Opportunities and challenges to biomass harvesting in Canada: An operational perspective   Mark Ryans, R.P.F.   FPInnovati...
Outline <ul><li>What is FPInnovations? </li></ul><ul><li>Drivers for bioenergy </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass harvest/recovery ...
Toward an Integrated Innovation System FERIC FORINTEK PAPRICAN FIBRE CENTRE April 1, 2007
Federal Government Industry – 400+ Companies Provincial Governments Shared Priorities, Shared Risks, Shared Benefits, and ...
Future Industry Sustainable  Forests Commodity Wood  Products Commodity Pulps  & Papers Engineered Composites & Systems Su...
FPInnovations Business Model <ul><li>Addresses Sector’s Value Chain </li></ul><ul><li>Built on Partnerships  </li></ul><ul...
Four Flagship Innovation Programs Value Chain Optimization Next Generation Building and Living Solutions Next Generation P...
Interest in forest feedstocks and bioenergy <ul><li>Drivers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>high energy costs (fossil fuels and ele...
Bioenergy is not new to Canadian forest operations <ul><li>Traditional use of hog fuel and black    liquor </li></ul><ul><...
Burning  questions concerning forest feedstocks <ul><li>How much is available?  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the sustaina...
Program Themes 2006-2010
Current uses <ul><li>CHP at pulp and paper    mill </li></ul><ul><li>Independent power    producer </li></ul><ul><li>Pelle...
Forest biomass sources <ul><li>Harvest residues* </li></ul><ul><li>Under-utilized standing trees* </li></ul><ul><li>Sortya...
Residues from different harvest systems: - Biomass types and location <ul><li>Harvest residues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Road...
The Nordic way <ul><li>Cut-to-length harvesting systems </li></ul><ul><li>Private land with small operating blocks (2 – 5 ...
The Nordic way <ul><li>Key elements to their success: </li></ul><ul><li>National policy to promote forest biomass use </li...
CTL residue recovery systems <ul><li>Cut-to-length harvesting:    recovery of debris within    the cutover </li></ul><ul><...
CTL systems: Residue bundlers/compactors Continuous Batch Compactor – Container system
CTL systems and Nordic practice: -  mills tailored for biomass deliveries   <ul><li>Just in time deliveries, covered stora...
Canadian residue recovery systems: - full-tree harvesting systems dominate Delimber-debarker-chipper (DDC) - white-wood ch...
Recovery of roadside residues Stroke delimber Delimber-debarker-chipper
Full-tree harvest residues: Low-hanging fruit? <ul><li>Already at roadside or landing </li></ul><ul><li>Paid for (?); spen...
Key Cost Considerations: - feedstock cost is a key to competitiveness <ul><li>Delivered wood cost to mill is the single la...
Cost factors: -  high transportation costs <ul><li>A Basic Problem:   </li></ul><ul><li>Transporting a low-value, low bulk...
Delivered costs:  – Eastern Canada, residues from roadside stroke-delimber Pre-piling Comminution Transport:  - 120 km one...
Key Cost Considerations:  - high transportation costs <ul><li>It may be more cost effective to convert the feedstock in th...
Cost factors: -  high comminution costs <ul><li>High capital cost: $400 000 to $500 000 chipper ; $500 000 to $850 000 gri...
Disc chippers   <ul><li>Clean, well-prepared    hardwood tops </li></ul>
Drum chippers <ul><li>Truck or trailer-mounted    versions </li></ul><ul><li>Larger infeed deck and opening </li></ul><ul>...
Horizontal grinders <ul><li>Trailer- and track-mounted models </li></ul><ul><li>450 – 735 kW recommended </li></ul><ul><li...
Biomass harvest and recovery systems <ul><li>Recovery systems for roadside debris </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracked and traile...
Cost factors: -  integration within existing management and harvesting operations   <ul><li>Conventional harvest affects t...
Cost and quality factors:  -  moisture content <ul><li>For CHP and most thermochemical processes, low moisture content is ...
Residue volumes after recovery - biomass flow Merchantable (logging) Potentially available Total biomass Roadside slash St...
Forest-origin biomass sources - potential vs. recoverable volumes Potentially Available Technically Usable Total Biomass E...
Biomass yield varies by species Single tree biomass: Black Spruce vs. Jack Pine (DBH: 26 cm, Ht: 18 m) Ontario FRI: Sb90 P...
Biomass recovery on full-tree site, Kapuskasing, ON   Black spruce stand Potentially available 50.5 odt Roadside slash 32....
Biomass recovery on full-tree site, Kapuskasing, ON Mixedwood stand (low hardwood utilization) Potentially available 131.0...
Future outlook:  Greater need for forest-origin feedstocks Pulp mill to forest biorefinery  (Paprican Division) Wood-to-li...
Other factors <ul><li>State of the industry and availability of capital </li></ul><ul><li>Wood-to-liquid fuel processes ar...
Summary and opportunities <ul><li>Bioproduct opportunities based on forest feedstocks will revolutionize the way we view a...
Summary and opportunities <ul><li>Lots of biomass around but economically-    viable volumes need to be established </li><...
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Mark Ryans Opportunities And Challenges In Biomass Harvesting

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Opportunities and challenges to biomass harvesting in Canada presented by Mark Ryans of FPInnovations, a Canadian forest policy and research institute.

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  • Mark Ryans Opportunities And Challenges In Biomass Harvesting

    1. 1. Opportunities and challenges to biomass harvesting in Canada: An operational perspective Mark Ryans, R.P.F. FPInnovations - Feric Blandin Foundation – OMNR Tour May 15 2008 Thunder Bay, ON
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>What is FPInnovations? </li></ul><ul><li>Drivers for bioenergy </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass harvest/recovery methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harvesting systems determine biomass opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key cost considerations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biomass volumes after harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul>
    3. 3. Toward an Integrated Innovation System FERIC FORINTEK PAPRICAN FIBRE CENTRE April 1, 2007
    4. 4. Federal Government Industry – 400+ Companies Provincial Governments Shared Priorities, Shared Risks, Shared Benefits, and Shared Costs FPInnovations Partnership British Columbia Alberta Saskatchewan Manitoba Ontario Québec New Brunswick Nova Scotia Newfoundland & Labrador Northwest Territories Yukon
    5. 5. Future Industry Sustainable Forests Commodity Wood Products Commodity Pulps & Papers Engineered Composites & Systems Sustainable Construction Appearance Products Value Added Pulps & Papers ‘ Bioproducts’& Bioenergy Now: Future: Market Value & ROI decreasing Bolt-on Plant Co-products
    6. 6. FPInnovations Business Model <ul><li>Addresses Sector’s Value Chain </li></ul><ul><li>Built on Partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on Sector Transformation </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on an Emerging Bioeconomy </li></ul>
    7. 7. Four Flagship Innovation Programs Value Chain Optimization Next Generation Building and Living Solutions Next Generation Pulps & Papers Bioenergy, Chemicals & Advanced Bioproducts
    8. 8. Interest in forest feedstocks and bioenergy <ul><li>Drivers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>high energy costs (fossil fuels and electricity), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>global warming issues (carbon credits?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tight hog fuel supply, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provincial government programs to encourage better use of residues and under-utilized species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>survival of the industry and northern communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>long-term potential of wood-to-liquid fuel conversion processes, pellets, etc. </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Bioenergy is not new to Canadian forest operations <ul><li>Traditional use of hog fuel and black liquor </li></ul><ul><li>Simple supply-chain infrastructure from source (sawmill) to CHP facility </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass harvesting operations currently providing feedstock for burning </li></ul>
    10. 10. Burning questions concerning forest feedstocks <ul><li>How much is available? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the sustainable supply? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To which businesses? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How much does it cost? </li></ul><ul><li>What harvest and recovery systems are available? </li></ul><ul><li>How can biomass quality be improved to suit current and future uses? </li></ul>
    11. 11. Program Themes 2006-2010
    12. 12. Current uses <ul><li>CHP at pulp and paper mill </li></ul><ul><li>Independent power producer </li></ul><ul><li>Pellets </li></ul>
    13. 13. Forest biomass sources <ul><li>Harvest residues* </li></ul><ul><li>Under-utilized standing trees* </li></ul><ul><li>Sortyard/chipping terminal debris* </li></ul><ul><li>Early thinnings and “fire-smart” treatments </li></ul><ul><li>Non-commercial stands </li></ul><ul><li>Burnt and insect-killed stems (MPB) </li></ul><ul><li>Stumpwood </li></ul><ul><li>Energy plantations </li></ul><ul><li>*operational in Canada </li></ul>
    14. 14. Residues from different harvest systems: - Biomass types and location <ul><li>Harvest residues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roadside-stroke delimber (full-tree) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landing-DDC (full-tree) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In cutover – harvester (cut-to-length) </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. The Nordic way <ul><li>Cut-to-length harvesting systems </li></ul><ul><li>Private land with small operating blocks (2 – 5 ha) </li></ul><ul><li>Three sources of biomass from the forest: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recovery of harvest residues within the cutover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of stumps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harvest of small trees </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. The Nordic way <ul><li>Key elements to their success: </li></ul><ul><li>National policy to promote forest biomass use </li></ul><ul><li>Concerted R&D programs </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass recovery and harvest systems tailored to their resources and wood harvest systems </li></ul><ul><li>Modernized CHP plants to optimize use of forest residues </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines/best practices are in place </li></ul>
    17. 17. CTL residue recovery systems <ul><li>Cut-to-length harvesting: recovery of debris within the cutover </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bundling or forwarding loose debris with roadside chipping </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. CTL systems: Residue bundlers/compactors Continuous Batch Compactor – Container system
    19. 19. CTL systems and Nordic practice: - mills tailored for biomass deliveries <ul><li>Just in time deliveries, covered storage and conveyors </li></ul><ul><li>Scaling, receiving and feedstock monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Large central crusher driven by an electric motor </li></ul>Source: Hakkila, P. 2004. Tekes, Technology Program Report 6/2004.
    20. 20. Canadian residue recovery systems: - full-tree harvesting systems dominate Delimber-debarker-chipper (DDC) - white-wood chips to pulp mill Stroke delimber or roadside processor - tree lengths to sawmill
    21. 21. Recovery of roadside residues Stroke delimber Delimber-debarker-chipper
    22. 22. Full-tree harvest residues: Low-hanging fruit? <ul><li>Already at roadside or landing </li></ul><ul><li>Paid for (?); spending money to get rid of it </li></ul><ul><li>Location and condition of road </li></ul><ul><li>Level of contamination and moisture content </li></ul><ul><li>Integration between conventional harvest and residue recovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Currently treated as waste </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Key Cost Considerations: - feedstock cost is a key to competitiveness <ul><li>Delivered wood cost to mill is the single largest component of final product cost (40 to 60%) </li></ul><ul><li>The delivered costs of forest-origin residues could be higher </li></ul>
    24. 24. Cost factors: - high transportation costs <ul><li>A Basic Problem: </li></ul><ul><li>Transporting a low-value, low bulk-density material with a high moisture content over a long distance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of maximizing payload through comminution and compaction </li></ul></ul>Photo Credit: Holman - John Deere (FERIC Winning Solutions 2006)
    25. 25. Delivered costs: – Eastern Canada, residues from roadside stroke-delimber Pre-piling Comminution Transport: - 120 km one-way, live-floor chip van Other: - roads, supervision, overhead, maintenance, compliance, stumpage *Cost estimates: FERIC BiOS model
    26. 26. Key Cost Considerations: - high transportation costs <ul><li>It may be more cost effective to convert the feedstock in the field and transport a denser fuel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile/portable biorefinery or pellet plant </li></ul></ul>Advanced Biorefinery Inc.
    27. 27. Cost factors: - high comminution costs <ul><li>High capital cost: $400 000 to $500 000 chipper ; $500 000 to $850 000 grinder with separate loader </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitive to contamination, truck scheduling and residue concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Low utilization, high fuel consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Not designed for working at roadside </li></ul>
    28. 28. Disc chippers <ul><li>Clean, well-prepared hardwood tops </li></ul>
    29. 29. Drum chippers <ul><li>Truck or trailer-mounted versions </li></ul><ul><li>Larger infeed deck and opening </li></ul><ul><li>Less sensitive to contaminants than a disc chipper </li></ul><ul><li>Potential use in hardwood and softwood residues </li></ul>
    30. 30. Horizontal grinders <ul><li>Trailer- and track-mounted models </li></ul><ul><li>450 – 735 kW recommended </li></ul><ul><li>High fuel consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Can handle various feedstocks </li></ul>
    31. 31. Biomass harvest and recovery systems <ul><li>Recovery systems for roadside debris </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracked and trailer-mounted horizontal grinders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot system vs. cold-decked </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Cost factors: - integration within existing management and harvesting operations <ul><li>Conventional harvest affects the cost and quality of the residue recovery operation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentrated vs. scattered debris, contaminates, roads and snow removal, etc. </li></ul></ul> 
    33. 33. Cost and quality factors: - moisture content <ul><li>For CHP and most thermochemical processes, low moisture content is a major consideration </li></ul>
    34. 34. Residue volumes after recovery - biomass flow Merchantable (logging) Potentially available Total biomass Roadside slash Standing residuals Cutover slash Silvicultural and ecological retention Technical usability Harvestable biomass
    35. 35. Forest-origin biomass sources - potential vs. recoverable volumes Potentially Available Technically Usable Total Biomass Economically Viable ?
    36. 36. Biomass yield varies by species Single tree biomass: Black Spruce vs. Jack Pine (DBH: 26 cm, Ht: 18 m) Ontario FRI: Sb90 Pj10 vs. Pj90 Sb10 (Site Class 2, 90% stocking, 100 yr) 17.5 ODT/ha* 7.7 ODT/ha* Recoverable volume FERIC BiOS model <ul><li>Needles </li></ul><ul><li>37 </li></ul><ul><li>13% </li></ul><ul><li>Live Branches </li></ul><ul><li>16 </li></ul><ul><li>6% </li></ul><ul><li>Stem Bark </li></ul><ul><li>21 </li></ul><ul><li>8% </li></ul><ul><li>Stem Wood </li></ul><ul><li>202 </li></ul><ul><li>73% </li></ul><ul><li>Dry Wt: 276 kg </li></ul><ul><li>Stem Bark </li></ul><ul><li>15 </li></ul><ul><li>6% </li></ul><ul><li>Needles </li></ul><ul><li>13 </li></ul><ul><li>6% </li></ul><ul><li>Live Branches </li></ul><ul><li>10 </li></ul><ul><li>4% </li></ul><ul><li>Stem Wood </li></ul><ul><li>193 </li></ul><ul><li>84% </li></ul><ul><li>Dry Wt: 231 kg </li></ul>
    37. 37. Biomass recovery on full-tree site, Kapuskasing, ON Black spruce stand Potentially available 50.5 odt Roadside slash 32.6 odt Standing residuals 2.5 odt Cutover slash 15.5 odt Recovered biomass 25.2 odt
    38. 38. Biomass recovery on full-tree site, Kapuskasing, ON Mixedwood stand (low hardwood utilization) Potentially available 131.0 ODt Roadside slash 40.5 ODt Standing residuals 47.8 ODt Cutover slash 42.7 ODt Recovered biomass 31.9 ODt
    39. 39. Future outlook: Greater need for forest-origin feedstocks Pulp mill to forest biorefinery (Paprican Division) Wood-to-liquid fuel/wood-to-power and heat processes become commercial reality Wood chips Chemicals Sawmill residuals Pulp Emissions Landfill solid waste Effluent Forest residues Fuels Chemicals Power
    40. 40. Other factors <ul><li>State of the industry and availability of capital </li></ul><ul><li>Wood-to-liquid fuel processes are still years away </li></ul><ul><li>Current low value of forest residues that have a low bulk density and high moisture content resulting in high delivered feedstock costs </li></ul><ul><li>Capital costs for a small contractor to get into the business are very high </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50000 ODt contract requires over $2 million in capital costs and another $2 million in operating costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustain or create 11-12 jobs </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Summary and opportunities <ul><li>Bioproduct opportunities based on forest feedstocks will revolutionize the way we view and manage the forest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A new product stream from our woodlands operations (reduced cost of all feedstocks) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biomass harvesting can lead to actual increases in current merchantable volumes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silvicultural improvements through biomass recovery can lead to a more valuable forest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable levels must be established </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Summary and opportunities <ul><li>Lots of biomass around but economically- viable volumes need to be established </li></ul><ul><li>Bioenergy/bioproduct opportunities will make us rethink our traditional approaches to harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass harvesting will create/sustain woodlands jobs </li></ul>
    43. 43. Questions?

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