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Promise of Green Building in China, James Connelly (February 2012)
Promise of Green Building in China, James Connelly (February 2012)
Promise of Green Building in China, James Connelly (February 2012)
Promise of Green Building in China, James Connelly (February 2012)
Promise of Green Building in China, James Connelly (February 2012)
Promise of Green Building in China, James Connelly (February 2012)
Promise of Green Building in China, James Connelly (February 2012)
Promise of Green Building in China, James Connelly (February 2012)
Promise of Green Building in China, James Connelly (February 2012)
Promise of Green Building in China, James Connelly (February 2012)
Promise of Green Building in China, James Connelly (February 2012)
Promise of Green Building in China, James Connelly (February 2012)
Promise of Green Building in China, James Connelly (February 2012)
Promise of Green Building in China, James Connelly (February 2012)
Promise of Green Building in China, James Connelly (February 2012)
Promise of Green Building in China, James Connelly (February 2012)
Promise of Green Building in China, James Connelly (February 2012)
Promise of Green Building in China, James Connelly (February 2012)
Promise of Green Building in China, James Connelly (February 2012)
Promise of Green Building in China, James Connelly (February 2012)
Promise of Green Building in China, James Connelly (February 2012)
Promise of Green Building in China, James Connelly (February 2012)
Promise of Green Building in China, James Connelly (February 2012)
Promise of Green Building in China, James Connelly (February 2012)
Promise of Green Building in China, James Connelly (February 2012)
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Promise of Green Building in China, James Connelly (February 2012)

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Buildings already account for 25% of China’s primary energy consumption, and this share will grow over the coming decades as China continues to urbanize and building energy use intensity increases. …

Buildings already account for 25% of China’s primary energy consumption, and this share will grow over the coming decades as China continues to urbanize and building energy use intensity increases. Green building presents an enormous opportunity to limit China's green house gas emissions, but to slow and eventually reduce building energy consumption requires the objective study and certification of what “green” really means. Two rating systems, China’s 3-Star system, and the United States Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design LEED system, are helping to ensure the promise of green building is more than just hype. By providing an objective and trusted seal of approval these rating system help create accountability -- transforming the building marketplace so that environmental performance metrics become part of the economic equation. The growth and popularity of these programs is an encouraging sign, but how effective are these rating systems in reducing energy consumption in practice? This presentation analyzes the factors behind the continuing increases in building energy consumption in China, compare LEED and the 3-Star system, and present preliminary findings into whether or not green building rating systems are truly living up to their promise.

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  • 1. James Connelly LEED ap Fulbright Research Fellow Tsinghua University Dept. of Building Science The Promise of Green Building in China The growth of building energy consumption and the potential of green building rating systems.Shanghai Green Energy ResearchCenter ★★★
  • 2. Outline›  China Building Energy Current Situation›  Factors Behind Building Energy Growth›  Green Building Rating Systems ›  LEED ›  3-Star›  Conclusion
  • 3. Current Situation Current SituationBuilding energy consumption per unit floor area 80 UK 英国, 227 加拿大, 155 UK Canada 单位面积建筑能耗: kgce/(m2.a) 60 JP 日本, 245 韩国, 81 荷兰, 37 40 希腊, 27 美国, 1431 澳大利亚, 24 法国, 132 USA 德国, 143 China 20 urban 中国城镇, 453 中国农村, 204 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 人均建筑能耗: kgce/(ca.a) Building energy consumption per capita Source: Tsinghua University Building Energy Annual Report 2010
  • 4. Building Energy Growth›  As countries develop building energy usage intensity increases›  China Is at the same level as Japan in the 1960, US in the 1950’s. Source: Tsinghua University Lectures, Professor Jiang Yi
  • 5. Why do developed countriesbuildings consume so much energy?›  Chinese building on average have: ›  Less stringent building codes ›  Less insulation, leakier windows and doors ›  Less advanced heating and cooling systems›  Yet, they still only consume less than half of the energy of American buildings!›  Why? The answer lies in two interrelated factors: ›  Lifestyle and Culture ›  System Design and Operation
  • 6. Culture and Lifestyle›  Chinese buildings have: ›  Less appliances, particularly clothes dryers ›  Less penetration of hot water ›  Greater range of acceptable indoor temperature ›  Example my office in Beijing, Jiuzhaigou in the Winter›  Utility bills are a greater proportion of income => ›  Culture of energy and water savings
  • 7. System Design and Operation›  China: ›  US: Part-time Part-Space Full-Time Full- Space ›  Part-Time Lighting ›  Full-TimeLighting ›  Small Volumes ›  Large Volumes ›  Operable Windows ›  Sealed Buildings ›  Decentralized Systems ›  Centralized Systems ›  Individual Control ›  Centralized Control ›  Split Unit Air Conditioners ›  Centralized HVAC VAV ›  Point Source Heating Systems Source: Tsinghua University Lectures, Professor Jiang Yi, 2011
  • 8. Case study: space heating in ChinaHeating in North V South China 沈阳 银川 北京 苏州 武汉 上海 温州 调研城市 Source: Tsinghua University Lectures, Professor Jiang Yi, 2011
  • 9. North V South China›  South: ›  North: ›  Individual units relatively ›  District Heating relatively inefficient, yet… efficient, yet…Part-Time Part-Space Full-Time Full-Space ›  Intermittent Operation ›  24 hour Operation ›  Fee By Sq Meter ›  Fee by usage ›  Lower indoor temp ›  Higher indoor temp (14-16C) (20C) ›  Heat Energy: 5-10 Kwh/m2 ›  Heat Energy: 90 Kwh/m2 ›  Much Less than developed ›  Similar to developed Countries w/ similar climate Countries w/ similar (40-60 kwh/m2) climatesSource: Comparative analysis of energy use in China Building Sector: current status, existing problems and solutions,Energy Power and Engineering China, Shengyuan Zhang, Xiu Yan, Yi Jiang, Qingpeng Wei, 2010
  • 10. Split Unit AC saves energy›  Unit itself is relatively inefficient, but…›  Unit can controlled individually (decentralized)›  When is comfortable, or unoccupied, unit is shut off (intermittent operation)›  Occupants actively control system to minimize energy consumption
  • 11. Centralized HVAC VAV systemswaste energy costs the most cooling & heating energy Re-heat through reheating AHU, typical state in October !!"℃ #$℃ !#℃ #%℃ !&℃ (()*+,"(*) -.-"/(0"1*23 456357258›  Cold air is provided at low set temp to each room›  Fresh air must be provide to meet min req. (US 15cfm)›  If the room is too cold => reheated at the terminal›  Upenn Case Study: 50-70% of energy is used to Reheat›  Reheating not technically allowed under Chinese codes Source: Tsinghua University Lectures, Professor Xia Jianjun, 2011
  • 12. Split Unit V Centralized AC AC energy for residential units in Beijing Average of AC energy during summer for each building: kWh/m2.a 20 18 kWh/m2.a 16 A,split unit 14 12 10 2006 8 2007 6 4 2 B:split unit 0 A B C D E D E V Centralized R V AC C:split unit Source: Tsinghua University Lectures, Professor Jiang Yi, 2011
  • 13. Lifestyle and System Design are Interrelated›  System design effects occupants ability to actively reduce energy consumption. ›  You can’t open the windows in a sealed office building. ›  You can’t turn on the AC in only one room when you have a centralized system. ›  You can’t save energy by turning up the thermostat when your HVAC VAV terminal just reheats the air.›  As countries develop => adopt developed country standard heating and cooling technology => lifestyle changes and energy usage intensity increases›  Slowing and preventing this transition is critical to reducing building energy consumption in China
  • 14. China’s 2 Modes of Development ›  Modern Western ›  Standardconcrete style office towers housing and office in central business blocks surrounding districts and in the suburbs
  • 15. Profile of Energy Consumption ›  Low Energy cluster around 30-40 Kw/m2 ›  High Energy cluster around 120-150 Kw/m2 Source: Tsinghua University Lectures, Professor Jianjun Xia, 2011
  • 16. Are Green Building Rating Systems (GBRS) the answer? 2011 China Green Building Action Plan proposed a 75 RMB subsidy per sq. meter to developers seeking to achieve 3-Star.Source: USGBC project Directory, MOHURD (does not included 3-Star data for November & December 2011)
  • 17. Similarities: LEED and 3 Star›  Bothchecklist rating systems›  Break green building into categories: ›  Land Saving, Energy Saving, Water Saving, Material Saving, Indoor Environment ›  3- Star has one additional category, Operation›  Pre-requisites(or Control items) in each category›  Different levels of achievement (1,2,3 star)›  Comparison to a theoretical “baseline” design
  • 18. LEED uses a developed country baselineChina“LargePublicBuilding”Average:36 Source:New Building Institute, Energy Performance of LEED® for New Construction Buildings, March 4, 2008,Tsinghua University Building Energy Annual Report 2010
  • 19. LEED Uses Energy Models forCertification Current Energy Models are not an accurate predictor of building energy consumption. New Building Institute, Energy Performance of LEED® for New Construction Buildings, March 4, 2008
  • 20. Is 3-Star Better?›  Chinese standards and codes›  Pre-certification, 1 year post occupancy evaluation, 3 Year follow up›  More pre-requisites, minimum achievement in each category›  Focus on on simpler and cheaper solutions, less on advanced technology
  • 21. 3-Star Performance Energy Building Area Energy Consumption Energy Consumption Project Name (m2) Savings Rating (kwh/m2a) (kbtu/ft2a) (%) Shandong Transportation College 15837 40.0 12.7 50 ★★ LibraryShanghai Building Technology Institute 1994 38.0 12.1 65 ★★★ Green Engineering Research Center Shanghai Expo Center 142000 146.4 46.5 62.65 ★★★ Shanghai Power Plant and Chimney 31088 164.6 52.2 62.6 ★★★ Renovation (City Hall)Shangai Eco-Home World Expo Best 3147 45.7 14.5 61 ★★★ Practices AreaUS CBEC Survey: On Average US Commercial BuildingsConsumed 91 (kbtu/ft2a) or 287 (KWh/m2a) Ministry of Housing and Urban Development Green Label Management Office
  • 22. Different But ComplementaryPhilosophies›  LEED is an industry run organization ›  => greater focus on market transformation›  3-Star is run by government and universities ›  => greater focus on energy policy goals
  • 23. Different Market SegmentsLEED: Class A Office, Luxury 3-star: Government, Public,Residential High-End ResidentialRaffles City Chengdu | LEED CS Vanke Gardens Shenzhen | ★★
  • 24. Conclusions›  GBRS must consider a country’s state of development and energy baseline.›  Attention must be paid to the relationship between system design, lifestyle, and consumption.›  LEED and 3-star are complementary.›  Green building represents an enormous market opportunity.
  • 25. Xizhuang Integrated Building Shanghai ★★★Thank YouJames Connellyseamus.con@gmail.comChinaBuildsGreen.comEcoCityNotes.com

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