How GreenTouch is Making a Difference               Rod TuckerCentre for Energy-Efficient Telecommunications            Un...
Global Technology Capacity                               1E+24                                1024                        ...
Power Consumption of the Internet                               1013 Total Power Consumption (W)                          ...
Travel Replacement                     Air Travel           Business Meeting            ~3000 kg Co2e/person returnMelbour...
Summary• Energy implications of network growth   – Methods for estimating network energy•   Energy modelling of the networ...
Estimating ICT Energy 1. Inventory & sales approach:   Sales(units/year)                           Equipment              ...
Estimating ICT Energy2. Transaction-based network modelling approach (GreenTouch):   – Calculate power of resources requir...
Network Segmentation & ModelingStorage           Switch                                                             IP    ...
Access Network• Customer home terminal    – ADSL modem, ONU,        wireless/cable modem,..                               ...
Metro/Edge •   Ethernet switches and transport •   Border Network Gateway (BNG) •   Broadband Remote Access Server (BRAS) ...
Core Network• Core routers & switches   – Number of router hops• Long haul & submarine optical WDM transport   – EDFAs, Ra...
Data Centers and Content Servers• Data centres   –   Storage disks and arrays                 Internet   –   Servers   –  ...
Energy Efficiency of Equipment                        100                         2010 Data                         10 Ene...
Energy Efficiency of Equipment                 20 nJ                               Source: O. Tamm et al. BLTJ            ...
Router Energy Efficiency Trends                                                    Router Energy Efficiency             10...
Transport Energy Efficiency Trends                                                                Marconi                 ...
Summary• Energy implications of network growth   – Methods for estimating network energy•   Energy modelling of the networ...
Access Network Consumption                       30                                Wireless  Power Per User (W)           ...
Global Power Consumption      Total Network Power Consumption (W)                                            1012         ...
Energy per Bit                        100                                                                100              ...
“Theory” and Practice                                                         Access           Current                    ...
Summary• Energy implications of network growth   – Methods for estimating network energy•   Energy modelling of the networ...
GreenTouch Committee Structure                            Executive Board                                                 ...
Trends in PON                                                 Questions              1000                               • ...
Wireline Access NetworksBit-Interleaved PON (Bi-PON)                     DS: Bit-interleaved data                         ...
Future 40-Gb/s Access Options              Active Optical Splitter                                                        ...
Power and Energy Consumption                                 32Power consumption per user (W)                             ...
Core Networks                                           IP                                                  Core Switching...
Core Switching and RoutingScorpion (silicon photonic interconnect and single-chip linecard)
Core Switching and RoutingOpera (Optimal end-to-end resource allocation)
Summary• Energy implications of network growth   – Methods for estimating network energy•   Energy modelling of the networ...
Collaboration Among Diverse GroupsExample: Fixed access networks                                   Un-cooled              ...
Exciting Projects•   BCG2: Beyond Cellular Green Generation*•   GTT: Green Transmission Technologies*            *Cluster ...
Conclusions• GreenTouch goal   – Reduce energy per bit by 1000 in a 2020 target network   – Requires 100 times more improv...
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Green Telecom & IT Workshop: Rod Tucker Keynote

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  • Before we discuss about the future fiber access, let’s have a look at the trends in PONs.G/EPON standardized in ~2002….. Energy sustainability is a concern……
  • Green Telecom & IT Workshop: Rod Tucker Keynote

    1. 1. How GreenTouch is Making a Difference Rod TuckerCentre for Energy-Efficient Telecommunications University of Melbourne
    2. 2. Global Technology Capacity 1E+24 1024 1E+23 1023 1022 1E+22 Capacity (bits, bits/year) 1021 Storage (bits) 1E+21 1020 1E+20 1019 Telecommunications 1E+19 (bits/year) 1018 1E+18 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015Source: Hilbert and Lopez, “The world’s technological capacity tostore, communicate, and compute information,” Science, April 2011
    3. 3. Power Consumption of the Internet 1013 Total Power Consumption (W) 1012 Power Consumption of Internet 1011 1010 GreenTouch goal 109 2010 2015 2020 2025 Year Sources: Hinton et al., Tucker, IEEE
    4. 4. Travel Replacement Air Travel Business Meeting ~3000 kg Co2e/person returnMelbourne Bangalore Video Conferencing 2 X 1 Gb/s for 16 hours ~ 10 TB ~50 kg Co2e/person
    5. 5. Summary• Energy implications of network growth – Methods for estimating network energy• Energy modelling of the network, including data centers• Key contributors to network energy consumption• The gap between current practice and “fundamental” limitations – Putting the factor of 1000 into context• How GreenTouch is making a difference• Why your organization should join GreenTouch
    6. 6. Estimating ICT Energy 1. Inventory & sales approach: Sales(units/year) Equipment Total sock stock: Lifetime (years) - Residential - CommercialResidential - Industrial Energy use: Industrial - Residential TotalCommercial - Commercial energy Equipment - Industrial Usage(hours/year) consumption: - Residential Power - Commercial needs - Industrial Powermanagement Source: Kawamoto et al. 2001, LBNL-45917
    7. 7. Estimating ICT Energy2. Transaction-based network modelling approach (GreenTouch): – Calculate power of resources required to deliver services – Network equipment depends on service type – Include network design rules Service Network path General Web Fixed access + Metro/Edge (x2) + Long haul + Enterprise Video Fixed access + Metro/Edge + Long haul + Enterprise Peer to Peer Fixed access (x2) + Metro/Edge (x2) + Long haul Mobile data Mobile + Metro/Edge (x2) + Long haul + Enterprise Mobile voice Mobile (x2) + Metro/Edge + Long haul
    8. 8. Network Segmentation & ModelingStorage Switch IP Core Router IP IP TDM Gateway Fibre TDM TDM WDM IP IP WDM WDM TDM TDM Server Data Centre WDM WDM Edge Broadband Core Routers Network Gateways ADM Metro/ Edge Ethernet TDM/WDM Switch ring ADM Switch Splitter Fiber Fiber Metro/Edge DSLAM Fiber Splitter Fiber Cu DSLAM Switch Access Base Cu station
    9. 9. Access Network• Customer home terminal – ADSL modem, ONU, wireless/cable modem,.. Switch• Access network Splitter Fiber GPON field equipment Cabinet – PON splitter, Edge FTTN Node Splitter Cu DSLAM, RF amps,.. VDSL2 DSLAM• Central office equipment PtP – OLT, gateway, Fiber Base switch, base station,.. station LTE Fiber RF Node Gateway Cu HFC RFAmp
    10. 10. Metro/Edge • Ethernet switches and transport • Border Network Gateway (BNG) • Broadband Remote Access Server (BRAS) • Metro transport (TDM, WDM) • Edge routers Broadband Network Metro/Edge Edge Routers Gateways Ethernet Network Switch Broadband Network ADM Edge Ethernet Gateways Routers Switch TDM/WDM ADM ring Access Access
    11. 11. Core Network• Core routers & switches – Number of router hops• Long haul & submarine optical WDM transport – EDFAs, Raman amps, transmit & receive units, etc• TDM and WDM cross connects and OADM – Wavelength Selective Switches, MEMS Core Router Access Core IP IP TDM TDM EDFA IP WDM WDM IP IP TDM Fibre TDM TDM WDM IP IP WDM WDM TDM TDM WDM WDM Access Access
    12. 12. Data Centers and Content Servers• Data centres – Storage disks and arrays Internet – Servers – Local Access Networks – Gateway router Gateway – Ethernet switches routers• Enterprise networks Switches• Content Distribution Networks – Centralised Servers – Distributed – Nano Data Centres (Nada) Storage
    13. 13. Energy Efficiency of Equipment 100 2010 Data 10 Energy per bit (nJ) Sub-wavelength Wavelength 1 0.1 0.01 0.001 Core Ethernet WDM PIC FEC Optical MEMS Router Switch Tx/Rx Tx/Rx Chip Amp OXC Source: Tucker et al., 2009
    14. 14. Energy Efficiency of Equipment 20 nJ Source: O. Tamm et al. BLTJ Vol.14, No.4, p.311, 2010Energy per Bit 10 nJ
    15. 15. Router Energy Efficiency Trends Router Energy Efficiency 10000 Cisco AGS Linear fit gives ~25% improvement p.a. 1000 Energy/Bit (nJ) nano-Joules per bit Wellfleet BCN Actual improvement may be declining 100 Cisco GSR 12000 Cisco GSR 12000b Cisco CRS 1 Avici TSR 10 ALU7750 Cisco CRS-3 Source: Neilson, 2011 1 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Year
    16. 16. Transport Energy Efficiency Trends Marconi Wireless 10 8 Trans-Atlantic TelegraphyEnergy/Bit/1000 km (mJ) 10 6 Fessenden Coax Trans-Atlantic Optical + Regen 10 4 Optical + EDFA NY - Paris First Trans-Atlantic 10 2 Newhaven - Azores TAT-1 1 TAT-3 Key West - Havana TAT-8 10 -2 TAT-5 TAT-10 ~15% improvement p.a. TAT-9 10 - 4 TAT-11 Current TAT-12/13 10 -6 1840 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 2020 Source: Tucker 2011 Year
    17. 17. Summary• Energy implications of network growth – Methods for estimating network energy• Energy modelling of the network, including data centers• Key contributors to network energy consumption• The gap between current practices and “fundamental” limitations – Putting the factor of 1000 into context• How GreenTouch is making a difference• Why your organization needs to join GreenTouch
    18. 18. Access Network Consumption 30 Wireless Power Per User (W) 20 FTTN 10 HFC FTTP FTTP is “greenest” 0 1 10 100 1000 Peak Access Rate (Mb/s)
    19. 19. Global Power Consumption Total Network Power Consumption (W) 1012 Total (using 2010 Technology) Total (15% p.a. efficiency 1011 improvements) 1010 Routers and PON switches Transport 109 40% p.a. Access Rate Growth 10% p.a. Growth in user numbers 108 2010 2015 2020 2025 Year1.5 billion users Sources: Hinton et al., Tucker, JSTQE , 2011(b)
    20. 20. Energy per Bit 100 100 Total (using 2010 Technology) Average Access Rate (Mb/s) 10 Energy per bit (mJ) Routers 10 and switches Total (15% p.a. 1.0 improvements) 1 PON 0.1 Transport 0.01 0.1 2010 2015 2020 2025 Year
    21. 21. “Theory” and Practice Access Current 10-5 Trends Routers and SwitchesNetwork Energy per bit (J) 10-6 3 10-7 X 10 Transport X 102 10-8 x 104 10-9 Switches Theoretical Lower Bounds X 102 10-10 Transport 10-11 10-12 2010 2015 2020 2025 Year
    22. 22. Summary• Energy implications of network growth – Methods for estimating network energy• Energy modelling of the network, including data centers• Key contributors to network energy consumption• The gap between current practices and “fundamental” limitations – Putting the factor of 1000 into context• How GreenTouch is making a difference• Why your organization needs to join GreenTouch
    23. 23. GreenTouch Committee Structure Executive Board Operations Technical Committee Committee Services & Apps & Trends Committee Network Committee Access Networks Core NetworksWorking Fixed Mobile Core CoreGroups Access Communications Transmission Switching & Networks Routing Gee Rittenhouse Peter Winzer Thierry Klein Peter Vetter Jaffar Elmirghandi David Neilson Rouzbeh Razavi Subrat Kar (Tomorrow) (Tomorrow) (Tomorrow)
    24. 24. Trends in PON Questions 1000 • Can PON works at 40Gb/s?Access-rate (Mb/s) • Which architecture should we use? • Which technologies can help reducing the energy consumption? 100 IEEE 10G-EPON and ITU XG-PON • 32 users @ 312Mb/s (20km) • 64 user @155Mb/s (reduced reach) 2000 2010 2020 Year • Standardized in ~2002 • Wildly deploy in last 5 years • GPON : 16 users @ 155Mb/s • EPON : 8 users @ 155Mb/s
    25. 25. Wireline Access NetworksBit-Interleaved PON (Bi-PON) DS: Bit-interleaved data ONU 2Line card DS: 10Gbit/s ONU 1 OLT- BI Tx ONT-FPGA MAC DS UNI (FPGA) Rx BIPON DS Deser Delta DS: Packet data ONU 2Line card DS: 10Gbit/s ONU 1 OLT- XGPON MAC DS Tx ONT-FPGA (FPGA) UNI Rx XGPON DS Deser Peter Vetter (Tomorrow)
    26. 26. Future 40-Gb/s Access Options Active Optical Splitter CWDM/TDM 40 Gb/s Burst lDS1 10 Gb/s Burst lDS2 MUX lDS3DRIVER LD/Mod. lDS4 lDS1,..,lDS4 lDS2 WC ONU WC ONU lUS1,..,lUS4 lUS2 TIA PD DCF OA lUS1 DEMUX lUS2 lUS3 lUS4 OLT Active optical splitter CWDM/TDM PON lDS1 1.25 Gb/s 1.5mm 40 Gb/s 1.25 Gb/s MUX lDSN lDS,i lDS1,..,lDSN DRIVER LD/Mod. WC ONU lUS1,..,lUSN lUS,i WC O/E E/O ONU lUS1 DEMUX 1≤i≤N TIA PD Proc. lUSN OLT 1.3mm DWDM DWDM ElectronicSwitch Electronic Switch Source. : Sedighi el al., Paper JTh2A.59 OFC’12
    27. 27. Power and Energy Consumption 32Power consumption per user (W) 27 nJ/bit Aggregated rate : 40 Gb/s • TDM based Number of ONU : 64 • > 10 Gb/s ONUs • CMOS improvement is 16 Active optical splitter (AOS) more severe 5.7 nJ/bit CWDM-TDM 8 6 nJ/bit DWDM 4 4.6 nJ/bit 2.5 nJ/bit Electronic Switch (ES) 1.8 nJ/bit 2 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020 • Non-TDM based Time (year) • <1.25 Gb/s ONUs
    28. 28. Core Networks IP Core SwitchingCore Switching Server TDM & Routing & Routing Storage Core Network Data Center WDM IP IP Core Switching Core Switching TDM TDM & Routing & Routing Core Optical Networks & Transmission ...... Access WDM WDM Access
    29. 29. Core Switching and RoutingScorpion (silicon photonic interconnect and single-chip linecard)
    30. 30. Core Switching and RoutingOpera (Optimal end-to-end resource allocation)
    31. 31. Summary• Energy implications of network growth – Methods for estimating network energy• Energy modelling of the network, including data centers• Key contributors to network energy consumption• The gap between current practices and “fundamental” limitations – Putting the factor of 1000 into context• How GreenTouch is making a difference• Why your organization needs to join GreenTouch
    32. 32. Collaboration Among Diverse GroupsExample: Fixed access networks Un-cooled Novel PON protocols; tunable lasers Virtual Low power CPE PON Sleepmode HGWMin. energy access architectures Fiber in the Home Also: Hybrid PON TNO ZTE, KAIST Low power OFDM in optical access
    33. 33. Exciting Projects• BCG2: Beyond Cellular Green Generation*• GTT: Green Transmission Technologies* *Cluster project made up of• LSAS: Large Scale Antenna Systems* several sub-projects/activities• Minimum Energy Access Architectures• VHG: Virtual Home Gateway• OPERA: Optimal End to End Resource Allocation• STAR: Switching & Transmission• REPTILE: Router Power Measurements• Single Chip Linecard• ZeBRA: Zero Buffer Router Architectures• SEASON: Service Energy Aware Sustainable Optical Networks*• HALF MOON: Highly Adaptive Layer for Mesh On-off Optical Networks• EFICOST: Energy Efficient High Capacity OFDM Signal Transmission• Telecommunication Audits and Data AggregationAn Opportunity to Reinvent the Internet
    34. 34. Conclusions• GreenTouch goal – Reduce energy per bit by 1000 in a 2020 target network – Requires 100 times more improvement than achievable via Moore’s Law• Multi-pronged approach – Fixed access – Wireless access – Switching and routing – Core networking – Services and applications• Great strides have been made – more to come• Greentouch needs you
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