Incredible India


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  • Distinguished guests, welcome to the 5 days 4 nights business trip at India! We are honored to be your private tour consultants in the following days. Before landing, let us give you some background information about India history and culture. India is located at South Asia. It is the seventh largest country geographically and the second most populated country in the world. It is the home to the Indus Valley Civilization.
  • INDIA'S history goes back almost six thousand years before. The earliest civilization was happened in the Indus Valley, lasting from 2600 to 1300 B.C In 1500 B.C, ARYANS entered from the Northwest and brought Hindu religion in, which influences India’s later development a lot. In 6 th century B.C, Buddhism was found.  Also at around this time Mahavira started the JAIN RELIGION. Two hundred years later, Emperor ASHOKA , one of the greatest leaders in India's history, led the Maurvan Empire to take over the whole India. In 1192, Muhammed of Ghori, a ruler from Afghanistan, came into India and captured several places.  When he went home, he left one of his generals in charge who became the first Sultan of Delhi. Thus,  during this time ISLAM was introduced into India. The Dehli Sultanate gradually took control of more and more of North India over the next 200 years, till Timur came from Turkey in 1398 to attack India. Soon the MOGHULS , who were from Iran, came in and took control in the north. In the meantime in the south, in 1336, the Hindu VI JAY A NA GAR EMPIRE was set up and became very strong. The EUROPEANS started arriving and holding territories in india in the early 1600s. T he BRITISH who finally made india one of their colonies. India got its INDEPENDANCE from Britain in 1947, but at the cost of the separation of the nation into India and Pakistan. SINCE INDEPENDANCE , India has made huge progress and coped with great problems, has developed its industry and its agriculture, and has maintained a system of government which makes it the largest democracy in the world.
  • In conclude, Indian culture could be described as ‘east meets west’. It is located at the east with a long history, in which its civilization left its culture with eastern characteristics. However, India was also under the rule of British colonial government for a long time, therefore, its unique eastern culture was influenced, resulting a combination eastern and western features.
  • We could use H ofstede’s model to analyze indian culture and discuss how it is affected by the history.
  • Dated back to 1500 B.C., in which Hindu traditions was formed. From then on, Hinduism played a critical position in People’s Life & Culture. It includes a social hierarchical structure, which divided people into 4 castes. This caste system represents individual status in a society. Thus people tend to respect those in a higher ranks and followed their decisions. Because of this, Indian Culture has a relatively high power distance.
  • Apart from the Power Distance, Hinduism also influenced Indian's tendency of uncertainty avoidance. As Hindus believe in fatalism and tend to pursue spiritual achievements than material aspects, they are relatively less anxious about future. Thus, they are willing to change. This can also be proofed by our interaction with some Indian clients. Although in some extent, they are loyal to their company, they are also practical. Once they find a better job, they will switch without concern.
  • In terms of Collectivism and Individualism, India lies slightly more to the side of Collectivism. Although India was influenced by western culture, that well educated people are more independent and willing to express own thoughts and ideas, the long history of religion and caste system still earn their stance. It is obvious that most of the Indians are faithful to their religion and share same values with their groups. Thus they are less willing to say ‘no’ or confront to others, so as to maintain a peaceful atmosphere among the group.
  • Concerning Masculinity and Feminist, Indian has a moderate masculine culture. Although male force represent power and position in the traditional Indian culture, there are still examples that indicate women playing an important political role in India, say Indira Gandhi, the previous prime minister of the federal government. And as the society develops and becomes more open-minded, more and more women are taking up important positions.
  • Like Chinese Culture, Indian Culture also stressed on confrontation avoidance, interpersonal relationship and virtuous living, which reflect its Confucian nature. After our introduction, hope you all can have a better framework of India History and Culture.
  • Ladies and gentlemen, our plane has successfully landed on NEW DELHI airport. As most of the Indians can speak English, just enjoy yourself in here!
  • Actually, apart from English as their official language, India has more than 1600 dialects. Another official language is Hindi. It is mainly spoken in northern India while English is widely spoken & understood all over the state. As English is used for instruction in almost all universities and private schools, well educated Indians actually have a very good English proficiency, which make India become a favourable destination for tourists nowadays, allowing them to travel around without any language barrier. Besides, this enables staff in hospitality and service industry to communicate well with tourists and deliver quality service to them.
  • Let us begin our fantastic journey in India by visiting some attractions~  
  • Before coming to India, what did you expect? Spirituality? Heritage Sites? Beaches? Or maybe all of these?
  • Take a look at the leaflet on your hand. Yes, you can experience all the above in India. India’s attractions mainly divided into 4 categories with an incredible diversity, including astonishing history and legends, rich cultural heritage, historical monuments, and the natural views which draws millions of visitors every year. It is a land of rich culture, history, traditions, and natural beauty.
  • Among the attractions, Taj Mahal, one of the seven wonders in the world, is probably the most tremendous one. It was built by the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan for his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal. It is an unique piece of art made up of white marble which glorifies true love. It was also designed in an onion dome shape with a lotus design at its top. The minarets, traditional element of mosques were designed symmetrically for faithful muezzins to pray. Because of its significant cultural design, it is the Indian’s star and a must-visit attraction for tourists. One more important point is that you can see different scenes in different time period per day. But of course, the prices also vary according to this.
  • Another significant attraction is the Ganges River. This world famous river is respected as "Holy River" and "Mother of India" by India people. A large number of fairy tales and religious legends constitute to the unique customs across the Ganges. Even after thousand years of civilization, Hindus on both sides of the Ganges remains many of the ancient customs, like praying, washing bath, drinking the Ganges holy water. Therefore, there are around 20 bath fields at the West Bank of the Ganges, which become a spectacular scene to visitors.
  • Are you impressed by the fabulous attractions? Let’s have a rest, it’s time for lunch.
  • Due to geographical and religious factors, restaurant menus vary among regions. Hindus do not eat beef because cow is a sacred animal in Indian mythology. Muslims and Jews are prohibited to eat pork. Brahmins and Jains are vegans. So you will find little beef and pork on the menu, instead, there are a lot of fish, chicken, lamb and vegetables cooked with spices like curry or with diary products like yoghurt. Besides, Indians love sweet food, so dessert is always an important part of the menu.
  • Eating with fingers is a norm in India, however, recently because of the western influence, Indian also use cutleries for meal. But remember, only right hand should be used for meal as the left hand is reserved for certain bodily functioning. Also, restaurants in India offer water for guests to clean their hands before eating, so remember to do so! Besides, Indian people view eating food as a physical and traditional activity in human life, in which, parts of the food will transform into their thought and mind. Therefore, food shouldn’t be contaminated and should be served on banana leaves to prevent cross contamination. It is strictly prohibited for a cook to taste any dishes during preparation in an Indian restaurant!
  • Indians like to drink tea which was imported to India by British during their colonization period. Drinking Chai, a spice milk tea, is a part of Indians’ daily life. It is made of red tea, milk, spices, sugar and honey. So remember to enjoy a cup of tea after meal!
  • A great meal, right? How much do you know about Indian festivals?
  • Actually, no other countries celebrate life like India. They have numerous festivals each year to celebrate religious and cultural events.
  • For religious festivals, each religion has their own significant celebrations like Diwali of Hindi, Corban of Islam, Buddha Purnima of Buddhism. Some of them even become the main attractions drawing visitors to India every year.
  • Today, we are really lucky to catch the period of DiWALI, the Festival of Light It is a Hindu festival which embraces a feeling of friendship and fraternity among all states, therefore, religious bias or castes bias are vanished during this period.
  • Today, people will light lanterns, play fireworks and spare time for a special pray which symbolizes good overriding evil, bringing the positives to human lives. So this is a day celebrating the inner light in Indians’ heart. Therefore, do enjoy every moment of this great festival today!
  • Besides the religious festivals, Indians also have other cultural celebrations, like the Khajuraho Festival which is held in the famous Khajuraho temple between February and March, aiming at promoting India traditional culture. Thousands of tourists are attracted to watch this fantastic cultural dance performances each year. Another unique festival is called Delhi International Mango Festival, which is held in July. As mango represents king of fruits with great reputation among Indian, so the Delhi Tourism and Transportation Development Corporation and other relevant organizations jointly organized this festival to bring more opportunities to local hospitality industry.  
  • One more highlight of cultural festival is the Nehru Trophy Boat Race. Each year, tourists from all around the world are attracted to watch this rhythmic snake-shaped boats competition. Although it is a pity that we don’t have chance to watch all the mentioned festivals in this trip, you are welcome to visit India again if you are interested!
  • Enjoyable? Don’t you want to bring more India memories back home? Next we are going to invite you to shop around and search for your favorites!
  • Shopping in India could be an unforgettable experience. Tea, spices, jewelries, textiles, leather shoes, musical instrument, handicrafts, incense and inlaid marble products are the most popular souvenirs.
  • Among those souvenirs, Sari is most welcomed by female travelers. It is a traditional Indian garment which is popular within the whole Indian society. However, only the upper-class Indians wear sari that made of silk, others just wear the cotton ones. There are more than ten wearing styles in total and Indian usually wear it with gorgeous jewelries.
  • Jewelry in India is seen as a vital accessory to everyday attire. However, it is more than just simply decorative. Different shapes in Indian jewelries represent different nature figure, they altogether form a part of life ongoing circle. Indian jewelries also proclaim people’s religious affinities, representing their social standing, economic status and political power. So, do bring some jewelries back to your female friends, they would be happy!
  • Apart from Sari and Jewelries, elephant-shaped statues, either wooden or ivory are also representative souvenirs of India. Elephant is regarded as a holy figure in India, representing wisdom, prosperity and good fortune. Every year, Hindus celebrate GANESH CHATURTHI, an Indian traditional festival to welcome a new start. So bring an elephant statue back home might give you a good fortune!
  • After an exciting day, you must be very tired. Let’s go to the hotel and have a rest!
  • Wow, so quick that we have arrived!
  • ‘ Namaste’
  • You may wonder what’s the girl said just now. Actually, she is saying ‘Namaste’, a traditional Indian greeting which means ‘I bow to you’. Usually it is spoken at the beginning of a conversation with same hand folded gesture and a slight bow. Such wordlessly gesture can also represent goodbye. Because of the hierarchical culture in India, Indians greet senior and high ranking people first.
  • But of course, due to the influence from western culture. Educated Indians also greet others by hand shaking but because of the religious factor, men and women seldom shake hand with each other. Therefore, if you are not sure about this culture, just wait for the Indians to extend their hand first!
  • See there are lots of Lotus in the Hotel Garden? Actually, Lotus is the National Flower in India, symbolizing fertility, wealth and knowledge. Therefore, many hotels will plant it in their garden.
  • Apart from lotus, hotels also place many traditional Indian paintings & sculptures to decorate their lobby and guestrooms, let’s take a look.
  • For Indian Paintings, they can be broadly classified as murals and miniatures. They are used for religious purpose only long long time ago, but now they also present a fusion of various cultures and traditions.
  • ok, before going to the rooms. One final reminder to all of you, the business conference will start tomorrow and as your professional tour consultants, we have some recommendations concerning Indian Business Protocol. First, Indian prefer to do business with people they known, so if possible, do ask others to refer you. Besides, don’t think business is just business, try to maintain a long standing relationship with Indians, you will benefit from that. Also, do be punctual at meeting and prepare non leather, non pig-made, and non alcoholic gifts to Indians. Moreover, be patient and be ready to accept concession to show that you are sincere.
  • After a short refreshment break, let’s go to explore the night life in India! Well, night life in India could be a little bit different from what you imagined, it is definitely more than just usual pubs and bars life. Participating in Cultural shows featuring Indian dance and music performance or watching an Indian film might allow you to know India in a different perspective!
  • Before letting you to search for your own night life experience. Let me tell you some more backgrounds concerning both the entertainments. First for the cultural performance, it combines different periods of music and dance which are perceived as a way of life by Indians.
  • Classical Music, including Hindustani and Carnatic which comes from north and south India respectively is the most popular musical performance among Indians. This form of music is also easy for tourists to get to know more about traditional Indian music.
  • For India’s dancing performance, it is mainly divided into classical dance and the folk & tribal dance.
  • Here are some photos of classical dances.
  • And these are the photos of folk and tribal dances.
  • Well, if you are interested after seeing those photos, then you must go to the India International Centre tonight! Famous cultural shows like Carnatic Vocal Recital, an Indian classical piece; or the Kathak Recital, a kind of Northern Indian classical dance will be performed. Indian cultural shows are well-known for their special & unique rhythmic melody. Some of them even become the world cultural heritage which attract tourists from all corners of the world to appreciate them.
  • If you think cultural performance maybe a little bit boring, and you want something more entertaining, then you must go to watch an Indian production movie!
  • Maybe you don’t know, actually India produces the largest number of movies in the world each year with a diversity of theme on dancing, musicals, comedies, romance and actions.
  • USA has a Hollywood, while India has a Bollywood! It is a portmanteau of Hollywood and Bombay, the former name of Mumbai. It produces a lot of Hindi-Language film each year and is the largest and most popular branch of cinema in India! And one of them is just next to our hotel!
  • I bet all of you have heard about the Slumdog Millionaire, right? It gives rise to India’s community tourism highly, as more and more tourists go to Dharayi which is the largest slum in India after watching this film. Statistics show that in year 2009, most of the tourists who visit Dharayi are caused by the effect of the film, creating more business to the local tourism industry in there. So, after a brief ideas about the night life that you can enjoy in India, let’s go and search for your unique night experience.
  • After our tour simulation, we discovered that culture, hospitality and society are interrelated and affected one and other in India. Just as what India Tourism Office promoted, India’s long history formulated its unique social characteristics, glorious culture and incredibility! Its uniqueness in culture also provides unique impact to its hospitality Industry, providing extraordinary cultural experience and rich heritages to visitors, thus booming the industry. In return, the boom of hospitality industry contributes to the development of society greatly, attracting more investors to other industries and providing Indians more opportunities. However, it is essentially important for India’s government to take measures on its tremendous growth, like the inadequate supporting infrastructure, poor urban planning, generally low educational level, political instability would be the challenges and obstacles for further development on hospitality industry in the near future.
  • Incredible India

    1. 1. Business Tour
    2. 2. NEW DELHI 28.37’N 77.13’S <ul><li>South Asia </li></ul><ul><li>The seventh-largest country by geographical area </li></ul><ul><li>The second most populated country in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Home to the Indus Valley Civilization </li></ul><ul><li>A region of Silk Road and vast empires </li></ul>
    3. 3. Brief Introduction to History <ul><li>2600-1300 B.C </li></ul><ul><li>1500 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>6 th century B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>321-185 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>1192 </li></ul><ul><li>1398 </li></ul><ul><li>1336-1646 </li></ul><ul><li>1600s </li></ul><ul><li>1947 </li></ul><ul><li>Indus Valley Civilization </li></ul><ul><li>Aryans entered and brought Hindu religion in </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation of Buddhism and Jain religion </li></ul><ul><li>Mauryan Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad entered India </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey attacked India </li></ul><ul><li>Vijayanagar Empire </li></ul><ul><li>European arrived and Britain finally took </li></ul><ul><li>India into its colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Independence </li></ul>
    4. 5. Culture Analysis <ul><li>Comparing Values in the Workplace </li></ul><ul><li>H ofstede’s (2001 IBM Study ) </li></ul>
    5. 11. New Delhi
    6. 12. Language <ul><li>Over 1600 dialects </li></ul><ul><li>Official language: Hindi, English </li></ul>
    7. 13. Attractions
    8. 15. Attractions Leaflet
    9. 16. Taj Mahal <ul><li>A symbol of love </li></ul><ul><li>One of Seven Wonders </li></ul><ul><li>A must-visit attraction </li></ul>
    10. 17. Ganges River <ul><li>Pray the god </li></ul><ul><li>Wash bath </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking holy water </li></ul><ul><li>Visiting holy city </li></ul>
    11. 18. Restaurant
    12. 19. Restaurant Menu <ul><li>Diverse among region </li></ul><ul><li>Much fish, chickens and lambs, little beef and pork </li></ul><ul><li>Much vegetable </li></ul><ul><li>Curry and spices </li></ul><ul><li>Desserts </li></ul><ul><li>Diary product </li></ul>
    13. 20. Restaurant Protocols <ul><li>Restaurants </li></ul><ul><li>Served on disposable banana leaf plates </li></ul><ul><li>Cooks are not allowed to taste during preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Guests </li></ul><ul><li>Eat with fingers </li></ul><ul><li>Use the right hand </li></ul><ul><li>Wash hands before eating </li></ul>
    14. 21. Beverage <ul><li>Drinking Chai is part of Indians’ daily life. </li></ul><ul><li>Red tea, milk, spices, sugar and honey </li></ul>
    15. 22. Festivals
    16. 23. Festivals
    17. 24. <ul><li>Hindu festivals: Diwali, Holi, Dussehra </li></ul><ul><li>Islam festivals: Fitr, Barah Wafat, Corban </li></ul><ul><li>Christian festival: Chistmas, Easter </li></ul><ul><li>Sikh festival: Lohri, Guru Nanak Jayanti </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhist festival: Buddha Purnima </li></ul>
    18. 25. Feeling of friendship and fraternity No religious bias
    19. 29. Souvenirs
    20. 30. Souvenirs
    21. 31. Souvenirs: Sari
    22. 32. Souvenir: Jewelries
    23. 33. Souvenirs: Elephant Statues GANESH CHATURTHI Celebrating the birth of Ganesha Chaturthi Symbol of wisdom, prosperity and good fortune.
    24. 34. Hotel
    25. 35. Hotel
    26. 36. Greetings ‘ Namaste’
    27. 37. India Greetings Culture <ul><li>Namaste / Namaskar(formal) </li></ul><ul><li>Means ‘I bow to you’ </li></ul><ul><li>Speak at the beginning of a conversation </li></ul><ul><li>With same hand folded gesture & a slight bow </li></ul><ul><li>= goodbye </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchical Culture: greet senior people first </li></ul>
    28. 38. Influence from Western Culture <ul><li>Hand Shaking </li></ul><ul><li>Common in large cities </li></ul><ul><li>Performed by higher educated people </li></ul><ul><li>Seldom shakes hand between men and women (religious factor) </li></ul><ul><li>Unsure? wait for them to extend their hand first </li></ul>
    29. 39. Hotel Outdoor Garden <ul><li>symbolizes divinity, fertility, wealth, knowledge & enlightenment </li></ul><ul><li>much religious mythology is woven around it </li></ul>National Flower--Lotus
    30. 40. Architectural Design <ul><li>Hotel Appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Lobby </li></ul>
    31. 41. Interior Design – Indian Painting <ul><li>Can be broadly classified as MURALS & MINATURES </li></ul><ul><li>Used for religious purpose only at the beginning </li></ul><ul><li>Represents a fusion of various cultures & traditions now </li></ul>
    32. 42. Interior Design – Indian Sculptures
    33. 43. Business Protocol <ul><li>Prefer to do business with people known </li></ul><ul><li>Prefer long standing relationship > business </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare gifts </li></ul><ul><li>Be punctual </li></ul><ul><li>Starts with getting-to-know-you talk </li></ul><ul><li>Be patient – slow decision making process </li></ul><ul><li>Be ready to accept concession </li></ul>
    34. 44. Entertainment
    35. 45. Entertainment-Music
    36. 46. Music <ul><li>Classical Music: </li></ul><ul><li>Hindustani </li></ul><ul><li>Carnatic </li></ul><ul><li>Folk Music: </li></ul><ul><li>Bhavageete </li></ul><ul><li>Dandiva </li></ul><ul><li>Bauls </li></ul><ul><li>Modern Music: </li></ul><ul><li>Indi-pop music </li></ul><ul><li>Rock and Metal music </li></ul><ul><li>Dance music </li></ul>
    37. 47. Entertainment-Dance
    38. 48. Classical Dance <ul><li>Bharatanatyam </li></ul><ul><li>Kuchipudi </li></ul><ul><li>Odissi </li></ul><ul><li>Kathak </li></ul><ul><li>Manipuri </li></ul><ul><li>Mohiniattam </li></ul><ul><li>Kathakali </li></ul><ul><li>Kutiyattam </li></ul>
    39. 49. Folk and Tribal Dance <ul><li>Bhangra </li></ul><ul><li>Lavani folk Dance </li></ul><ul><li>Chakri Dance </li></ul><ul><li>Mishing Bihu Dance </li></ul><ul><li>Samai Dance </li></ul>
    40. 50. Music and Dance-Cultural Shows <ul><li>Carnatic Vocal Recital </li></ul><ul><li>Kathak Recital </li></ul>
    41. 51. Entertainment-Film
    42. 52. Film <ul><li>Produce the largest number of films worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>Fill with dance, music, comedy, romance, action </li></ul>
    43. 53. Film <ul><li>Bollywood </li></ul><ul><li>A portmanteau of Bombay and Hollywood </li></ul><ul><li>The Hindi language film industry of Mumbai </li></ul><ul><li>The largest and most popular branch of Indian cinema </li></ul>
    44. 54. Film <ul><li>Most famous film: Slumdog Millionaire </li></ul><ul><li>Dharavi is a famous attraction now </li></ul><ul><li>25% more business </li></ul><ul><li>US$ 10 per person or US$135 per tour with private tour guide </li></ul>
    45. 55. <ul><li>Attract visitors from all over the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Unique features in hospitality industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Development of whole Indian society </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges faced by India </li></ul><ul><li>History enrich culture </li></ul>
    46. 56. Reference <ul><li>Purewal J., Anand K., Brennan J., (1999), Three thousand years of tradition and change. In Hutton W.(ed.), The food of India , Authentic recipes from the spicy sub continent , HK: Berkeley Books Pte. Ltd., 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Purewal J., Anand K., Brennan J., (1999), From the Himalayas to the tropics, Differing regional tastes in an astonishingly varied subcontinent. In Hutton W.(ed.), The food of India , Authentic recipes from the spicy sub continent , HK: Berkeley Books Pte. Ltd., 6-12 </li></ul><ul><li>Purewal J., Anand K., Brennan J., (1999), The Indian food ethos, In India, philosophy and food are inseparable. In Hutton W.(ed.), The food of India , Authentic recipes from the spicy sub continent , HK: Berkeley Books Pte. Ltd.,13-15 </li></ul><ul><li>Purewal J., Anand K., Brennan J., (1999), The Raj Revisited, Curry tiffins and afternoon tea: culinary remnants of the colonial era. In Hutton W.(ed.), The food of India , Authentic recipes from the spicy sub continent , HK: Berkeley Books Pte. Ltd.,21-23 </li></ul>
    47. 57. Reference <ul><li>(1982),Introduction, In Rogers J.(ed.), Madhre Jaffrey’s Indian Cookery , London: British Broadcasting Corporation, 7-10 </li></ul><ul><li>(1982),Menus and how to eat Indian food, In Rogers J.(ed.), Madhre Jaffrey’s Indian Cookery , London: British Broadcasting Corporation, 31-36 </li></ul><ul><li>Sahni J., (1980), Introduction, In Classic Indian Cooking, New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc, xii-xviii </li></ul><ul><li>Sahni J., (1980), The principle of Indian cooking, In Classic Indian Cooking, New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc, xii-xviii </li></ul><ul><li>(1995), Introduction, In Singh M.(ed.), Bihar and West Bengal, Saris of India, New Delhi: National Institute of Fashion Technology and Amr Vastra Kosh , 26-29 </li></ul><ul><li>Bhandari V.,(2004), Roots, In Costume, Textiles and Jewellery of India, Traditions in Rajasthan, New Delhi: Prakash Books India (P) Ltd., 13-27 </li></ul><ul><li>History and Culture, Retrieved October 29, 2009 from http:// </li></ul><ul><li>History of India, Retrieved October 29, 2009 from http:// /history/ </li></ul>
    48. 58. Reference <ul><li>SarDesai, D. R. (2008) India: The Definitive History Boulder, CO : Westview Press </li></ul><ul><li>Raymond Scupin (edited) (2006) Peoples and Cultures of Asia Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Pearson/Prentice Hall ,pp129-141 </li></ul><ul><li>Sanjyot P. Dunung (1998) Doing Business in Asia : The Complete Guide, 2nd ed. San Francisco : Jossey-Bass, pp 325-361 </li></ul><ul><li>Hofstede G (1980) Motivation, Leadership, and Organization: Do American Theories Apply Abroad? Organizational Dynamics , Vol 9. No.1. PP.42-63 </li></ul><ul><li>Incredibleindia. (2007). Retrieved October 29, 2009 from India Government, Ministry of Tourism Government of India Web site: </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Festivals of India&quot;, Retrieved November 1, 2009 from </li></ul><ul><li>Diwali: India's Festival of Lights (2009). Retrieved November 1, 2009 from </li></ul>
    49. 59. Reference <ul><li>Delhi Events. (2009). Retrieved October 29, 2009 from http:// / </li></ul><ul><li>Dances of India. (n.d.). Retrieved October 29, 2009 from http:// </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;India Travel“. (2006). Retrieved October 29, 2009 from http:// / </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Encyclopedia of Indian culture&quot; (2001). Retrieved October 29, 2009 from, Web site: </li></ul><ul><li>  Cultural Festivals Of India2 India Travel, Retrieved November 1, 2009 from </li></ul><ul><li>Khanna, A. (2008). HVS-Hospitality India-Growing Pains . Retrieved November 1, 2009 from </li></ul>
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