• Used primarily for breathing and eating secondarily for speaking constrcting THE airflow in the mouth at various points, we make the distinctive sounds for humanCONSONANT speech. The vocal tract has active and passive articulators. They are also know INVENTORY as articulators and points articulation. • Four principal dimiensions are considered when regarding “consonant articulation” voicing articulator and point of theARTICULATORY articulation cavity and manner. BASIS
VOICING Voiced voiceless consonants • It directly • A simple • Voiceless deals with explanation consonants the sound of voiced do not used quality consonants the voice. produced by is that they They are the vocal used the percussive cords. When voice. This is and hard vocal cords easy to test sounds. You vibrated, it is by putting can test if a said to be your finger consonant is voiced; on your voiceless by otherwise, it throat putting your is siad to be finger on voiceless your throat
ARTICULATOR AND POINT OF ARTICULATION Point the Manner ofThe articulator cavity articulation articulationIs the doer of Is any part of It refers to the way the It concerns how air flows out the mouth during the production articulation the place that can be of a sound. The sound and moves where air reached by might be stop fricativefreely enough goes through. the nasal lateral vibrantto be active in It can be the articulator. It affricateor athe apeech. It mouth or continuant. The is also knownis also known nasal cavity. manner of consonants as Major as Major passive describes the manner Active in which airflow is articulator restricted. Articulator
The active articulation touch the passive articulation and completelycuts off the air through the mouth. English, Spanish and French include:/p/,/b/,/t/,/d/,/k/,/g/. ARTICULATION AND POINT OF ARTICULATION Bilabial Apico-alveolar/dental* Dorso -velar E /p/ /b/ /t/ /d/ /k/ /g/ ORAL STOP S /p/ /b/ /t/* /d/* /k/ /g/ F /p/ /b/ /t/* /d/* /k/ /g/ vl vd vl vd vl vd VOICING HOMORGANIC SOUNDS In phonetic, this refers to sounds made at the same place of articulation is concerned with airflow i.e. the paths it takes and the degree to which it is impeded by vocal tract constrictions. In other words, manner of articulation describes how the sound is produced.
CONTRASTIVE TRANSFER ANALYSIS /P/ The /p/ phonemic transfer is positive. This means that the /p/ sound is likely similar inboth languages. It is voiceless bilabial oral stop.
BILABIAL /p/ ENGLISH SPANISH FRENCHInitial /p/ [ p] Initial /p/ [ p] Initial /p/ [p]Middle [pʰ ] Middle [ p] Middle [p]Final [ p-‟] Final x Final [p]
In Spanish, English and French /b/ sound is/b/ PRODUCTION voiced, bilabial, oral and stop. /b/ PHONEMIC AND PHONETICS DISTRIBUTION[-ß-] VOICED, BILABIAL, ORAL, FRICATIVE, WHICH OCCURS AFTER /L/ /ɾ/, BETWEEN VOWELS AS WELL ASA BETWEEN A VOWEL AND A VOICED CONSONANT SOUND. [-Ƀ IS ARBITRARY -] SYMBOL THAT CAN BE FOUND IN NON-OFFICIAL IPA NOTATION.
/t-d/ PRODUCTION PICTURE /t/ /d/ OralApico-alveolar Occlusive Voicedvoiceless
Apico alveolar /t/ /d/ ENGLISH SPANISH FRENCH ENGLISH SPANISH FRENCH Initial /d/ Initial /b/ Initial /t/ [t] Initial /t/ [t] Initial /d/[d] Middle [d] Middle [d ] Middle [d]Initial /t/ [tʰ] [t] Middle [t] Middle [t] v-M-v [d] Final [ d]Middle [ tn] [ɾ] [ʔ] Final x Final [t] Final [ɾ] [ʔ] Final [Ǿ]Final [t-̍]
Dorso velar /k/ /g/ENGLISH SPANISH FRENCH ENGLISH SPANISH FRENCH Initial [g] Initial [k] Initial [g] Middle [g] Initial [g] Initial [k] Middle [k] Middle [g ]Initial [kʰ] [ɣ] Middle [g ]Middle [k] Middle [k] Final [kˈ] Final [Ǿ] Final [g] Final [g]Final [k][kˈ] Final x
CONTRAST OF ENGLISH, FRENCH AND SPANISH FRICATIVESContrastive Fricative Sounds Chart: Articulator and Point of Articulation Labio Apico Apico Fronto glottal dental alveolar interdental palatal E /f/ /v/ /s/ /z/ /θ/ /ð/ /ʃ/ /ʒ/ /h/ - fricative S /f/ - /s/ [-z-] [-θ] [-ð] /ʃ/ [ʒ] [-h-] /x/ oral * F /f/ /v/ /s/ /z/ - - /ʃ/ /ʒ/ - - vl vd vl vd vl vd vl vd vl vl Voicing Homorganic Sounds
/f/ voiceless, labio- /f-v/ PRODUCTION dental,oral, fricative. /v/ voiced, labio-dental,oral, fricative. /v/ PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC/f/ PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC FEATURESFEATURES The /v/ sound does not exist inBoth languages have the /f/ sound Spanish. In English /v/ is voiced,which is voiceless, labio- labio-dental,oral, fricative.dental,oral, fricative. It has one allophone:Spanish has two allophones: [v][f] [ɸ]
•The /ʃ/ sound occurs in kichwa words inserted in EcuadorianSpanish.•Many English nouns ending in /f/ change into /v/ when the pluralending is added.•The /v/ sound doesn‟t exist in Spanish.•The morphemes <-s> or <-es> is pronounced /-s/ when theword ends in a voiceless consonant sound, it is pronounced /-z/when the word ends in a voiced consonant sound.•In the Ecuadorian coastal region, /s/ is articulated as [h] or evendropped at the end of a syllable or the end of a word.•This dialect variation is called “Aspirated-S”.•The [θ] sound in Spanish happens as an allophone of /d/.• The /ð/ matches the /θ/ in place and manner of articulation.
/s-z/ PRODUCTION PICTURE /s/ /z/ Oral Apico-alveolar fricative Voicedvoiceless
/ð/ PRODUCTION/ð/ voiced, apico-interdental, oral, fricative. Since [ð] is a positional variant in Spanish for /d/ Spanish speakers tend to pronounce <th> as a dental stop sound, /d/. EXAMPLES: SPANISH Verdad [beɾ̻’ðaθ] ENGLISH That /’ðæt/
/ʃ/ PHONEMIC ANDPHONETIC FEATURESThis /ʃ/ sound Examples: occurs English exclusively in PropulsionEnglish has one /pɹə‘pəlʃən/ allophone [ʃ] . Permission /pəɹmɪʃən/
/ʒ /PRODUCTION /ʒ/ Sound occurs in English only middle and final position. The English /ʒ / sounds features are voiced, fronto- Examplespalatal, oral, groove, fricative, Garage /gəɹaʒ/ and has an allophone which <si>ocacion /ə„keyʒən/ keeps the same features as <s>measure /mɛʒəɹ/ it s phoneme. <g> regime /ɹeyɪʒiym/ <z> azure /æʒəɹ/ /ʒ/In spanish does not occurs a phoneme.
/x /SPANISH PRODUCTION Oral Dorso velar Fricative Voiceless Examples <j>jarabe /xaɾabe/ <g>girasol /xiɾa„sol//x /Is a sound which exists <x>Xavier /xabyeɾ/particularly in Spanish.This phoneme has three allophoneswhich may occur in free variationregarding the position. This are A common confusion[x] voiceless, dorso- is made with thevelar,oral,fricative. glottal English /h/[h] voiceless, glottal,oral,fricative. when English speaker[Ø] zero allophone utter the velar sound
/h / PRODUCTION ENGLISH-SPANISH Oral Glottal Fricative VoicelessSpanish /h /has an allophone of [x] used by peoplefront the coastal region.This phoneme in English has two allophones. This Examplesare <h>holiday[h] voiceless, glottal, oral, fricative. /„halɪdey/[-ɦ-] voiceless, glottal, oral, fricative, and happens <wh>wholejust between voiced sounds. /„howl/The /h/ sounds never occurs in final position norhas a counterpart.
CONTRAST OF ENGLISH AND SPANISH AFFRICATES Those consonants have the same or similar places of articulation.ENGLISH AFFRICATES SPANISH AFFRICATES SPANISH SIMBOLS/tʃ/ [tʃ] /tʃ/ [tʃ] /č/[dʒ] /ǰ/
/tʃ/ /dʒ/ PRODUCTION ENGLISH-SPANISHApico alveolar lamino fronto palatal oral Voiceless /tʃ/ Africative Voiced /dʒ//tʃ/ there are inSpanish and English. It Examples Englishis voiceless, apico <cheap> /tʃɪyp/alveolar, lamino , <preacher> /pɹɪytʃəɹ/fronto , palatal, oral <reach> / ɹɪytʃ/ Examples Spanishaffricate. Its phoneme <chino> /tʃino/[tʃ] <pecho> / petʃo/
/dʒ/ PRODUCTION ENGLISH-SPANISHSpanish spellings: /ʤ/ does notexist as a phoneme In english its occurs as phoneme and allophone /ʤ/voiced, apico alveolar, Examples of English lamino, fronto palatal, oral affricate <jam> /ʤæm/ <larger> /laɹʤəɹ/ <large> /laɹʤ/ In spanish it’s an of the palatal aproximant /y/ uttered by people with a high register mainly fron the Examples of spanish city of guayaquil <llave> /ʤabe/ <llora> /ʤora/
When we pronounce this consonants, the air to flow out through the nasal cavity. Contrastive nasal sound chart Articulator and point articulation bilabial Apico Dorso Dorso alveolar velar palatalE /m/ /n/ /ŋ/ -S /m/ /n/ /ŋ/ /ɲ/ vd vd vd vd ALL OF THEM ARE VOICED, OCCLUSIVE, CONTINUANT
/m/ PRODUCTION ENGLISH-SPANISH The /m/sounds is similar in both languages:[m] voiced, bilabial, nasal, occlusive, continuant. English SpanishThe /m/ phoneme has threeallophones: The /m/ phoneme has one [m] voiced, bilabial, nasal, occlusive, allophone:continuant[-ɱ-] voiced, labiodental, nasal, [m] voiced, bilabial, nasal,occlusive, continuant which occurs occlusive, continuantbefore the voiceless labiodentalfricative. [m̩ ] voiced, bilabial, nasal, occlusive,continuant, occurs in a word finallysyllable
English and Spanish /n/ /n/ PRODUCTION *sound is voiced *apico-alveolar *nasal *occlusive ENGLISH-SPANISH *continuant Spanish[n] voiced ,apico-alveolar, nasal, Englishoclusive, continuant [n] voiced, apico-[-n-] voiced, apico-dental, nasal, alveolar, nasalocllusive continuant occusive continuant[ǌ] voiced,fronto-palatal, nasal [-ņ] voiced, apicoocclusive ,continuant alveolar, nasal,[ŋ] voiced, dorso velar, nasal occlusive continuant, English nasal consonants syllabic and occurs may become syllabic whenocclusive,continuant occur in final-word.[-ɱ-] vioced, labiodental, nasal,occlusive, continuant
/l/ Voiced, apico-alveolar, oral, lateral. Articulator and point of Articulation apico fronto palatal alveolar O L E /l/ - R A T S /l/ / ʎ/ A E R L A F /l/ - L Vd Vd Voicing
Articulator and Point of Articulation apico post alveolar apico alveolar Apico alveolar Dorso uvulaireE /ɹ/ [ɾ] O RS /ɾ/ /ɼ/ AF [ɾ] [r] L retroflex flap trill fricative Vd. Vd. Vd. Vd. Voicing
ENGLISH /ɹ /PHONETIC DISTRIBUTION OF /r/. [ɹ] [ ɹ] [ɚ] [ɝ] FRENCH /ʁ/ [ʁ] [ɾ] [R] SPANISH /r/ /ɾ/ [r] [ɾ ] [ɾ] [ ɾ̪ ] [ɾ]
[-u]̭ E /w/ sound [w-] [g] S Voiced ,bilabial, dorso- velar, F palatal,approximant,oral The w sound is created with the jaw mostly closed and the lips formed in a small, tight circle. The sound is voiced, so the vocal cords must vibrate during the production of the sound.
/y/ sound Voiced, fronto-palatal, approximant,oral,fricativeThe y sound is created with [y-]the tongue even closer to E [ʤ-] [i̭ -]the back of the tooth ridgeand the hard palate. S [j-] F /j/ semiconson ant
SPANISH WORDS PHONEMIC PHONETIC TRANSCRIPT TRANSCRIPT ION ION INITIAL huir /wiɾ/ [uɪ̭ɾ] MIDDLE guante /’gwante/ [΄gua̭ṋte] FINAL x x x ENGLISH WORDS PHONEMIC PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTI TRANSCRIPTI ON ONINITIAL wanted /wantɪd/ [waṋtɪd]MIDDLE twenty /’twentɪ/ [΄twɛṋtɪ]FINAL screw / ΄skɹuw/ [΄skɹuṷ]
SPANISH WORDS PHONEMIC PHONETIC TRANSCRIPT TRANSCRIPT ION ION INITIAL yema /yema/ [‘yɛ:ma] MIDDLE playa /’pl̩aya/ [΄’pl̩aya] FINAL voy /boy/ [boi̭] ENGLISH WORDS PHONEMIC PHONETIC TRANSCRIP TRANSCRIP TION TIONINITIAL yellow /yɛlɔw/ [yɛlɔṷ]MIDDLE twenty /’twentɪ/ [΄twɛṋtɪ]FINAL screw / ΄skɹuw/ [΄skɹuṷ]