Fondamentaux du web V2

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Petite introduction aux fondamentaux du web / atelier Web 2.0 et société / SciencesPo Poitiers, printemps 2012.

Petite introduction aux fondamentaux du web / atelier Web 2.0 et société / SciencesPo Poitiers, printemps 2012.

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  • 1. Réseaux Sociaux « Démocratie 2.0, Pouvoirs et contre-pouvoirs numériques» Les fondamentaux : du Web 2.0 au Web²10/02/2012 – les fondamentaux du Web 2.0 au Web² Beerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 1
  • 2. 2. Découverte de différents concepts, enjeux, techniques et usages « We can’t solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them »Einstein Beerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 2
  • 3. Petite historique du web Télé , en mieuxEinstein Beerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 3
  • 4. Petite historique du web Messagerie Internet 0.0Communautés universitaires Communautés militaires Bulletin Boards Ordinateurs Ordinateurs Peer to PeerEinstein Beerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 4
  • 5. Petite historique du webEinstein Beerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 5
  • 6. Petite historique du web écrire - lire Vente en ligne information Paiement en ligne NTIC économie Entre méfiance et confiance forcéeListes de diffusion Sites vitrine Messagerie (e-mail) Web 1.0 Bases de données / catalogues forum CMS (Content Management System) X frames Droits d’auteur design HTML 1, 2, 3, … Flash Navigateurs DHTML standardisation Protocol TCP/IP Beerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 6
  • 7. Petite historique du webBeerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 7
  • 8. Petite historique du web SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 8
  • 9. Web 2.0 Réseaux sociaux / « social networking » Si utilisés intelligemment… Avantage entreprise Travail collaboratif Communautés Rich Internet Applications (RIAs) MobilitéBeerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 9
  • 10. Les 5 fondamentaux du web 2.0 : 1 - Technologies … nouvelles utilisations et déploiement différent version bèta SaaS, PaaS, … Databases perpétuelle socialCRM plateformes micro formats workflow API adserving « scalability »The value of the software is proportional to the scale and dynamism of the data it helps to manage. Beerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 10
  • 11. Les 5 fondamentaux du web 2.0 : 2 – Client Oriented Partage : conversation Wiki / FAQ Participation « social » : réseaux, bookmarking, … Sites Réutilisationcomparateurs évaluation de prix Recommandation buzz… blogs Eternal beta versions « users creating value » Exister / se manifesterBeerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 11
  • 12. Les 5 fondamentaux du web 2.0 : 2 – Client Oriented “Release early and release often“ => "the perpetual beta" Users : co-developers Services such as Gmail, Google Maps, Flickr, delicious, and the like may be expected to bear a "Beta" logo for years at a time.Real time monitoring of user behavior to see just which new features are used, and how they are used, thus becomes another required core competency. A web developer at a major online service remarked: "We put up two or threenew features on some part of the site every day, and if users dont adopt them, we take them down. If they like them, we roll them out to the entire site."Beerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 12
  • 13. Les 5 fondamentaux du web 2.0 : 2 – Client OrientedSciences Po Poitiers | 2011 SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 13 Beerbergman.com
  • 14. Les 5 fondamentaux du web 2.0 : 3 – Collaboration, crowdsourcing Partage (public) chat « intelligence collective » Participation « Curators » wiki Recherche veille workflows Réutilisation social bookmarking RSS Outils collaboratifs Beerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 14
  • 15. Collective Intelligence Wisdom of Crowds - Crowdsourcing “A large group of people can create a collective work whose value far exceeds that provided by any of the individual participants” (O’Reilly) Ex. : Wikipedia but also : Flickr, YouTube, eBay, Twitter, web mapping, Digg, Amazon,Beerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 15
  • 16. Collective Intelligence : hyperlinks & taggingHyperlinking is the foundation of the webAs users add new content, and new sites, it is bound in to the structure of the web byother users discovering the content and linking to it. (ranking it and connecting)Much as synapses form in the brain, with associations becoming stronger throughrepetition or intensity, the web of connections grows organically as an output of thecollective activity of all web users. Googles breakthrough in search was PageRank, a method of using the link structure of the web rather than just the characteristics of documents to provide better search results.Web 2.0 Technology Beerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 16
  • 17. Collective Intelligence Network effects from user contributions are the key to market dominance in the Web 2.0 eraWeb 2.0 TechnologyBeerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 17
  • 18. Web 2.0 | Gratuité, partageKnowledge is the only thing that grows when shared Beerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 18
  • 19. Les 5 fondamentaux du web 2.0 : 4 – E-identity & Social Networking Exister / se manifester facebook (public) chat linkedin Twitter, … Viadeo (Re-)définition de soi … dans plusieurs communautés ou sphères Intimité -extimité liens « forts » - liens « faibles » - trous structuraux Bonding & bridging Audio / Aggrégation / mash-up Vidéo ! Donner pour recevoir Beerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 19
  • 20. Les 5 fondamentaux du web 2.0 : 4 – E-identity & Social NetworkingBeerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 20
  • 21. Les 5 fondamentaux du web 2.0 : 4 – E-identity & Social Networking sans engagement, ni objectifs« me places » liens faibles opportunités pour donner Social networks towards online communities débats entre acteurs égaux engagement, interaction, support « we places » données fiables… Beerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 21
  • 22. Les 5 fondamentaux du web 2.0 : 5 – nouveaux modèles économiques Implication client Réactivité ! Information client Communautés clients Fidélisation client affiliation Rich user experiences Rémunération au clic Extraction information des données « Marketing 2.0 » Beerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 22
  • 23. Les 5 fondamentaux du web 2.0 : 5 – nouveaux modèles économiques The Long Tail – Chris Anderson Google, 37Signals, AdSense, eBay, … Key Web 2.0 principle: the service automatically gets better the more people use it Beerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 23
  • 24. Beerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 24
  • 25. Petite historique du webSciences Po Poitiers | 2011 SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 25 Beerbergman.com
  • 26. Web 1.0 => Web 2.0 => Web² / web 3.0 2000-2004 2005-2009 2009-… Databases Automated Data collection Learning data World Wide Web Saas The network as platform Mobile Augmented Reality Information shadow Talking to the web Sharing Participation Crowdsoursing Collective Mind Hyperlinks Contextual SemanticWeb 2.0 | les mots clés Beerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 26
  • 27. Evolution (Wikipédia) Status Name Details Ironic expression denoting the phases of development before the actual existence of theAlready deployed Web 0.0 Web , the fact that some people do not have Internet or no effect of ad content . Pleasing expression designating a website using outdated methods, or Internet services be Web 0.5 deployed without really mature (especially the Web mobile ). Web 1.0 Static Web Web 1.5 Dynamic Web Participatory web, social and collective intelligence . Concept proposed by Tim OReilly in Web 2.0 2005 . Web 2.0 made it easier to access , , the expression is mostly a reflection on improvements Web 2.1 to Web 2.0 in the near future. For some, means the Web turned into a platform for online applications expression also Web 2.5 used by the company for its method Criteo intelligent content filtering (Web 2.0 is seen as the provision of content indiscriminate by the participants). Web 2.B Web 2.0 oriented to trade, see also Business 2.0 and Marketing 2.0 Beerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 27
  • 28. L’avenir du Web ? ScenariosBeerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 28
  • 29. Evolution (Wikipédia) Status Name Details The Web as an information ecosystem . Concept proposed by Tim OReilly (andOngoing Web ² John Battelle) as an intermediate step between Web 2.0 and Web 3.0. The choice of thedevelopment (Squared) "square" (square) means that the web development should be seen as exponential, not linear. General circulation "Squared" even in French . Expression denoting the next major evolution of the Web. Expected as the Semantic Web , , Web 3.0 while others think it will be the Web3D. Web3d 3D websites; supported by the Web3D Consortium For Nova Spivack, CEO of Radar Networks, WebOS means the possibility of working with online tools only . Web 4.0 For Joel de Rosnay or Seth Godin , , means the Web symbiotic used continuously, without challenging the relevance of this division, Olivier Ertzscheid think this Web 4.0 Web 3.0 precede . Beerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 29
  • 30. Petite historique du Webhttp://map.web2summit.com Beerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 30
  • 31. Petite historique du Webhttp://map.web2summit.com : interactive => add your own comments ! Beerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 31
  • 32. Petite historique du Webhttp://ow.ly/8Zufn : the new 2012 interactive map => add your own comments ! Beerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 32
  • 33. Web² / O’Reilly 1. Redefining Collective Intelligence / New Sensory Input Collective intelligence applications 2. How the Web learns : Implicit vs Explicit Meaning 3. The Web meets World : The Information Shadow / The Web of Things 4. The Rise of Real Time : A collective MindBeerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 33
  • 34. Web² / O’Reilly | 2. How the Web learns : Implicit vx Explicit Meaning Collective intelligence :a large group of people can create a collective work whose value far exceeds that provided by any of the individual participants But is this really what we mean by collective intelligence? Isn’t one definition of intelligence, after all, that characteristic that allows an organism to learn from and respond to its environment? Ex.: Amazon.com vs Barnesandnoble.com and ISBN registry provider Bowker Beerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 34
  • 35. Web² / O’Reilly | 1. Redefining Collective Intelligence / New Sensory Input Hyperlink = vote / Votes can be ranked and interpreted by machines Geolocation / learning process by machine (smartphone) Recognized Speech (« you are speaking to the web ») Some databases are « taught » to the application Others (recognition of speech) are « learned » by processing large, crowdsourced data sets Beerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 35
  • 36. Web² / O’Reilly | 2. How the Web learns : Implicit vx Explicit Meaning Meaning is learned “inferentially” from a body of data / “machine learning” Ex. Speech recognition and computer vision Google’s AdSense (auction) Facebook’s “Social Graph” => combination of machine learning and human input Giving structure to what appears to be unstructured data by teaching an application how to recognize the connection between the two. For example, You R Here, an iPhone app, neatly combines these two approaches Example of “Taught Meaning” the association between street addresses and GPS coordinatesBeerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 36
  • 37. Web² / O’Reilly | 2. How the Web learns : Implicit vx Explicit Meaning A key competency of the Web 2.0 era is discovering implied metadata, and then building a database to capture that metadata and/or foster an ecosystem around it Ex.: Amazon.com vs Barnesandnoble.com and ISBN registry provider BowkerBeerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 37
  • 38. Web² / O’Reilly | 3. The Web meets World : The Information Shadow / The Web of Things Smartphones : microphones, cameras, motion sensors, proximity sensors, and location sensors (GPS, cell-tower triangulation, compass). Mobile applications are connected Applications Sensor-based applications : designed to get better the more people use them, collecting data that creates a virtuous feedback loop that creates more usage Ex. internet-connected GPS applications with built-in feedback loops, reporting your speed and using it to estimate arrival time based on its knowledge of trafficahead of you. Ex. : geotagging of photos: users taught their computers the association between photos and locations by tagging them. When cameras know where they are, every photo will be geotagged, with far greater precision than the humans are likely to provide. Beerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 38
  • 39. Web² / O’Reilly | 3. The Web meets World : The Information Shadow / The Web of Things Real world objects have “information shadows” in cyberspace Mike Kuniavsky of ThingM Beerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 39
  • 40. Web² / O’Reilly | 3. The Web meets World : The Information Shadow / The Web of Things Beerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 40
  • 41. Web² / O’Reilly | 3. The Web meets World : The Information Shadow / The Web of Things Beerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 41
  • 42. Web² / O’Reilly | 3. The Web meets World : The Information Shadow / The Web of Things Beerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 42
  • 43. Web² / O’Reilly | 3. The Web meets World : The Information Shadow / The Web of Things Beerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 43
  • 44. Web² / O’Reilly | 3. The Web meets World : The Information Shadow / The Web of Things(buzz) Beerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 44
  • 45. Web² / O’Reilly | 4. The Rise of Real Time : A collective Mind As it becomes more conversational, search has also gotten faster Blogging added tens of millions of sites that needed to be crawled daily or even hourly, but microblogging requires instantaneous update With services like Twitter and Facebook’s status updates, a new data source has been added to the - real-time indications of what is on our collective mind. Twitter hashtags: a human convention that facilitates real-time search on shared events.Human participation adds a layer of structure - rough and inconsistent as it is – to the raw data streamBeerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 45
  • 46. Web² / O’Reilly | 4. The Rise of Real Time : A collective Mind Worried about the dehumanizing effect of technology ? Countertrend communication binds us together, gives us shared context, and ultimately shared identity.Beerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 46
  • 47. Web² / O’Reilly | 4. The Rise of Real Time : A collective Mind Worried about the dehumanizing effect of technology ? There are many who worry about the dehumanizing effect of technology. We share that worry, but also see the countertrend, that communication binds us together, gives us shared context, and ultimately shared identity.Beerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 47
  • 48. Web² / O’Reilly | 4. The Rise of Real Time : A collective Mind The new direction for the Web, its collision course with the physical world, opens enormous new possibilities for business, and enormous new possibilities to make a difference on the world’s most pressing problemsBeerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 48
  • 49. Web² / Van Dijk | Study on the Social Impact of ICT (2010) Ten trends reinforced by ICT 1. Time: the acceleration of all societal processes 2. Space: increasing mobility 3. Scale: globalization 4. Social infrastructure: network individualization 5. Complexity: the rise of registration for control 6. Capitalism: rejuvenation and growing instability 7. Class: growing social inequality 8. Politics: civil emancipation and the rise of populism 9. Culture: the rise of participation in the media 10. Daily life: increasing choice opportunitiesBeerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 49
  • 50. Web 2.0, Web², Web 3.0 : What kind of a society do we want ? Both positive and negative trends, opportunities and counter effects the web offer us, implies that thorough and ongoing research of treats and opportunities is necessary in order to structure our thoughts about what kind of a society we want to (co-)create. D’où l’étude de la société sous toutes ses formes « 2.0 »Beerbergman.com SciencesPo Poitiers | 2011-2012 | web2.0 50