Researching the Impact and Legacy of a European Capital of Culture

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  • Commissioned research |Liverpool City Council +Liverpool Culture CompanyFirst European Capital of Culture host city to commission a longitudinal research programmeFirst city to request provision of evidence of impact across the four main identified dimensions of regeneration : economic, physical, social and culturalFirst city to appoint a University consortium to lead the assessment / evaluation
  • People’s Awareness and Perceptions2005 to 2008 | growth in positive impressions of Liverpool and drop in negative views across UKBy end of 2008 | 65% of UK residents aware that Liverpool was European Capital of Culture77% of visitors to Liverpool felt the city was ‘safer than I expected’.99% of visitors liked the ‘general atmosphere’ and 97% the ‘feeling of welcome’68% of UK businesses believed the ECoC had a positive impact on Liverpool’s imageOnline mediaThe Liverpool ECoC was strongly reflected in user-led social media spaces throughout 2008:flickr (50,000 Liverpool ECoC tagged photographs were uploaded by event audiences)YouTube (2,200 video clips generating over 2.5m views)Facebook(500 new group pages on Liverpool ECoC events with over 13,000 members)Google (volume of Liverpool ECoC related searches comparable to football searches)
  • one year on, there is evidence of clear and immediate Liverpool ECoC outputs and outcomes: The Liverpool ECoC presented a very wide range of events showcasing the wealth of local talent as well as national and internationally acclaimed work; it reached out to a significant variety of audiences with very strong levels of local engagement spread across socio-economic groups, and the programme achieved very high satisfaction levels, particularly during 2008 itself.  The city has undergone a remarkable image renaissance locally, nationally and internationally: local opinion leaders give more credibility to the city’s cultural assets and to the cultural sector as a source of civic leadership; national media in the mainstream, as well as in specialist domains, have got used to presenting a richer picture of Liverpool as a multi-faceted and contemporary city with world class assets and an ability to build on them; internationally, the city has been rediscovered as a tourist destination beyond football and the Beatles, and its approach to ECoC delivery is held as a key reference by other European cities to maximise citizen participation.  Levels of confidence have been raised across the city, particularly in the areas of culture and tourism. Strong partnerships have been developed, have continued post 2008 and may bring greater opportunities to retain local talent, bring in new ideas and approaches, attract external investment and further develop the range and quality of the city’s offer. Culture is more widely accepted as a driver for economic change, health and social inclusion. The cultural sector took the opportunity to play a larger role in the city’s leadership in the lead up to 2008, demonstrating that they had a contribution to make across a number of city agendas. As a result, one year on, there is ongoing commitment to ensure that the sector continues to contribute in areas as diverse as community safety, tourism development, health or city centre management.  These outputs and outcomes must, however, be understood within a wider context and their interpretation must take into account the particular challenges surrounding any attempt at assessing an ECoC programme unfolding over six years.
  • Expectation management – Liverpool had very high aspirations for its ECoC year and made ambitious promises at the bid stage, including a strong emphasis on economic and social regeneration goals. This led many to judge the city’s ability to deliver the ECoC, and success in doing so, on the basis of measures that were far beyond what is realistic to expect from a programme of cultural events. The ongoing physical transformation in the city was often directly identified with the ECoC, and the programme’s benefit to the city was often judged against areas as diverse as job creation, maintenance of the public realm or reduction of anti-social behaviour. Impacts 08 has captured trends in opinion across most of these wide areas but this and other reports attempt a clear distinction between areas that can be appropriately associated with the ECoC delivery process and can be directly impacted by it, and those that would arise from a range of factors, of which the ECoC title is only one.  Building on crisis points as catalysts for change – The lack of an established blueprint for ECoC delivery means that structures of management must be built anew in each city, with little opportunity to learn from previous experience. Liverpool was reluctant to focus on a single artistic vision as it saw the ECoC title as a far broader celebration of the city and its ways of life and an opportunity for repositioning the city. This resulted in a complex framework for operations, involving a wide range of stakeholders with often conflicting demands. The loss of the artistic director in 2006 and the dramatic impact of city-wide physical transformation on public realm event management (which culminated in the well publicised cancellation of the open air concerts within the Mathew Street festival in 2007) were two particularly controversial moments that generated negative media narratives and endangered public confidence. However, these moments can also be understood as key catalysts for positive change: the first led to far greater arts sector involvement and leadership in the programme and hence to a potentially more sustainable collective approach to culture in the city; the second led to a streamlining of governance which included the appointment of a locally supported and nationally recognised individual as creative director, who speeded up decision making and facilitated the media narrative for the year.  Understanding timeframes – Liverpool’s decision to embed the ECoC in a much wider and ongoing regeneration narrative, as well as the ambition for a truly locally owned programme, involving communities from across the city, resulted in a programme of activity that extended over several years. Determining what was or was not part of ‘Liverpool 08’ as a brand or the ECoC as a wider concept throughout this period posed a complex challenge in establishing the boundaries for impact assessment. This was accentuated by the need to account for the time it takes for initiatives to have a measurable effect on their environment. In early 2010, it is possible to offer a robust overview of the impact of gaining the title, as there has been an opportunity to test changes in city perceptions and their impact on areas such as resident and business confidence over six years. However, to understand the full impact and legacy of hosting the ECoC in 2008 will require ongoing measurement and analysis in the years to come in order to disaggregate direct Liverpool ECoC impacts from the impacts of other local and global trends. In Glasgow, host of the 1990 European City of Culture title, it took over a decade to understand what aspects of the programme led to impacts that have sustained in the long-term.
  • Telling the story of a city in its own terms understanding stories as evidence rather than just anecdotesBe scientific but creative | a city in change is not a fixed object

Transcript

  • 1. SICA Europe Day : European Capitals of CultureAmsterdam | 12 December 2011 Researching the impact and legacy of a European Capital of Culture The Liverpool experience Dr Beatriz Garcia Director, Impacts 08 European Capital of Culture Research Programme Head of Research Institute of Cultural Capital The Liverpool Cityscape, 2008 © Ben Johnson, 2010. All Rights Reserved DACS. www.impacts08.net
  • 2. Researching the European Capital of Culture• Palmer / Rae study on ECoC programme (1995-2004), key warnings: – Lack of contemporary and retrospective data, poor quality assessments – It is not possible to compare experiences nor fully understand legacies• Glasgow 1990: first city to actively engage in ECoC assessment – 1989-1991: Immediate economic impact (Myerscough, Policy Studies Institute) – 2002-2005: Long term cultural legacy (Garcia, University of Glasgow) Beyond short-term evaluation• Liverpool 2008: first city to commission a longitudinal research programme – 2005-2010: Economic, physical, social and cultural impacts (Garcia, University of Liverpool and Liverpool John Moores University) www.impacts08.net
  • 3. Background | Liverpool 2008, the right time, the right place• 2003-2010 | since Liverpool’s nomination as ECoC, a key period in the advancement of cultural policy and impact research throughout Europe – Key terms | culture as tool for development, creative cities, creative class, creative economy – Acceptance of integrated cultural planning as an urban policy model – Widespread discussion on the need for ‘longitudinal research’ – Generalisation of the term ‘impact assessment’ – Emphasis on knowledge transfer and knowledge exchange• Ongoing research challenges – short-termism, instrumentalism, imposing frameworks not fully sensitive to local cultural environments; imposing quantitative ‘measures’ over capturing intangible value• Liverpool | seen as a relevant laboratory to test concepts and methodologies – First ECoC host city to commission a longitudinal research programme (2005-2010) – Requesting evidence of impact across four regeneration dimensions (holistic frame) – Appointment of University consortium to lead the research (critical assessment)• European Commission | funding towards cultural policy groupings (2009-10) – Using the ECoC title as a case study to test comparable methodologies www.impacts08.net
  • 4. Impacts 08 | Research framework• Longitudinal : [2000-2003] 2005 – 2010 [2015]• Self-reflective : analyses process as well as outcome• Holistic : multiple dimensions of impact; positive as well as negative• Collaborative : Research & Arts Councils match funding, data sharing univ/ gov / industry inclusion, outreach, diversity access & creativity cultural participation image & media coverage production consumption vibrancy perceptions people’s views governance aims + strategy objectives employment economy & delivery policy, visitor trends investment & tourism social physical capital environment equalities infrastructures www.impacts08.net well-being public realm quality of life sustainability
  • 5. Liverpool as European Capital of Culture www.impacts08.net
  • 6. Liverpool as European Capital of Culture £130m over 6 years The brand, the yearECoC hosting process the lead-up 6 years operations2000-2: ECoC bid Culture Company £4 billion in 8 years2003: Official nomination The wider city regeneration & Year of Learning re-imaging programme2004: Year of Faith 4 years key event2005: Year of the Sea programming2006: Year of Performance £800k for European links2007: Year of Heritage : Liverpool 800 The European framework2008: European Capital of Culture Year2009: Year of the Environment www.impacts08.net2010: Year of Health, Well-Being and Innovation
  • 7. Liverpool as European Capital of CultureIntended impacts & legaciesLiverpool Culture Company Objectives 2008 European Capital of Culture Vision• To create and present the best of • To positively reposition Liverpool to a national and international audience and to local, national and international art encourage more visitors to the city and the and events in all genres North West• To build community enthusiasm, • To encourage and increase participation in creativity and participation cultural activity by people from communities• To maintain, enhance and grow the across Merseyside and the wider region cultural infrastructure of Liverpool • To create a legacy of long term growth and• To increase the levels of visitors sustainability in the city’s cultural sector and inward investment in Liverpool • To develop greater recognition nationally• To reposition Liverpool as a world and internationally for the role of arts and class city by 2008 culture in making our cities better places to live, work and visit www.impacts08.net
  • 8. Liverpool as European Capital of CultureIntended impacts & legacies cultural vibrancy | participation | imageLiverpool Culture Company Objectives 2008 European Capital of Culture Vision• To create and present the best of • To positively reposition Liverpool to a national and international audience and to local, national and international art encourage more visitors to the city and the and events in all genres North West• To build community enthusiasm, • To encourage and increase participation in creativity and participation cultural activity by people from communities• To maintain, enhance and grow the across Merseyside and the wider region cultural infrastructure of Liverpool • To create a legacy of long term growth and• To increase the levels of visitors sustainability in the city’s cultural sector and inward investment in Liverpool • To develop greater recognition nationally• To reposition Liverpool as a world and internationally for the role of arts and class city by 2008 culture in making our cities better places to live, work and visit www.impacts08.net
  • 9. The findings | main areas of impact www.impacts08.net
  • 10. Findings | Economy and tourism 9.7m additional visits £754m direct spend in Liverpool + region 34% growth in visitors since 2007 2.6m international visitors 1.14m additional hotels nights in Liverpool, (97% of them visit first time) plus 3m in the North West region www.impacts08.net
  • 11. Three pavilions inFindings | Cultural access and participation deprived communities owned by neighbours and praised by critics Above average ethnic minorities, lower socio-eco groups and young people attend ECoC events 60% of residents attend at15m visits to events or least one ECoC eventattractions in 2008Growth in cultural engagement (2006-2008) Over 4,000 registered– 10% yearly rise in arts audiences (2006-2008) volunteers, 1,000 active– 50% rise in visitors to sub-region’s largest attractions www.impacts08.net– Drop in % of people who claim to have no interest in culture
  • 12. Findings | Cultural vibrancy and sustainability New local cultural networks attracting multi-million national grants From mid 1990s to end of 2008, 211% growth in culture stories over 70% of ECoC contributors locally based 8% growth in creative industry enterprises since 2004 Greater awareness of Liverpool’s 51% of local peers agree that contemporary cultural offer, beyond Liverpool has been repositioned football and Beatles www.impacts08.net as a ‘world class city’
  • 13. Findings | Image and perceptions Over 85% of national articles on ECoC events are positive or neutral Less polarised media representation. From 1990s fixed negative & positive ECoC stimulates wider use of extremes into nuanced stories on online social media platforms diverse contemporary issues offering alternative narratives In 2008, cultural stories dominate national media, 71 % more national positive outnumbering social / crime stories on Liverpool as a city related stories between 2007 and 2008 www.impacts08.net
  • 14. Findings | Governance and delivery process Highest amount of sponsorship (£24m) and earned income (£4m) International ECoC peers view Liverpool as a reference point for 85% residents agree that community involvement and city is a better place in research strategy 2009 than before ECoCBusiness stakeholders agree thatthe ECoC has added value toexisting regeneration programmes New collective cultural strategy for city-region New approaches to joint cross sectoral thinking have emerged www.impacts08.net
  • 15. Summary | Immediate ECoC impacts• The Liverpool ECoC presented a geographically and socially inclusive programme, – It reached a significant variety of audiences, ensuring local engagement across socio-eco groups – It achieved very high satisfaction levels, particularly during 2008 itself.• The city has undergone a remarkable local, national and international image renaissance – local opinion leaders give more credibility to the cultural sector as a source of civic leadership; – national media present a richer picture of Liverpool as a multi-faceted city with world class assets; – internationally, Liverpool rediscovered as a tourist destination beyond football and the Beatles, and its approach to ECoC delivery is held as a key reference by other European cities.• Levels of confidence have been raised across the city, particularly in culture and tourism – Strong partnerships developed, continuing post 2008 – These may bring greater opportunities to produce, retain and attract talent, attract external investment and further develop the range and quality of the city’s offer.• Culture is more widely accepted as a driver for economic change and social inclusion – The cultural sector played a larger role in the city’s leadership in the lead up to 2008 – In 2010, there is ongoing commitment to ensure that the sector continues to contribute in areas as diverse as community safety, tourism development, health or city centre management. www.impacts08.net
  • 16. Summary | Wider context and challenges • Expectation management • Building on crisis points as catalysts for change • Understanding timeframes • Acknowledging the impact of wider national & global trends • Assessing the ‘European dimension’ www.impacts08.net
  • 17. Impacts 08 reportsProgramme overview Economy and Tourism•Impacts 08 Baseline Findings 2006-2007 (2007) - Doing Business in the ECoC (Part I): (2007)•Impacts 08: Methodological framework (2010) - Doing Business in the ECoC (Part II): (2008). •[Final Report] Creating an Impact (2010) - ECoC and Liverpool’s Developer Market: (2008) - Tourism and the Business of Culture (2010) Cultural Access and Participation - Economic Impact of Visits Influenced by the ECoC - Volunteering for Culture (2010) - Neighbourhood Watch (2010) Economy & tourism background papers - Impacts of Culture on Quality of Life (2010) - Estimating Economic Benefits of Event Tourism - Economic Impacts of the Liverpool ECoC (2008) Cultural Vibrancy and Sustainability - Methodology for Measuring the Economic Impact - Liverpools Creative Industries (2009) of Visits Influenced by the Liverpool ECoC (2009) - Liverpool’s Arts Sector (2009) Governance and Delivery Process Image and Perceptions - Who Pays the Piper? (2008) - Media Impact Assessment (Part I) (2006) - Liverpool on the map again (2010) - Re-telling the City: exploring local narratives (2007) - Liverpool 08 Centre of the Online Universe (2009) - The Look of the City (2010) All reports available at: www.impacts08.net - Media Impact Assessment (Part II) (2010) www.impacts08.net www.impacts08.net
  • 18. Ways forward | Lessons for impact research www.impacts08.net
  • 19. Conclusions | Establishing a model for research• The need to conduct longitudinal research to understand impacts – A five year programme leading up to and during the event allows a data baseline. Sustain working priorities, – However, the most important legacies are likely to emerge over a five to ten year period beyond election cycles• Combining quantitative and qualitative techniques – Statistics help capture representative data / follow trends over time / benchmarking Fund multi-specialist teams simultaneously – In-depth qualitative research allows locally sensitive value assessments Accept time delays to contextualise data• Establishing a collaboration across research sectors and nation states – Universities working alongside data agencies, consultancies and think tanks Negotiate conflicting agendas – Combining independent academic research + knowledge transferdiverse communication Establish – Diversifying funding for research : from commissioners as well as research councils channels (internal, public, peer refereed)• The involvement of universities, strengthens the legacy of hosting the ECoC www.impacts08.net
  • 20. Points for discussion• Culture can be a key catalyst for local development and regeneration• Emerging evidence in Liverpool shows that key drivers result from applying cultural incentives and investment within economic, social, physical as well as cultural/ artistic / creative policy agendas• A key challenge to culture-led regeneration is the risk to take culture out of context and instrumentalise it for economic or social ends without attending to geographical, temporal and local identity sensibilities• To maximise its potential and sustainability, we need to keep advancing our understanding of synergies as well as potential conflict between cultural, economic and social imperatives• This requires more support to assessment tools that acknowledge the multiple dimensions of regeneration (thematic, qualitative and quantitative methods) and its progression over time (longitudinal research) www.impacts08.net
  • 21. Thank youBeatriz Garciabgarcia@liverpool.ac.ukwww.impacts08.net | www.iccliverpool.ac.uk www.impacts08.net