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Teaching and Learning In a Mixed Reality Classroom
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Teaching and Learning In a Mixed Reality Classroom


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Literature review on technology integration in middle school chemistry lesson using SMALLab

Literature review on technology integration in middle school chemistry lesson using SMALLab

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  • Add our names to the presentationMake the title another color, maybe darker blue, so it doesn’t blend
  • SMALLab developers: researchers from education, psychology, interactive media, computer science, and the arts.Students interact w/each other in real time using peripherals, resulting in dynamic visual, textual, physical and sonic responses from the environment.Strong inquiry-based learning environment
  • Through mixed-reality interaction, students engaging in guided inquiry will be able to interact by visible, auditory, and kinesthetic means to deepen understanding of acid and base titration. Students also engage cooperatively with members of their class to ask questions or direct individuals with the peripherals to engage in specific activities to propel the discovery forward.The SMALLab allows the teacher or a student with the controls to rewind, stop or restart the simulation with new starting conditions. This allows time for discussion and expansion of ideas.
  • Best practices include the aboveProblem solving, critical thinking, creativity, communication, construct, and apply scientific modelsModeling approach towards student-centered, collaborative work.Emerging digital media for standards based content learningResearch has shown the efficacy of Collaborative and cooperative learning, higher achievement outcomes, reasoning, retention, motivation, social skills,.Must be well structured and designed, activities, and monitoring.Digital media = multidisciplinaryMultimodal representations of complex concepts, zoom in capability to see abstract conceptsProvides immediate feedback, flexible environments, pause and discuss capability, play backPrevious media exposure has been with student and computer, move today is towards human to human collaborative learning in virtual environments where the experience isn’t solely the computer and the students, but the computer providing the environment and digital tools, but also interaction with other students through collaboration, which supports the socio collaborative best practice.
  • Students were pre-tested before the SMALLab instruction, but after several traditional lecture-lab-type of activities regarding acid-base titrations. SMALLab sessions were conducted over 3 50-minute class periods in which the students (1) were introduced to the lab setup, software and hardware, (2) reviewed on the functions of the SMALLab, began running simulations with the interactive SMALLab in group formats with one group in charge of adding base molecules, one group adding acid molecules, and another group adding indicator molecules and (3) designed and carried out “games” to demonstrate knowledge acquired during day 2. The goal was to titrate in acid or base molecules until the indicator changed color. In addition to the color change, molecules made different sounds when they collided with one another, indicating whether they reacted (ping) or not (plink). Students were all post-tested after the 3-day activity to test for knowledge acquisition of the named content as well as for spatial reasoning gains.
  • One of the most complex concepts for high school chemistry students to grasp is acid-base. In this scenario, the students can interact with molecular concepts at levels that can be zoomed in upon, making learning more concrete rather than abstract.Here is a computer visual of what the students would see on the floor. Students sit on the floor around the perimeter and see and hear the activity going on in the center of the SMALLab, which is a virtual flask.Acids in red panel on perimeterBases in blue panelIndicator in grey panelGreen panel shows the pHThey hear low base tones when they select a moleculePinging if hydroxide ion collides with hydrogen ion to form water moleculeNon reacting responds by plinks.
  • Trackedglowballs allows students to add molecules.Can be 2 individual students or two teams of students.Can be paused, played, reset for analysis, question answer, or hypothesis retestStudents hover the glowball over the molecule to select it and then lowers the ball over the flask with some movement to add the molecule. Increasing the movement, increases the velocity of the particles in the virtual flask.
  • 137 pre-tested, only 99 post-tested. 2.26pts only takes into account those students who were both pre- AND post-tested. Test item: multiple choice and open responsePre-test represents knowledge attained after several traditional teaching sessions on titration.
  • Students showed significant gains in the understanding of the molecular activity involved in the color change that occurred during the titration process. Beneficial aspects of the mixed-reality environment include the ability to interact with observations in a visual, auditory, and kinesthetic manner, allowing multiple methods of exposure to content. Students were thoroughly engaged and more motivated than during traditional lecture-style instruction. Students worked together to develop understanding of concepts.
  • One factor influencing the outcome was the fact that the partner teachers were active collaborators at every stage of development, to include role-playing to expose potential pitfalls and advantages of the activity.Another factor was that the physical design of the activity as well as the interactive nature of the interface allowed for some role-shifting among the teacher-student relationship. The students were in greater control of the decision-making process, taking the focus off of the teacher as information distributor. Students were empowered to take possession of their learning process by a collaborative and interactive environment, resulting in significant student gains in content knowledge as well as spatial relational judgments. With these results, future testing is expected to highlight the viability of the mixed-reality environment for mainstream high school classes.A similar study of college students retested and found a 5% gain.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Teaching and Journal of Science, Education andLearning in the Technology 2009Mixed-RealityScienceClassroomLisa Tolentino,David Birchfield,Colleen Megowan-Romanowicz, Presented by:Mina C. Johnson-Glenberg,Aisling Kelliher, Becki PowellChristopher Martinez Donna Dancer
    • 2. Introduction What is SMALLab?  Situated Multimedia Arts Learning Laboratory  mixed-reality  collaborative  interactive digital media  easy to maintain, off the shelf Goals  advance chemistry learning/understanding  support best practices in teaching science  demonstrate efficacy of mixed-reality platform
    • 3. Purpose Mixed-reality presents a viable approach to teaching in mainstream science classrooms that enhances student gains in content knowledge when designed in collaboration with educators.
    • 4. Learning Theory inquiryand modeling instruction in science classrooms socio-collaborative learning: distributed cognition and conceptual blending interactive digital media for science learning gap between real world and digital environments
    • 5. Methods2 urban high school chemistry teachers  5 classes/~130 students Inquiryinstruction/models Collaboration-Cooperation Interactive Digital Media  multimodal representations  processes represented at multiple spatial resolutions  high-level control over processes
    • 6. SMALLab Titration Scenario (Tolentino et. al, 2009)
    • 7. SMALLab Titration Scenario (Tolentino et. al, 2009)
    • 8. Results Increased collaborative thinking and reasoning Teacher increase in use of best practices for teaching inquiry based science Increased student motivation Pre-Post Test Samples  Significant gains (2.26 pts)
    • 9. Discussion & Conclusions Student gains were calculated using only those students who took BOTH the pre- and post-test. Since pre-testing was after traditional instruction, gains can be attributed to mixed-reality environment nearly exclusively.
    • 10. Potential for Mixed-RealityLearning Results are encouraging More testing needed  only tested on one small group of students Noretest data for an untreated control group.
    • 11. ReferencesTolentino, L., Birchfield, D., Megowan-Romanowicz, C., Johnson-Glenberg, M., Kelliher, A., Martinez, C. (2009). Teaching and Learning in the Mixed-Reality Science Classroom. Journal of Science, Education, and Technology, 18, 501-517