Professional Ethics Module 1 Notes


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Understanding Professional Ethics, dilemmas, values, work ethics, civic virtues

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Professional Ethics Module 1 Notes

  1. 1. Module 1 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 1 Ethics is the study of the characteristics of morals, and involves the moral choices made by individuals as they interact with other persons. Engineers need to be aware of ethics as they make choices during their professional practice of engineering. Engineering ethics will be defined as the rules and standards governing the conduct of engineers in their roles as professionals It is important for engineering students to study Professional Ethics (or Engineering Ethics) so that they will be prepared to make (sometimes difficult) ethical decisions during their professional careers. As you read this, you will note that many case studies in engineering ethics do not have a single clear-cut correct answer, but may have many correct solutions, where some solutions are better than others. Therefore, ethical problems can be similar to open-ended engineering design problems, where multiple solutions exist. The Engineering Profession Engineering practice can be defined as a ―profession,‖ as opposed to an ―Occupation‖ or ―job.‖ A profession has the following attributes: · Work requires sophisticated skills, judgment, and exercise of discretion (work is not routine) · Membership in the profession requires formal education · Special societies (controlled by members of the profession) establish standards for admission into the profession and conduct of its members · Significant positive public service results from the practice of the profession Obviously, law and medicine are professions, and their practices are regulated by strong societies such as the Indian Medical Association (IMA) and the All India Bar Association (AIBA). Engineering is a profession, but differs from law and medicine in the following ways: · Most engineers are not self-employed, but work for large companies (the exceptions include civil engineers and consulting engineers) · Education is different: only a B.Tech degree is required to practice engineering · Engineering societies are not as powerful as the IMA or AIBA, since B.Tech degree holders can practice engineering without a Professional License Professional ethics encompass the personal, organizational and corporate standards of behavior expected of professionals. Professionals and those working in acknowledged professions, exercise specialist knowledge and skill. How the use of this knowledge should be governed when providing a service to the public can be considered a moral issue and is termed professional ethics. Professionals are capable of making judgments, applying their skills and reaching informed decisions in situations that the general public cannot, because they have not received the relevant training. One of the earliest examples of professional ethics is probably the Hippocratic Oath to which medical doctors still adhere to this day.
  2. 2. Module 1 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 2 Some professional organizations define their ethical approach in terms of a number of discrete components. Typically these include: Honesty Integrity Transparency Accountability Confidentiality Objectivity Respectfulness Obedience to the law Loyalty Implementation Most professions have internally enforced codes of practice that members of the profession must follow to prevent exploitation of the client and to preserve the integrity of the profession. This is not only for the benefit of the client but also for the benefit of those belonging to the profession. Disciplinary codes allow the profession to define a standard of conduct and ensure that individual practitioners meet this standard, by disciplining them from the professional body if they do not practice accordingly. This allows those professionals who act with conscience to practice in the knowledge that they will not be undermined commercially by those who have fewer ethical qualms. It also maintains the public‘s trust in the profession, encouraging the public to continue seeking their services. For example- A business may approach a professional engineer to certify the safety of a project which is not safe. Whilst one engineer may refuse to certify the project on moral grounds, the business may find a less scrupulous engineer who will be prepared to certify the project for a bribe, thus saving the business the expense of redesigning. Ethical Dilemma Eg In your spare time at work, you have developed a new spreadsheet program on the personal computer in your office. It is even more powerful, yet easier to sue than anything on the market. You share your new program with a friend who encourages you to market it on your own because you could probably make an incredible profit in a very short time. This is a very attractive option, yet you developed it using company equipment and during time that you were at work. What do you do? Case studies Case study: Takeover information. You are financial director of a large multinational organisation and have been privy to information about a takeover bid to acquire a rival firm. A family friend is considering selling shares in this rival organisation and
  3. 3. Module 1 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 3 has asked you, as an expert in the industry, for advice on this matter. What would you do? (Solve the case using the below hints) Integrity- This situation has a clear impact on you integrity – fair dealing and truthfulness. Your obligations in this instance are to confidentiality. Objectivity- Your objectivity would be at risk if you allow a personal relationship to influence the ethical and legal responsibilities you have to your employer. Professional competence and due care- You have a duty to maintain professional knowledge, to act diligently in accordance with professional standards and to uphold legal requirements. Confidentiality- You have an obligation to refrain from disclosure of information outside the firm or employing organisation. Professional behavior-You cannot compromise your professional judgment as a result of a personal relationship. Case study Bill is a software engineer who is asked to give an opinion in court as to the level of security offered by a company‘s data protection procedures. Bill suspects that the system may not be completely secure, though he has not had the opportunity to inspect it as thoroughly as he would like. Should Bill accept the request to appear as an expert witness? If so, how should he phrase his testimony? Morals Morals are the standards, norms or principles of right & wrong. They are basically principles which help to guide our behavior and accept behavior of others. Through the moral stories we learn what is right and what is wrong. Morals are values which we attribute to a system of beliefs, typically a religious system, but it could be a political system of some other set of beliefs. These values get their authority from something outside the individual- a higher being or higher authority (e.g. society). In the business world we often find ourselves
  4. 4. Module 1 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 4 avoiding framing our ethical choices in moral terms for fear that doing so might prove offensive (lacking in respect or compassion) to some. Many of us find our values are strongly influenced by our sense of morality - right as defined by a higher authority. Yet we refrain from citing that authority because doing so may seem less rational and more emotional to others who do not share our belief system. The lack of public reference to morals does not diminish the power of moral authority. Avoiding a morality-based rationale is a social convention and one that is not universally practiced. Ethics and morals both relate to ―right‖ and ―wrong‖ conduct. However, ethicsrefer to the series of rules provided to an individual by an external source. e.g. their profession. On the other hand, morals refer to an individual‘s own principles regarding right and wrong. Comparison chart Ethics Morals What are they? The rules of conduct recognized in respect to a particular class of human actions or a particular group, culture, etc. It defines how thing are according to the rules. Principles or habits with respect to right or wrong conduct.It defines how things should work according to an individuals' ideals and principles. Where do they come from? Social system - External Individual - Internal Why we do it? Because society says it is the right thing to do. Because we believe in something being right or wrong. What if we don't do it? We may face peer/societal disapproval, or even be fired from our job. Doing something against one's morals and principles can have different effects on different people, they may feel uncomfortable, remorse, depressed etc.
  5. 5. Module 1 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 5 Ethics Morals Flexibility Ethics are dependent on others for definition. They tend to be consistent within a certain context, but can vary between contexts. Usually consistent, although can change if an individual‘s beliefs change. The "Gray" A person strictly following Ethical Principles may not have any Morals at all. Likewise, one could violate Ethical Principles within a given system of rules in order to maintain Moral integrity. A Moral Person although perhaps bound by a higher covenant, may choose to follow a code of ethics as it would apply to a system. "Make it fit" Origin Greek word"ethos" meaning"character" Latin word"mos" meaning "custom" Acceptability Ethics are governed by professional and legal guidelines within a particular time and place Morality transcends cultural norms Values Values comes from the Latin word ‗valere‘ which means to be of worth, to be strong. As per dictionary, value gives the following meaning: relative worth, utility or importance, degree of excellence, quality, intrinsicaaly valuable. Value is something precious and dear, hence one is ready to suffer and sacrifice for it. Valuess are regarded as desirable, important and held high esteem by society. They are based on norms or standards. Value reflect personal attitude and judgments, decisions and choices. They give rise to believes, thoughts, feelings and actions. The different types of values include economic value, time value, psychological value and moral values. Values can also be classified as personal values, social values, behavioral, moral and spiritual values.
  6. 6. Module 1 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 6 Values are our fundamental beliefs. They are the principles we use to define that which is right, good and just. Values provide guidance as we determine the right versus the wrong, the good versus the bad. They are our standards. Consider the word ―evaluate‖. When we evaluate something we compare it to a standard. We determine whether it meets that standard or falls short, comes close or far exceeds. To evaluate is to determine the merit of a thing or an action as compared to a standard. Typical values include honesty, integrity, compassion, courage, honor, responsibility, patriotism, respect and fairness Human Values Human Values are the values of human beings for the human beings and by the human beings. Morals & values are the foundation of human values. Just as a building has a foundation of concrete, the building of human values rests on morals & values. In a profession, the human values identified and used are called, Key ethical principles (KEP) examples are:- 1. Honesty 2. Integrity 3. Fulfilling commitments 4. Abiding by agreements 5. Being fair and open minded 6. Willing to admit errors 7. Caring 8. Respect for others and self 9. Responsibility 10. Accountability for your decisions and consequence
  7. 7. Module 1 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 7 Honesty & Integrity Professional Engineers should adopt the highest standards of professional conduct, openness, fairness and honesty Honesty and integrity are in fact two separate but closely related concepts. While they have different meanings, it is hard to imagine anyone exhibiting one without the other. At least, someone who is dishonest is unlikely to be described as having integrity. Engineers are likely to work for the benefit of a number of different groups of people, and in many cases will have a duty to keep these people informed of relevant facts. The public trusts professionals to provide information that is as complete and accurate as possible. Honesty is not simply a matter of not lying: an engineer may at times need to disclose information which has not been requested directly, and which in some cases people may not want to hear. In other cases, such as where there is a duty to maintain confidentiality, for
  8. 8. Module 1 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 8 example to a client, it may be unethical to disclose information which would jeopardize that confidentiality. In these cases, failure to disclose would not necessarily be dishonest. Integrity is a more difficult concept to define. It has to do with acting ethically, even when there is no personal advantage to doing so. A person of integrity will resist pressure to compromise their ethical values and principles, whether that pressure comes from employers, clients, or anywhere else. They will take steps to avoid conflicts of interest or, where this is not possible, declare these conflicts clearly and do their utmost to avoid improper influence. People with integrity are consistent and reliable, and their actions match up to their words. For some, integrity may also mean ‗standing for something‘, trying to change practices and attitudes that seem less than ethical; it might mean trying to influence for the better the practices of an employer, the engineering profession, or even society at large. According to the Statement of Ethical Principles, an engineer should ―take steps to prevent corrupt practices or professional misconduct‖ in others, and not simply avoid falling into such practices individually. Case study Faisal is a technician working on the central heating system for a building which is occupied by a large financial services company. One day, while carrying out maintenance work in one of the building‘s corridors, he overhears two executives talking about a debt crisis at the company, something which has not yet been communicated to the public. Later, Faisal‘s friend, who owns shares in the company, asks him if he knows anything about the company‘s financial health. Should Faisal warn his friend about what he has heard? Case study Esther works on military contracts for a company manufacturing sensors which can detect and warn of the presence of chemical and biological agents. Esther is proud that her work contributes to equipment that saves lives. One day, she is asked to begin working on a new lightweight radar which can sense and display the movement and location of soldiers and vehicles on the battlefield. With this information soldiers can quickly call in mortars and artillery fire to destroy enemy positions. Can Esther work on the new project and keep her integrity? Professional engineers should “avoid deceptive acts, take steps to prevent corrupt practices or professional misconduct, and declare conflicts of interest” Respect for life, law and public good Many discussions of engineering ethics focus on major accidents where people were killed and injured, and particularly cases in which there seems to have been some level of negligence involved; for example, the Bhopal chemical leak, the Challenger space shuttle disaster Indeed, when Michael Davis, a leading ethicist, considers the question ―What does it mean to think like an engineer?‖ his conclusion is that the principle of ensuring the safety of others is so central to engineering that following it constitutes a large part of what is involved in thinking like an engineer. His, analysis was based on an investigation of the Challenger disaster, in the course of which the head engineer was apparently asked to think like a manager, and not like an engineer.
  9. 9. Module 1 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 9 This set of principles is not limited to health and safety, but also covers respect for the law, respect for (and the protection of ) the natural environment, and the reputation and dignity of the engineering profession. It encompasses all aspects of engineers‘ responsibilities for the people affected by their work and the social and environmental context in which they function. This aspect of an engineer‘s responsibility is very sensitive to changing social and political standards and expectations, and the steps engineers are expected to take to protect others have changed over time, and vary across the world. The risk that laborers on Victorian engineering projects would have been exposed to, such as the building of Brunel‘s Great Western Railway, where 100 people died blasting one tunnel alone, would not be tolerated now. Similarly, there is increasing awareness of the impact of engineering projects on the local landscape and the global environment, and the need to mitigate any negative impacts. Case study James is replacing the window of a commercial passenger aircraft, but realizes that he doesn‘t quite have enough new bolts with the screen – he has just over half of the number he needs. The standard practice is usually to throw away old bolts and to refit windows with new bolts provided with the screen. However, time is short, he‘s due to finish for the day, and he suspects that if he goes to find more bolts there will be delays and he won‘t be able to finish on time. In addition he‘ll be late for his date, and he wants to make a good impression. He knows that other members of staff sometimes re-use old bolts when they‘re short of parts. Is using the old bolts compatible with showing due respect to life, law and the public good? Self confidence The socio-psychological concept of self-confidence relates to self-assuredness in one's personal judgment, ability, power, etc Source of self-confidence Professor Raj Persaud posits that true self-confidence comes from an attitude where you: “ Promise yourself, no matter how difficult the problem life throws at you, that you will try as hard as you can to help yourself. You acknowledge that sometimes your efforts to help yourself may not result in success, as often being properly rewarded is not in your control. ” Factors affecting self-confidence Self-esteem has been directly connected to an individual's social network, the activities they participate in, and what they hear about themselves from others. Positive self-esteem has been linked to factors such as psychological health, mattering to others, and both body image and physical health. On the contrary, low self- esteem has been associated with the outcomes of depression, health problems, and antisocial behavior. Usually, adolescents of poor health will display low self-esteem. During adolescence, self-esteem is affected by age, race, ethnicity, puberty, health, body height, body weight, body image, involvement in physical activities, gender presentation, gender identity, and awakening or
  10. 10. Module 1 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 10 discovery of sexuality. Self-confidence can vary and be observed in a variety of dimensions. Components of one's social and academic life affect self-esteem. An individual's self-confidence can vary in different environments, such as at home or in school. How to develop self confidence Step1- Recognize your insecurities. What does that voice in the back of your mind say? What makes you uncomfortable or ashamed of yourself? This could be anything from acne, to regrets, friends at school or a past traumatic or negative experience. Whatever is making you feel unworthy, ashamed, or inferior, identify it, give it a name, and write it down. You can also tear these written pieces to start feeling positive on those points. 2 Talk about it with friends and loved ones. Wear it on your sleeve. Each day you should chip away at it; wear it down. There's no quick fix. Get to the root of the problem; focus on it and understand that you need to resolve each issue before you can move on. Check if it's an old past emotion and if it is really still relevant or applicable in your life today. And that doesn't mean you have to get rid of whatever makes you feel bad (many times, you simply can't). You need to learn to accept yourself, your past, your circumstances as they are, without necessarily thinking of them as "bad". 3 Bounce back from your mistakes. Remember that no one is perfect. Even the most confident people have insecurities. At some point in any of our lives, we may feel we lack something. That is reality. Learn that life is full of bumps down the road. And that often these insecure feelings come and go, depending on where we are, who we are with, the mood we're in, how we are feeling. In other words, they are not constant. 4 Identify your successes. Everyone is good at something, so discover the things at which you excel, then focus on your talents. Give yourself permission to take pride in them. Give yourself credit for your successes. Inferiority is a state of mind in which you've declared yourself a victim. Do not allow yourself to be victimized. Express yourself, whether it's through art, music, writing, etc. Find something you enjoy. Everyone is born with talents and strengths. You can develop and excel in yours. If it's difficult to name two or three things you have some ability in or just plain love to do, think about things others do that you would like to do too and take some lessons or join an enthusiasts club. When you're following your passion, not only will it have a therapeutic effect, but you'll feel unique and accomplished, all of which can help build your self confidence. Plus, adding a variety of interests to your life will not only make you more confident, but it will increase your chances of meeting compatible friends! 5 Be thankful for what you have. A lot of the times, at the root of insecurity and lack of confidence is a feeling of not having enough of something, whether it's emotional validation, good luck, money, etc. By acknowledging and appreciating what you do have, you can combat the feeling of being incomplete and unsatisfied. Finding that inner peace will do wonders for your confidence. 6 Be Positive, even if you don't feel the same way. Avoid self-pity, or the pity and sympathy of others. Never allow others to make you feel inferior--they can only do so if you let them. If you continue to loathe and belittle yourself, others are going to do and believe likewise. Instead, speak positively about yourself, about your future, and about your progress. Do not be afraid to project your strengths and qualities to others. By doing so, you reinforce those ideas in your mind and encourage your growth in a positive direction.
  11. 11. Module 1 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 11 7 Accept compliments gracefully. Don't roll your eyes and say, "Yeah, right," or shrug it off. Take it to heart and respond positively ("Thank you" and a smile works well). 8 Look in the mirror and smile. Studies surrounding what's called the "facial feedback theory" suggest that the expressions on your face can actually encourage your brain to register certain emotions. So by looking in the mirror and smiling every day, you might feel happier with yourself and more confident in the long run. 9 Fake it. Along the same lines of smiling to make yourself feel happy, acting confident might actually make you believe it. Pretend you're a completely confident version of you; go through the motions and see how you feel! 10 Stick to your principles. It might be tough, but if you don't have something you can believe in, you don't have anything. If you don't stand for something, you will fall for anything. No matter what's happened in your life, you can always lay claim to the fact that from this day forward, you've followed your principles to the best of your ability. 11 Help others. When you know you're kind to the people around you, and are making a positive difference in other people's lives (even if it's just being kinder to the person who serves you coffee in the morning), you'll know that you are a positive force in the world--which will boost your self confidence. 12 Avoid perfectionism: Perfectionism paralyzes you and keeps you from accomplishing your goals. Civic virtue It is the cultivation of habits of personal living that are claimed to be important for the success of the community. Eg- obeying laws, paying taxes, fulfilling duties as a responsible citizen etc. The identification of the character traits that constitute civic virtue have been a major concern ofpolitical philosophy. The term civility refers to behavior between persons and groups that conforms to a social mode (that is, in accordance with thecivil society), as itself being a foundational principle of society and law. Most discussions of civic virtue centre on the obligation of citizens to participate in society by performing the minimally necessary activities in support of the state, such as paying taxes. However, political theorists agree that the sum total of a person‘s well-being is not solely attributable to his or her own talents but is a product of social cooperation, or civic virtue. Even those who take a less-demanding view recognize that in a radically individualistic society, all people benefit from publicly supported goods, such as a transportation infrastructure or schools. Work ethic is a value based on hard work and diligence. It is also a belief in the moral benefit of work and its ability to enhance character. A work ethic may include being reliable, having initiative, or pursuing new skills.
  12. 12. Module 1 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 12 Workers exhibiting a good work ethic in theory should be selected for better positions, more responsibility and ultimately promotion. Workers who fail to exhibit a good work ethic may be regarded as failing to provide fair value for the wage the employer is paying them and should not be promoted or placed in positions of greater responsibility. Work ethics pertain to a person's attitudes, feelings and beliefs about work. The state of a person's work ethic determines how that person relates to occupational responsibilities such as goal-setting, accountability, task completion, autonomy, reliability, cooperation, communication,honesty, effort, timeliness, determination, leadership, volunteerism and dedication. A strong work ethic - one that encompasses a positive and productive approach to work - is favored in the work force. For that reason, it is not uncommon for employers to ask prospective employees questions regarding their work ethic. Because work ethic is a complex and individualistic subject, it is important that you put careful consideration into your own work philosophy so that you can best express yourself when the need arises. Follow these suggestions for how to answer the question of what is your work ethic. Step1- Examine your relationship with work. In order to best answer questions about your work ethic, you must first have a thorough understanding of how you, personally, relate to work. Consider the following: Attitude towards work. This relates to how you approach occupational responsibilities. Someone with a strong work ethic has a positive, willing attitude when it comes to putting effort into a job. Feelings about work. How you feel about work affects your performance, and is an important contributing factor to overall work ethic. For example, work may make you feel purposeful and satisfied, or stressed and obligated. Beliefs about work. This pertains to the role you give work in relation to life itself. For example, you may believe that work builds character and is central to a well-balanced life, or you may believe that work is nothing more than a necessity that must be tolerated. Step 2- Provide an honest answer that implies a strong work ethic. Choose characteristics of your attitude, feelings and beliefs about work to give an answer that is true to you, and that presents your work philosophy in the best light. For example, you may state that you approach work with dedication because you believe in doing your best, and when you do your best you feel accomplished and satisfied. Step 3- Use real-life examples to support your answer. Consider situations you have been in that exemplify the work ethics you claim to have. For example, if you say you place a high priority on honesty, cite a scenario in your life where you were especially honest in the face of difficult circumstances, and if you claim to work well with others, describe a group project that you successfully contributed to. When you have a good work ethic, you are dedicated to job that you deem valuable. You hold yourself to high standards of responsibility. You also keep yourself accountable for getting work done right and on time, and for making good business decisions that help people and companies succeed. Having a solid work ethic means you
  13. 13. Module 1 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 13 understand that productivity, organizational skills, being reliable and possessing good character are all attributes that successful people share. Honest Stealing personal property, sabotaging a coworker's client presentation, or taking someone's idea and making it your own are all ways that dishonesty creeps into the workplace. Employees with strong ethics refrain from lying or cheating to make others look bad in the hopes of making themselves appear smarter. Instead, they take responsibility for mistakes, own up to failures and keep the lines of communication open with everyone involved. Refrains From Gossip Workplace gossip can be destructive. When employees gossip about their peers, bosses or even clients, it's considered deviant behavior. An employee with good workplace ethics refuses to engage in gossip or even listen it. This person will encourage others to mind their own business, or else address the person or situation head-on so that assumptions and badmouthing can stop. Doing so helps eliminate resentment among coworkers and helps keep morale up. Values Diversity People with a good work ethic understand the importance of a diverse workplace. When you value everybody's contributions -- regardless of ability, age, gender or race -- it allows for more creativity and better problem solving. Diversity in the workplace contributes to successful client interactions. Overall, employee morale is higher. Respects Others An employee with a strong work ethic is rarely late. You respect everyone's time, from coworkers to clients to interviewees. You're also polite, conscientious of people's feelings and considerate of workers in a shared workspace. In addition, someone with a strong work ethic uses time wisely so that deadlines are met. You'll keep personal phone conversations quiet and not disrupt others. Out of respect, you'll also hear and consider everyone's opinions. Cooperative Having a good work ethic means you cooperate with others. While work may not always be satisfying or enjoyable, you see the bigger picture and do what is necessary for the team and company. Instead of debating every issue and finding reasons why things can't get done, you use strong conflict resolution skills to solve problems and manage the workload Courage is the ability and willingness to confront fear, pain, danger, uncertainty, orintimidation. Physical courage is courage in the face of physical pain, hardship, death, or threat of death, while moral courage is the ability to act rightly in the face of popular opposition, shame, scandal, or discouragement. In some traditions, fortitude holds approximately the same meaning as courage. In the Western tradition, notable thoughts on courage have come from philosophers such asAristotle, Aquinas and Kierkegaard; in the Eastern tradition, some thoughts on courage were offered by the Tao Te Ching. More recently, courage has been explored by the discipline ofpsychology.
  14. 14. Module 1 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 14 Self-esteem Self-esteem is a term used in psychology to reflect person's overall emotional evaluation of his or her own worth. It is a judgment of oneself as well as an attitude toward the self. Self-esteem encompasses beliefs (for example, "I am competent," "I am worthy") andemotions such as triumph, despair, pride and shame.[1] Smith and Mackie define it by saying "The self-concept is what we think about the self; self-esteem, is the positive or negative evaluations of the self, as in how we feel about it."[2]:107 Self-esteem is also known as the evaluative dimension of the self that includes feelings of worthiness, prides and discouragement.[3] One's self-esteem is also closely associated with self-consciousness.[4] Self-esteem is a disposition that a person has which represents their judgments of their own worthiness.[5] In the mid-1960s, Morris Rosenberg and social-learning theorists defined self-esteem as a personal worth or worthiness.[6] Nathaniel Branden in 1969 defined self-esteem as "the experience of being competent to cope with the basic challenges of life and being worthy of happiness." According to Branden, self-esteem is the sum of self-confidence (a feeling of personal capacity) and self-respect (a feeling of personal worth). It exists as a consequence of the implicit judgment that every person has of their ability to face life's challenges, to understand and solve problems, and their right to achieve happiness, and be given respect.[7] As a social psychological construct, self-esteem is attractive because researchers have conceptualized it as an influential predictor of relevant outcomes, such as academic achievement (Marsh 1990)[full citation needed] or exercise behavior (Hagger et al. 1998)[full citation needed] . In addition, self-esteem has also been treated as an important outcome due to its close relation with psychological well-being (Marsh 1989)[full citation needed] . Self- esteem can apply specifically to a particular dimension (for example, "I believe I am a good writer and I feel happy about that") or a global extent (for example, "I believe I am a bad person, and feel bad about myself in general"). Psychologists usually regard self-esteem as an enduring personality characteristic ("trait" self- esteem), though normal, short-term variations ("state" self-esteem) also exist. Synonyms or near-synonyms of self-esteem include: self-worth,[8] self-regard,[9] self-respect,[10][11] and self-integrity Self-esteem: 4 steps to feel better about yourself If you have low self-esteem, harness the power of your own thoughts and beliefs to change how you feel about yourself. Start with these four steps to a healthier self-esteem.By Mayo Clinic Staff Low self-esteem can negatively affect virtually every facet of your life, including your relationships, your job and your health. But you can take steps to boost your self-esteem, even if you've been harboring a poor opinion of yourself since childhood. Start with these four steps. Step 1: Identify troubling conditions or situations Think about the conditions or situations that seem to deflate your self-esteem. Common triggers might include: A business presentation
  15. 15. Module 1 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 15 A crisis at work or home A challenge with a spouse, loved one, co-worker or other close contact A change in life circumstances, such as a job loss or a child leaving home Step 2: Become aware of thoughts and beliefs Once you've identified troubling conditions or situations, pay attention to your thoughts about them. This includes your self-talk — what you tell yourself — and your interpretation of what the situation means. Your thoughts and beliefs might be positive, negative or neutral. They might be rational, based on reason or facts, or irrational, based on false ideas Step 3: Challenge negative or inaccurate thinking Your initial thoughts might not be the only possible way to view a situation — so test the accuracy of your thoughts. Ask yourself whether your view is consistent with facts and logic or whether other explanations for the situation might be plausible. Be aware that it's sometimes tough to recognize inaccuracies in thinking, though. Most people have automatic, long-standing ways of thinking about their lives and themselves. These long-held thoughts and beliefs can feel normal and factual, but many are actually just opinions or perceptions. Also pay attention to thought patterns that tend to erode self-esteem: All-or-nothing thinking. You see things as either all good or all bad. For example, "If I don't succeed in this task, I'm a total failure." Mental filtering. You see only negatives and dwell on them, distorting your view of a person or situation. For example, "I made a mistake on that report and now everyone will realize I'm not up to this job." Converting positives into negatives. You reject your achievements and other positive experiences by insisting that they don't count. For example, "I only did well on that test because it was so easy." Jumping to negative conclusions. You reach a negative conclusion when little or no evidence supports it. For example, "My friend hasn't replied to my email, so I must have done something to make her angry." Mistaking feelings for facts. You confuse feelings or beliefs with facts. For example, "I feel like a failure, so I must be a failure." Self put-downs. You undervalue yourself, put yourself down or use self-deprecating humor. This can result from overreacting to a situation, such as making a mistake. For example, "I don't deserve anything better." Step 4: Adjust your thoughts and beliefs Now replace negative or inaccurate thoughts with accurate, constructive thoughts. Try these strategies: Use hopeful statements. Treat yourself with kindness and encouragement. Pessimism can be a self- fulfilling prophecy. For example, if you think your presentation isn't going to go well, you might indeed stumble through it. Try telling yourself things such as, "Even though it's tough, I can handle this situation."
  16. 16. Module 1 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 16 Forgive yourself. Everyone makes mistakes — and mistakes aren't permanent reflections on you as a person. They're isolated moments in time. Tell yourself, "I made a mistake, but that doesn't make me a bad person." Avoid 'should' and 'must' statements. If you find that your thoughts are full of these words, you might be putting unreasonable demands on yourself — or on others. Removing these words from your thoughts can lead to more realistic expectations. Focus on the positive. Think about the good parts of your life. Remind yourself of things that have gone well recently. Consider the skills you've used to cope with challenging situations. Relabel upsetting thoughts. You don't need to react negatively to negative thoughts. Instead, think of negative thoughts as signals to try new, healthy patterns. Ask yourself, "What can I think and do to make this less stressful?" Encourage yourself. Give yourself credit for making positive changes. For example, "My presentation might not have been perfect, but my colleagues asked questions and remained engaged — which means that I accomplished my goal." These steps might seem awkward at first, but they'll get easier with practice. As you begin to recognize the thoughts and beliefs that are contributing to your low self-esteem, you can actively counter them — which will help you accept your value as a person. As your self-esteem increases, your confidence and sense of well-being are likely to soar. Cooperation is the process of groups of organisms working or acting together for their common/mutual benefit, as opposed to working in competition for selfish benefit. Manyanimal and plant species cooperate both with other members of their own species and with members of other species (symbiosis or mutualism).[1] Cooperation in humans Language allows humans to cooperate on a very large scale. Certain studies have shown that fairness affects human cooperation; individuals are willing to punish at their own cost (altruistic punishment) if they believe that they are being treated unfairly. Sanfey, et al. conducted an experiment where 19 individuals were scanned using MRI while playing anUltimatum Game in the role of the responder.[3] They were receiving offers from other human partners and from a computer partner. Remarkably, responders refused unfair offers from human partners at a significantly higher rate than those by a computer partner. The experiment also showed that altruistic punishment is associated with negative emotions that are being generated in unfair situations by the anterior insula of the brain. It has been observed that image scoring promotes cooperative behavior in situations where direct reciprocity is unlikely. In situations where reputation and status are involved, humans tend to cooperate more.
  17. 17. Module 1 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 17 Commitment W H A T IS C O M M IT M E N T? Commitment is dedication to a particular organization, cause, or belief, and a willingness to get involved. People who are committed to an organization or effort truly believe that it is important, and they show up, follow through, and stick with it. The more people who are committed to your organization, the greater the momentum you can generate to get the job done. W H Y D O Y O U N EE D T O M O B IL IZ E A N D S U S T A IN C O M M IT M E N T ? Commitment is the backbone of a group or organization. It is what gives a group its strength. Here are several reasons it is important:
  18. 18. Module 1 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 18 The more committed people there are, the more effective they are in influencing others. If a whole group acts with determination and commitment, great numbers of people will really pay attention. People who are committed are the ones who don't take discouragement seriously -- they don't give up. They set an example for those who don't have the confidence or experience to go through the hard times and hold out for the rewards of success. People cooperate at a higher level when they share commitment. Commitment fosters camaraderie, trust, and caring -- the stuff a group needs to keep it going for the long run. If people are committed to an effort for a period of time, they will learn what they need to know to be more effective. People need time to try things out, make mistakes, and then figure out a strategy that works. W H E N IS A G O O D T IM E T O B U I L D A N D S U S T A IN C O M M IT M E N T ? All the time, any time. Commitment doesn't usually occur at one moment. It grows within people over time. Commitment grows when people: Work together Feel successful at what they do Make decisions together Work through conflicts Support one another's leadership Have fun and play together Overcome obstacles Hold each other to high principles Appreciate and respect one another Challenge one another to take the next step Build relationships Experience a victory together Learn from mistakes and setbacks See their leaders model commitment Commitment can decrease when people when the opposite is true – when they don‘t communicate well, don‘t build relationships and support one another, become embroiled in unresolved conflicts, don‘t live their principles, and don‘t see leaders demonstrating commitment. Although commitment grows in a natural way, you, as a leader or group member, can foster commitment in your organization. You can build commitment into your organizational culture. Although it is invisible, commitment is a very real quality that you can do something about if you are willing to focus your attention on it. H O W C A N Y O U M O B IL IZ E A N D S U S T A IN C O M M IT M E N T? How do you build and sustain commitment? How do you get your hands on that invisible quality and make it grow in your organization? First, let's think about why people become involved in and committed to a group or organization. Start with yourself: Why are you are committed to your project or organization?
  19. 19. Module 1 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 19 What is most important to you? The goals of your group? Your vision of what is possible? The people with whom you work? The length of time you've invested in this group? Your role in your group or organization? What you've learned in this group? The satisfaction you get from doing significant work? Other reasons? People commit to a group or organization because they gain something important from their involvement. When you invite them to become involved, you are not only asking for their help, you are offering them an opportunity to: Work on an issue that is important to them Benefit the community Meet and spend time with like-minded people Expand their skills Be a part of a team Learn how to lead Rise to a challenge Meet high standards Accomplish something significant You can be proud when you invite people to be committed to your organization. You‘re not imposing on them; you‘re offering them something of value. Below are some specific ideas about how to build and sustain commitment, many of which will also strengthen your organization as a whole. W E LC O M E P E O P LE IN T O Y O U R O R G A N IZA T IO N Sometimes, all people need in order to become involved is to feel genuinely welcome. If they don't feel welcome, they‘ll soon leave. As a leader, you can set an example by personally welcoming whoever walks through the door or asks about joining your organization or initiative. Ask them questions and get to know them, and make them feel valued. That not only gives people a good feeling about the effort and encourages them to become involved, but it also provides the basis for developing a relationship that helps you function as a leader and acts to cement commitment in the future. Example: A new member of a community organization dropped by the director's office to say hello. The director took 45 minutes to find out about the member and get to know her. The new member felt welcome and quickly got involved in the program committee. She became an active, committed member, and a few years later she became President of the Board of Directors.
  20. 20. Module 1 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 20 Teach everyone in your organization to welcome new people. Make it part of your organizational culture. You can also set up a Welcoming Committee for open meetings or special events, or you can set up a buddy system. People in your organization will understand that welcoming is a job to be taken seriously. B E O P E N A N D C LE A R A B O U T T H E M IS S IO N , P R IN C IP LE S , A N D G O A LS O F Y O U R O R G A N IZ A T IO N People have to know what they are committing to. They want to join an organization if they share similar principles and goals. Make sure that everyone in your organization is familiar with its mission, principles, and goals. As a leader, talk openly about why you care about these principles and goals. For example, if you are working to develop a mentor program for teens in your community, talk about why that program is important to you. You might tell people how your life would have been different if an adult had not committed some time and attention to you when you were a teen. M O D E L C O M M IT M E N T Y O U R S E LF Everyone looks to the leader of a group or project to see if she is committed. If you care about the work, it will show in your attitudes and actions. People will watch to see how you act, and they will follow your lead. If they can count on you, it is more likely that you will be able to count on them. If you stay late to send out a mailing, others will be willing to do so. Commitment is contagious. On the other hand, if you are working so hard that you are burnt out and always unhappy, people will take note of that too and they will shy away from following your lead. Try to strike a balance: don‘t make commitment look like an impossible burden. G IV E P E O P LE W O R K T O D O If someone shows interest in becoming involved in your group, don't wait too long to give them something to do. People need to feel that they are making a significant contribution in order to feel committed. Find out what they are interested in doing and see if you can match their interests to some work that needs to be done. Also, give new people a job that brings them in contact with other people in the organization. That will draw them into the group sooner and more easily. P IC K O U T T H E R IG H T L E V E L O F C H A LLE N G E F O R P E OP LE People need to feel successful and they also need to stretch their abilities. Both are important. When you are first getting to know someone, try to match them with work in which you think they can achieve some success. This will help people to feel good about themselves and will encourage them to stay. As you get to know them better, give them gradually increasing challenges. Being challenged keeps people excited about the work they are doing. Sometimes people will need encouragement to try things they have never before considered. Sit down and talk to people to find out what jobs they would like to try. It is a worthwhile investment of time, because they will know that you care about them and their development, not just about what they can produce for you.
  21. 21. Module 1 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 21 B U I LD A N O R G A N IZA T IO N A L C U LT U R E IN W H IC H S T A F F , V O LU N T E E R S , A N D M E M B E R S A P P R E C IA T E A N D R E S P E C T E A C H O T H E R People need to feel respected and appreciated in order to stay connected and committed to a group or organization. This is simple and important, but sometimes not easy to remember. Still, there are several steps you can take to build a group or organizational culture in which people treat each other well: Model appreciation and respect: Take the time to think about the people with whom you are working and openly appreciate them and their work. Although some people may be surprised when you do it, everyone likes to be appreciated. Treat everyone the same way you would have others treat you – with respect and good humor. You may be the leader, but that doesn‘t mean you‘re more important as a human being than the person who answers the phone or helps with a mailing. Teach people in your organization to notice what is going well, rather than just noticing what needs to be improved. For example, you can open meetings by having each person talk about what they have done well since the last time you met. You can also have people show appreciation to each other as a way to close meetings. In heated discussions or conflicts, make sure people continue to show respect for each other. Conflicts can be important growing periods. To ensure they are useful rather than destructive, do not let people personally attack each other. Keep discussions to the issues. If people have personal conflicts, mediate the conflict or bring in an outside person to do so. L IS T E N , LIS T E N , A N D LIS T E N Listening is a powerful tool. Everyone could use someone to listen to them. When you listen to others with respect, they sense that you have confidence in them and are interested in what they think. In turn, your interest and confidence helps them to think clearly and creatively. If you want young people, old people, immigrants, low-income people, people of color, or anybody else to be committed to your organization, listen to them. Try asking a teenager or young person to share their thinking on a topic with you. How do you think we should design this community center? What is the key issue in this neighborhood? That teenager may be surprised, at first, because adults so rarely care about what they think. However, if you can break through their "cool," teenagers will be delighted to tell you what they think. S U P P O R T P E O P LE ‘ S LE A D E R S H IP To help sustain commitment in your group or organization, think about each person as a potential leader and train them to lead. If people view themselves as a leader of a group, they will view the group as theirs. They will have a feeling of ownership, and will be more likely to take initiative to make sure things work well. We traditionally think of leaders as the people who are the directors of the organization and make all the important decisions, but you can expand your definition of leadership. For example, you can view the event organizer as one of the key leaders, but the person who informally resolves conflicts is a leader, too. Even the person who gets everyone in the room laughing when the energy bogs down is performing an important leadership function. Help people to recognize their leadership talents, and encourage them to try out more. Invite them to speak in public or chair a meeting. You don't have to give people leadership titles, but sometimes it helps them to take themselves seriously.
  22. 22. Module 1 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 22 Even though people have different levels of leadership skills, everyone can contribute something of importance. Everyone has a point of view that is valuable. Everyone has talents to share. C E LE B R A T E Don't forget to celebrate. Any excuse will do: a victory, an organization's anniversary, a time to give out prizes or certificates to volunteers or workers, or a cultural sharing time are all good reasons for people to get to together, relax, and enjoy each others company. A F E W E X T R A T IP S Commitment grows steadily but often slowly. Be patient. It will come. Appreciate whatever level of commitment a person can make. People will vary greatly in their level of commitment and that's okay. Some people will have more time, more interest in the your goals and mission, and a greater understanding of the value of commitment than others. You can always invite and encourage people to do more. If they do, great. If they don't, appreciate them for what they can do. Don't guilt-trip people into commitment. It generally doesn't get the long-term results you want. People need to feel that their contribution matters, even if it is small. If they feel that they are a disappointment to the leader, they may not stick around. People are often yearning for meaning in their lives. When you ask people to commit to an effort, cause, or organization, you are offering them something of high value. And remember: Commitment takes time! Empathy It is the capacity to recognize emotions that are being experienced by another sentient or fictional being. One may need to have a certain amount of empathy before being able to experience accurate sympathy or compassion. The English word was coined in 1909 by the psychologist Edward B. Titchener in an attempt to translate the German word "Einfühlungsvermögen", a new phenomenon explored at the end of 19th century mainly by philosopher Theodor Lipps. It was later re-translated into the German language as "Empathie", and is still in use there. Empathy has many different definitions that encompass a broad range of emotional states, such as caring for other people and having a desire to help them; experiencing emotions that match another person's emotions; discerning what another person is thinking or feeling; and making less distinct the differences between the self and the other.[6] Since empathy involves understanding the emotional states of other people, the way it is characterized is derivative of the way emotions themselves are characterized. If, for example, emotions are taken to be centrally characterized by bodily feelings, then grasping the bodily feelings of another will be central to empathy. On the other hand, if emotions are more centrally characterized by a combination of beliefs and desires, then grasping these beliefs and desires will be more essential to empathy. The ability to imagine oneself as another person is a
  23. 23. Module 1 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 23 sophisticated imaginative process. However, the basic capacity to recognize emotions is probably innate[7] and may be achieved unconsciously. Yet it can be trained[8] and achieved with various degrees of intensity or accuracy. Empathy necessarily has a "more or less" quality. The paradigm case of an empathic interaction, however, involves a person communicating an accurate recognition of the significance of another person's ongoing intentional actions, associated emotional states, and personal characteristics in a manner that the recognized person can tolerate. Recognitions that are both accurate and tolerable are central features of empathy.[9][10] The human capacity to recognize the bodily feelings of another is related to one's imitative capacities and seems to be grounded in an innate capacity to associate the bodily movements and facial expressions one sees in another with the proprioceptive feelings of producing those corresponding movements or expressions oneself.[11] Humans seem to make the same immediate connection between the tone of voice and other vocal expressions and inner feeling. Empathy is distinct from sympathy, pity, and emotional contagion.[12] Sympathy or empathic concern is the feeling of compassion or concern for another, the wish to see them better off or happier. Pity is feeling that another is in trouble and in need of help as they cannot fix their problems themselves, often described as "feeling sorry" for someone. Emotional contagion is when a person (especially an infant or a member of a mob) imitatively "catches" the emotions that others are showing without necessarily recognizing this is happening Character The word "character" is derived from the Ancient Greek word "charaktêr", referring to a mark impressed upon a coin. Later it came to mean a point by which one thing was told apart from others.[2] There are two approaches when dealing with moral character: Normative ethics involve moral standards that exhibit right and wrong conduct. It is a test of proper behavior and determining what is right and wrong. Applied ethics involve specific and controversial issues along with a moral choice, and tend to involve situations where people are either for or against the issue. What is Character? The action you take to carry out the values, ethics and morals that you believe in. Consistency between what you say you will do and what you actually do. Putting the ethics into action. Defines, builds, or breaks your reputation.
  24. 24. Module 1 [PROFESSIONAL ETHICS] 24 Moral strength. It takes moral courage to do what is right when it may cost more than you are willing to pay. Who you are and what you do when no one is looking. "What is wrong is wrong, even if everyone is doing it. Right is still right, even if no one else is doing it." - William Penn