The Family Unit Maintaining and Building Families During the Holocaust Yulanda Au Evelyn Kessler Osose Oboh Sarah Peters
Hidden children in non-Jewish families
Retention of the family unit in the camps
Formation of families in the camps
Families in hiding
Albi, France- Location of the village that hid her and her family, consequently saving their lives
Post-war life in the family unit
Going back to visit her rescuers or her second family
Rescued 2500 children
Saved all the names in jars to retain identities
Protestant and Catholic churches’ involvement
Hid children with families, in convents and orphanages
Gave false baptismal papers
Christian and Muslim families throughout Europe individually hid families
Emotional and physical repercussions
Physical and emotional abuse
Jewish children who were hidden in non-Jewish families during the Holocaustwar
Families in the camps
Rita’s Story “Mother, Father, Grandparents, Uncles, Aunts, Cousins, two sister and two brothers – Bertha, Berl, Ida, and Yankule – did not survive. I miss them and I cry everyday. They are always in my mind and in my heart.” “The next morning we were transported back to Riga where I had left my twin sister. We were so happy to be reunited and from then on, we were always together.” “I got very friendly with one girl and she told me her family name was Hirsch. One of our uncle’s name was Hirsch and was married to our aunt in Timisora, so to our surprise she and her sister were our uncle’s nieces. We were very happy to have found some relatives.” “I can’t forget the Holocaust; to be captured into slavery, to see the Nazi’s around you with loaded rifles; to get pushed five in a row to march hungry, cold, and tired with no future, separated from parents, sisters, and brothers and the rest of the family…nightmares are still with me.”
"Eight words spoken quietly, indifferently, without emotion. Eight short, simple words. Yet that was the moment when I parted from my mother.” – Elie Wiesel, Night Retention and Loss of Families “Perhaps I am simply jealous of her greater right to mourn him.” – Ruth Kluger, Still Alive “Liesel remained true to her father. He could not get out, as she explained, because he knew too much. Therefore she could not register for a work transport, although they would have been more likely to take her than me, because she was a couple of years older. She never even tried it; she wanted to remain with him; she was gassed with him. She had absolutely no illusion about her impending death. I would not have sacrificed myself for my mother.” – Ruth Kluger, Still Alive “As for me, I was not thinking about death, but I did not want to be separated from my father. We had already suffered so much, borne so much together; this was not the time to be separated.” – Elie Wiesel, Night
Formation of Families
Marriage Scene in Schindler’s List
Primo Levi and Lorenzo Perrone
Lorenzo Perrone “..An Italian civilian worker brought me a piece of bread and the remainder of his ration every day for six months; he gave me a vest of his, full of patches; he wrote a postcard on my behalf to Italy and brought me the reply. For all this he neither asked nor accepted any reward, because he was good and simple and did not think that one did good for a reward.…I believe that it was really due to Lorenzo that I am alive today; and not so much for his material aid, as for his having constantly reminded me by his presence, by his natural and plain manner of being good, that there still existed a just world outside our own, something and someone still pure and whole, not corrupt, not savage, extraneous to hatred and terror; something difficult to define, a remote possibility of good, but for which it was worth surviving.…But Lorenzo was a man; his humanity was pure and uncontaminated, he was outside this world of negation. Thanks to Lorenzo, I managed not to forget that I myself was a man.”
Decoster, Charlotte (2006). Jewish Hidden Children in Belgium during the Holocaust: A comparative study of their hiding places at Christian establishments, private families, and Jewish orphanages. Retrieved from UNT Digital Web site: http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5468/m1/.
Hidden Children: Quest for Family. http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10006127.
Kaufman, Marie., personal communication, January 13 & 20, 2010.
Kluger, Ruth. Still Alive: A Holocaust Girlhood Remembered. New York: Feminist Press, 2001 (selections).
Levi, Primo. Survival in Auschwitz. Touchstone. New York. 1958 .
Life in the Shadows: Hidden Children and the Holocaust. Retrieved from http://www.ushmm.org/museum/exhibit/online/hiddenchildren/insideX/.
Ofer, Dalia. 2005. Family during the Holocaust. http://jwa.org/encyclopedia/article/family-during-holocaust.
Rita’s Memoir. (Holocaust survivor we interviewed provided us with a description of her time during the war).
Schindler’s List. Steven Spielberg, 1993.
Spies, Marcia (Interviewee). Retrieved from USC Shoah Foundation Institute Web site: http://college.usc.edu/vhi/otv/otv.php.
Wiesel, Elie. Night. Hill and Wang. New York. 2006.
Works Cited (cont’d) Images (in order of the slides)