physical consequences of actions. • Stage 1. Obedience and Punishment Orientation. The child/individual is good in order to avoid being punished. If a person is punished they must have done wrong. • Stage 2. Individualism and Exchange. At this stage children recognize that there is not just one right view that is handed down by the authorities. Different individuals have different viewpoints. Level 2 - Conventional morality At the conventional level (most adolescents and adults), we begin to internalise the moral standards of valued adult role models.
  18. 18. Module 2 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 18 Authority is internalized but not questioned and reasoning is based on the norms of the group to which the person belongs. • Stage 3. Good Interpersonal Relationships. The child/individual is good in order to be seen as being a good person by others. Therefore, answers are related to the approval of others. • Stage 4. Maintaining the Social Order. The child/individual becomes aware of the wider rules of society so judgments concern obeying rules in order to uphold the law and to avoid guilt. Level 3 -Post-conventional morality Individual judgment is based on self-chosen principles, and moral reasoning is based on individual rights and justice (10–15% of adults, not before mid-30s). • Stage 5. Social Contract and Individual Rights. The child/individual becomes aware that while rules/laws might exist for the good of the greatest number, there are times when they will work against the interest of particular individuals. The issues are not always clear cut. For example, in Heinz‘s dilemma the protection of life is more important than breaking the law against stealing. • Stage 6: Universal Principles. People at this stage have developed their own set of moral guidelines which may or may not fit the law. The principles apply to everyone. E.g. human rights, justice and equality. The person will be prepared to act to defend these principles even if it means going against the rest of society in the process and having to pay the consequences of disapproval and or imprisonment. Kohlberg doubted few people reached this stage. Critical Evaluation Problems with Kohlberg's Methods 1. The dilemmas are artificial (i.e. they lack ecological validity) Most of the dilemmas are unfamiliar to most people (Rosen, 1980). For example it is all very well in the Heinz dilemma asking subjects whether Heinz should steal the drug to save his wife. However Kohlberg‘s subjects were aged between 7 and 16. They have never been married, and never been placed in a situation remotely like the one in the story. How should they know whether Heinz should steal the drug?
  19. 19. Module 2 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 19 2. The sample is biased According to Gilligan (1977), because Kohlberg‘s theory was based on an all-male sample, the stages reflect a male definition of morality (it‘s androcentric). Men‘s morality is based on abstract principles of law and justice, while women‘s is based on principles of compassion and care. Further, the gender bias issue raised by Gilligan is a reminded of the significant gender debate still present in psychology, which when ignored, can have a large impact on results obtained through psychological research. 2. The dilemmas are hypothetical (i.e. they are not real) In a real situation what course of action a person takes will have real consequences – and sometimes very unpleasant ones for themselves. Would subjects reason in the same way if they were placed in a real situation? We just don‘t know. The fact that Kohlberg‘s theory is heavily dependent on an individual‘s response to an artificial dilemma brings question to the validity of the results obtained through this research. People may respond very differently to real life situations that they find themselves in than they do to an artificial dilemma presented to them in the comfort of a research environment. 3. Poor research design The way in which Kohlberg carried out his research when constructing this theory may not have been the best way to test whether all children follow the same sequence of stage progression. His research was cross-sectional, meaning that he interviewed children of different ages to see what level of moral development they were at. A better way to see if all children follow the same order through the stages would have been to carry out longitudinal research on the same children. However, longitudinal research on Kohlberg‘s theory has since been carried out by Colby et al. (1983) who tested 58 male participants of Kohlberg‘s original study. She tested them 6 times in the span of 27 years and found support for Kohlberg‘s original conclusion, that we all pass through the stages of moral development in the same order. Problems with Kohlberg's Theory 1. Are their distinct stages to moral development?
  20. 20. Module 2 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 20 Kohlberg claims that there are but the evidence does not always support this conclusion. For example a person who justified a decision on the basis of principled reasoning in one situation (post conventional morality stage 5 or 6) would frequently fall back on conventional reasoning (stage 3 or 4) in another story. In practice it seems that reasoning about right and wrong depends more upon the situation than upon general rules. What is more individuals do not always progress through the stages and Rest (1979) found that one in fourteen actually slipped backwards. The evidence for distinct stages to moral development looks very weak and some would argue that behind the theory is a culturally biased belief in the superiority of American values over those of other cultures and societies. 2. Does moral judgement match moral behaviour? Kohlberg never claimed that there would be a one to one correspondence between thinking and acting (what we say and what we do) but he does suggest that the two are linked. However Bee (1994) suggest that we also need to take account of: a) habits that people have developed over time. b) whether people see situations as demanding their participation. c) the costs and benefits of behaving in a particular way. d) competing motive such as peer pressure self interest and so on. Overall Bee points out that moral behaviour is only partly a question of moral reasoning. It is also to do with social factors. 3. Is justice the most fundamental moral principle? This is Kohlberg‘s view. However Gilligan (1977) suggests that the principle of caring for others is equally important. Furthermore Kohlberg claims that the moral reasoning of males is often in advance of that of females. Girls are often found to be at stage 3 in Kohlberg‘s system (good boy-nice girl orientation) whereas boys are more often found to be at stage 4 (Law and Order orientation). Gilligan replies:
  21. 21. Module 2 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 21 ―the very traits that have traditionally defined the goodness of women, their care for and sensitivity to the needs of others, are those that mark them out as deficient in moral development.‖ In other words Gilligan is claiming that there is a sex bias in Kohlberg‘s theory. He neglects the feminine voice of compassion, love and non-violence, which is associated with the socialisation of girls. Gilligan reached the conclusion that Kohlberg‘s theory did not account for the fact that women approach moral problems from an ‗ethics of care‘, rather than an ‗ethics of justice‘ perspective, which challenges some of the fundamental assumptions of Kohlberg‘s theory. CAROL GILLIGAN Carol Gilligan was born on November 28, 1936, in New York City. She has received her doctorate degree in social psychology from Harvard University in 1964m and began teaching at Harvard in 1967. Then in 1970 she became a research assistant for the great theorist of moral development, Lawrence Kohlberg. Eventually Gilligan became independent and began to criticize some of Kohlberg' s work. Her opinions were presented in her famous book, " In a different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women ' s Development " which was published in 1982. She felt that Kohlberg only studied " privileged, white men and boys. " Gilligan said that this caused a biased opinion against women. She felt that , in Kohlberg ' s stage theory of moral development, the male view of individual rights and rules was considered a higher stage than women's point of view of development in terms of its caring effect on human relationships. " Gilligan ' s goal is was to prove that women are not " moral midgets " , she was going against many psychological opinions. Another famous theorist, Freud thought women ' s moral sense was stunted because they stayed attached to their mothers. Another great theorist , Erik Erickson , thought the tasks of development were separation from mother and the family , If women did not succeed in this scale, then they were obviously lacking. Therefore Gilligan ' s goal was a good cause. Gilligans Theory Her theory is divided into three stages of moral development beginning from " selfish , to social or conventional morality , and finally to post conventional or principled morality . " Women must learn to deal to their own interests and to the interests of others . She thinks that women hesitate to judge because they see the complexities of relationships.
  22. 22. Module 2 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 22 Pre Conventional -Person only cares for themselves in order to ensure survival -This is how everyone is as children In this transitional phase, the person 's attitude is considered selfish, and the person sees the connection between themselves and others. Conventional -Responsibility -More care shown for other people. -Gilligan says this is shown in the role of Mother & Wife -Situation sometimes carries on to ignoring needs of self. In this transitional phase, tensions between responsibility of caring for others and caring for self are faced. Post Conventional -Aceeptance of the principle of care for self and others is shown. -Some people never reach this level. Is She Wrong? There has been some criticism of Gilligan's work and by Christina Hoff Sommers , PhD . She says that Gilligan does not have data for her research. She says Gilligan used unreliable evidence, that researchers have not been able to duplicate her work, and that the samples used were too small. She feels strongly that promoting an anti-male agenda hurts both males and females. Gilligan says that her work has been published in articles and journals and Sommer ' s points are inaccurate. Gilligan' s Theory and Society Gilligan's ideas are against the struggle of women against our society's idea of their " gender- determined " role. According to Gilligan , women can gain personal independence after they forget about the idea that their proper role is to overcome their interests to the interests of their husbands, children, or other people they care about. Gilligan says that in our society women
  23. 23. Module 2 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 23 really like to help others, however they should care just as much about themselves as the do about others. Gilligan's Theory and Education Carol Gilligan's theory helps both men and women in seeing eachother in a different perspective. In terms of education everyone should focus on it and everyone's need for education is important. A person should not put the needs of others in front of their own, especially in the case of education Gilligan's Theory and the Workplace A person could undergo this process of "the ethic of care" when entering a new job. The conventional stage is shown when the job is just acuired, and a good impression is trying to be made. This is followed by the conventional stage, which can be seen after developing relationships with colleagues. This might be followed by the post conventional stage when care for oneself and another colleague might be equal. (Not everyone reaches the post conventional stage) Ten Virtues for the Modern Age: 1. Resilience. Keeping going even when things are looking dark; accepting that reversals are normal; remembering that human nature is, in the end, tough. Not frightening others with your fears. 2. Empathy. The capacity to connect imaginatively with the sufferings and unique experiences of another person. The courage to become someone else and look back at yourself with honesty. 3. Patience. We lose our temper because we believe that things should be perfect. We've grown so good in some areas (putting men on the moon etc.), we're ever less able to deal with things that still insist on going wrong; like traffic, government, other people... We should grow calmer and more forgiving by getting more realistic about how things actually tend to go. 4. Sacrifice. We‘re hardwired to seek our own advantage but also have a miraculous ability, very occasionally, to forego our own satisfactions in the name of someone or something else. We won't ever manage to raise a family, love someone else or save the planet if we don't keep up with the art of sacrifice. 5. Politeness. Politeness has a bad name. We often assume it's about being 'fake' (which is meant to be bad) as opposed to 'really ourselves' (which is meant to be good). However, given what we're really like deep down, we should spare others too much exposure to our deeper selves. We need to learn manners, which aren‘t evil - they are the necessary internal rules of civilisation. Politeness is very linked to tolerance, the capacity to live alongside people whom one will never agree with, but at the same time, can‘t avoid. 6. Humour. Seeing the funny sides of situations and of oneself doesn't sound very serious, but it is integral to wisdom, because it's a sign that one is able to put a benevolent finger on the gap between what we want to happen and what life can actually provide; what we dream of being and what we actually are, what we hope other people will be like and what they are actually like.
  24. 24. Module 2 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 24 Like anger, humour springs from disappointment, but it's disappointment optimally channelled. It's one of the best things we can do with our sadness. 7. Self-awareness. To know oneself is to try not to blame others for one's troubles and moods; to have a sense of what's going on inside oneself, and what actually belongs to the world. 8. Forgiveness. Forgiveness means a long memory of all the times when we wouldn't have got through life without someone cutting us some slack. It's recognising that living with others isn't possible without excusing errors. 9. Hope. The way the world is now is only a pale shadow of what it could one day be. We're still only at the beginning of history. As you get older, despair becomes far easier, almost reflex (whereas in adolescence, it was still cool and adventurous). Pessimism isn't necessarily deep, nor optimism shallow. 10. Confidence. The greatest projects and schemes die for no grander reasons than that we don't dare. Confidence isn't arrogance, it's based on a constant awareness of how short life is and how little we ultimately lose from risking everything. Moral development focuses on the emergence, change, and understanding of morality from infancy through adulthood. In the field of moral development, morality is defined as principles for how individuals ought to treat one another, with respect to justice, others‘ welfare, and rights. In order to investigate how individuals understand morality, it is essential to measure their beliefs, emotions, attitudes, and behaviors that contribute to moral understanding. The field of moral development studies the role of peers and parents in facilitating moral development, the role of conscience and values, socialization and cultural influences, empathy and altruism, and positive development. The interest in morality spans many disciplines (e.g., philosophy, economics,biology, and political science) and specializations within psychology (e.g., social, cognitive, and cultural). Moral developmental psychology research focuses on questions of origins and change in morality across the lifespan. Habit formation The habits of highly successful people allow them to consistently perform behaviors that breed success. Everything from eating well to responsible spending to task completion and beyond requires habits that make such behaviors part of our daily life.Michael Jordan spent his off seasons taking hundreds of jump shots a day. Cy Young award-winning Phillies pitcher Roy Halladay routinely does a 90-minute workout before practices. The young Venus and Serena Williams would wake up at 6:00 am to hit tennis balls before school. Highly successful people have learned to develop good habits, and it takes discipline, courage and hard work on a daily basis to keep those habits in place. It makes perfect sense to adopt habits that will facilitate success, yet, why are some so difficult to adopt?
  25. 25. Module 2 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 25 The 3 phases of habit formation: Phase 1: THE HONEYMOON This phase of habit formation is characterized by the feeling of ―this is easy.‖ As all married people will tell you, at some point even the greatest honeymoon must end. The honeymoon phase is usually the result of something inspiring. For example, a person attends a highly motivational conference, and for the first few days after the conference the individual is making positive changes in his or her life. Phase 2: THE FIGHT THRU Inspiration fades and reality sets in. A person finds himself struggling with the positive habit completion and old habits seem to be right around the corner. The key to moving to the third phase of habit formation is to win 2 or 3 ―fight thru‘s.‖ This is critical. To win the fight thru, use the following techniques: 1. RECOGNIZE: Recognition is essential for winning the fight thru. When you have entered the fight through, simply say to yourself, ―I have entered the fight thru, and I need to win a few to move past this.‖ Winning each fight thru will make it easier to win the next. Conversely, when you choose to lose a fight thru, you make it easier to lose the next one. 2. ASK 2 QUESTIONS: “How will I feel if I do this?” and“How will I feel if I don’t do this?” Bring EMOTION into the equation. Let yourself feel the positive in winning the fight thru and the negative in losing. 3. LIFE PROJECTION: If the above 2 techniques haven‘t moved you to action, then imagine in great detail how your life will be in 5 years if you do not begin making changes. Be totally honest with yourself, and allow yourself to feel what life will be like if the changes are not made. Phase 3: SECOND NATURE Entering second nature is often described by feelings of ―getting in the groove.‖ Once in second nature, the following are 3 common interruptions that will send a person back to the fight thru: 1. THE DISCOURAGEMENT MONSTER: An individual allows negative results discourage him or her into thinking, “This isn’t working, and there is nothing I can do.”
  26. 26. Module 2 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 26 2. DISRUPTIONS: An individual experiences significant change to his or her current pattern (e.g., vacations, holidays, illness, weekends). 3. SEDUCTION OF SUCCESS: An individual begins to focus on positive results and begins to think, “I’m the special one. I have finally figured out how to have great results with not so great process.” If a person experiences an interruption that sends him or her back to the fight thru, winning 2 or 3 fight thru‘s will bring him or her back to second nature. Most people want positive habits to be as easy as brushing their teeth. HELLO…LET‘S BE ADULTS HERE…being great isn‘t easy. In fact greatness requires sacrifice. It requires doing things that others won‘t or can‘t do. GREAT HABITS ARE FORMED DAILY. Truth be told, good habits require consistent commitment. Highly successful people have learned to develop good habits. Make the commitment to make it past the fight thru, no matter how many times you go back to it, to reach new levels of success

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