The Eyes Behind the Curtain
The Genocidal State
“Every arm of the country's sophistcated bureaucracy was involved in the killing
process. Parish churches and the Interior Ministry supplied birth records showing who
was Jewish; the Post Ofce delivered the deportaton and denaturalizaton orders;
the Finance Ministry confscated Jewish property; German frms fred Jewish workers
and disenfranchised Jewish stockholders; the universites refused to admit Jews,
denied degrees to those already studying, and fred Jewish academics; government
transport ofces arranged the trains for deportaton to the camps;
German pharmaceutcal companies tested drugs on camp prisoners; companies bid
for the contracts to build the crematoria; detailed lists of victms were drawn up
using the Dehomag (IBM Germany) company's punch card machines, producing
metculous records of the killings. As prisoners entered the death camps, they were
made to surrender all personal property, which was carefully catalogued and tagged
before being sent to Germany to be reused or recycled. Berenbaum writes that the
Final Soluton of the Jewish queston was "in the eyes of the perpetrators …
Germany's greatest achievement."
"Not one social group, not one religious community, not one scholarly insttuton or
professional associaton in Germany and throughout Europe declared its solidarity
with the Jews."
THE NUREMBERG LAWS
DIE KRISTALL NACHT
is our greate
19 35, “ The Jew w!”
are of the Je
The Local Police
“The Lithuanian army is spread
out in the street; soldiers push,
people drag along, everyone is
electrifed, irritated, exhausted…
and weeping.” –Herman Kruk, The
ly Last Days of the Jerusalem of
the choice Lithuania: Chronicles from the
M aking oppress Vilna Gheto and the Camps,
“That was when I began to hate them, and my
hatred remains our only link today. They were our
frst oppressors. They were the frst faces of hell
and death.”- Elie Wiesel, Night
Not merely “watching” on the sidelines
Laughing, Spitng, Throwing
de, No v. 1939
Holocaust Survivor Account: Esther Meisler
Even the children!
Polish girl in eto
f Jews to Gh
Inbred ant-Semitsm, fear,
Maus, pg. 89 How much is a human life worth?
Dana Schwartz, Holocaust Survivor Story
The line becomes “fuzzy”
Architecture of Mobile Gas Van
concentraton camps Producton
and gas chambers
To blame or not?
Zyklon B Manufacture (Degesch, Degussa,
IG Farbin, Testa)
They were neither collaborators nor
Reasons to what led them to be who they are
“They simply didn’t care”
“Behind The Curtains”
“Looking the other way”
Helping the Jews
• Share informaton
• Provide resources (food,
• Smuggle Jews out of the
• Hide Jews
• Help Jewish partsans
..But the Risks!
• Confscaton of all
• Sent to concentraton
• Poland and other parts
of Eastern Europe:
So Why Help?
• Moral reasons
• Protectng citzens
• The “Righteous Gentles”
Bar-On, Dan. The Bystander in Relaton to the Victm an the Perpetrator: Today and During the Holocaust. Rep. Vol. 14. Social
Justce Research, 2001. Print.
Hondius, Dienke. Bystander Memories Explored: Dutch Gentle Eyewitness Narratves on the Deportaton of the Jews. Rep. no.
1571-5493. Vol. 6. New York: Springer, 2007. Print.
Kruk, Herman. "The Last Days of the Jerusalem O Lithuania: Chronicles from the Vilna Gheto." German 59: The Holocauast in Film
and Literature. 59-135. Print.
Levi, Primo. Survival in Auschwitz. New York: Orion, 1958. Print.
Sachs, Nelly. "You Onlookers." German 59: The Holocaust in Film and Literature. 53-53. Print.
Schindler's List. Dir. Steven Spielberg. Amblin Entertainment, 1993. DVD.
Schwartz, Dana. "Holocaust Survivor." Holocaust Survivor Day. UCLA, Los Angeles. 25 Feb. 2010. Speech.
Shoah. Dir. Claude Lanzmann. 1985. DVD.
Simaite, Ona. "Leters from a LIbrarian: Lost and Found in Vilna." German 59: The Holocaust In Film and Literature. 137-52. Print.
Spiegelman, Art. "Maus." Comic Strip. Apex Noveltes and Pantheon, 1973. 1-156. Print.
"Testmony Excerpts - Bystander and Two Survivors." Interview. Youtube. Yale University, 9 Oct. 2009. Web. 8 Mar. 2010.
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 8 Mar. 2010. <htp://www.ushmm.org/>.
Wiesel, Elie. Night. Argentna: Mark Turkov, 1955. Print.