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    Kohler save h20 america Kohler save h20 america Presentation Transcript

    • Plumbing Products Contribution to Water Conservation AIA - KWC103 HSW SD IDCEC - #AAAA Subject B.CD
    • Best Practices Kohler Co. is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems. Credit earned on completion of this program will be reported to CES Records for AIA members. Certificates of completion for non-AIA members are available upon request. This program is registered with the AIA/CES, IDCEC (IIDA, ASID, IDC), NKBA, and NARI for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by these organizations of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.
    • Learning Objectives Be part of the big picture. Whether you are specifying plumbing products that meet the criteria of LEED initiatives, reduce facility operating costs or accommodate the preferences of home owners, environmentally conscious fixtures and faucets can help you address the challenging demands of your customers. This course will cover general water conservation, LEED standards and how to specify water-saving plumbing solutions that contribute to the big picture. This course was developed for all architects; specifically for those who specify plumbing products. After this course you will: - Understand water supply / demand and how they affect water conservation - Comprehend water conservation benefits to the individual and society as a whole - Know how to specify plumbing products to accomplish water conservation goals - Understand the impact plumbing products have on Green Building
    • Agenda • Perspective on Water Conservation • Water Supply and Demand • Water Conservation Benefits • Water Efficient Options for Indoor Use • Green Buildings
    • Perspective on Water Conservation Water conservation is one of the critical issues facing our world today, and will continue to grow in importance. • Milestones in Water Conservation • Supply Management • Importance of Water Conservation
    • Perspective on Water Conservation Water Consumption Over Time 1.28-gpf* No Flow Regulations 5.0-gpf* - 3.5-gpf* 1.6-gpf* (HET) 1860 1912 1960 1980 1992 2004 * gpf = gallons per flush
    • Perspective on Water Conservation New Strategies – Supply Management • Water conservation efforts focus on sustainable watershed management • A watershed is an area that is drained by a river or stream • Watersheds often cross political boundaries—we must share responsibility for stewardship
    • Perspective on Water Conservation Water Conservation ―Hot Spots‖ • Seattle • Boston area • San Francisco Bay • New York City • Southern Nevada • Washington DC area • Southern California • Chicago area • Arizona • Atlanta area • New Mexico • Coastal Carolinas • South Texas • South Florida • Denver area • Caribbean islands
    • Perspective on Water Conservation Importance of Water Conservation • Water is a limited resource • To sustain growth we need to use water more efficiently
    • Perspective on Water Conservation Review: 1. Toilets in the 1960s and 1970s typically used how much water? 2. What is an HET? 3. How many gallons per flush does an HET use? 4. What is a watershed?
    • Water Supply and Demand With limited resources, creative solutions are needed to meet current and future demands. • Water Sources • Water Use • Demand Management
    • Water Supply and Demand Water Sources • Water for human consumption, irrigation, or industry is taken from two types of sources: • Surface Water (79%) – Lakes, rivers, reservoirs, oceans • Ground Water (21%) – Municipal and private wells • Sources vary in water quality, quantity, and sustainability
    • Water Supply and Demand Although plumbing products only use 3.7% of all available water in the US, it uses the most expensive water – potable or treated. US Total Water Residential Plumbing = 13.7 bgpd = 408 bgpd Potable Water = 47 bgpd Indoor Plumbing Commercial Plumbing = 15 bgpd = 1.4 bgpd
    • Water Supply and Demand U.S. Potable Water Consumption Indoor: Outdoor/Process: • Toilets / Urinals • Landscape Irrigation • Faucets • Cooling Towers • Baths / Showers • Vehicle Washing • Clothes Washing • Textile Washing • Dishwashing • Ware Washing • Cooking • Drinking Water Average Residential Indoor Water Use: 69.3 gpcd Average Residential Outdoor Water Use: 25-200 gpcd, depending on region
    • Water Supply and Demand Demand Management • Getting People & Organizations to Use Less Water • Demand Management is Accomplished Two Ways: Behavior Modification Physical Changes
    • Water Supply and Demand Behavior Modification • Get consumers to change how they use water Examples: • Water Lawn Less • Shorter Shower • Turn off Water When Brushing Teeth • Collect Water from Cooking to Put on Plants • Wash Full Loads Only – Dish & Clothes Washers
    • Water Supply and Demand Behavior Modification - Public Education Efforts • WaterSense: EPA’s water-efficient product labeling and public education program • Websites with water-saving ideas • Residential outdoor water conservation programs
    • Water Supply and Demand Physical Changes • Making physical changes that don’t require any change in consumer behavior. Examples: • Replace Old Toilet or Urinal with Water Efficient Model • Install Low-Flow Aerator on a Faucet • Repair Leaks • Install Water Efficient Landscaping • Proven long-term water savings • Savings are predictable & measurable
    • Water Supply and Demand Plumbing Product Replacement Programs • Supported and promoted by local water utilities • Residential and commercial • Cash rebate incentives • Product exchanges • HET rebates
    • Water Supply and Demand Comparison of GDP - Water Use & Population, 1950-2005 Have These Programs Worked? YES! Sources: “Estimated Uses of Water”, USGS, 2004., US Department of Commerce
    • Water Supply and Demand Review: 1. What percent of water use in the U.S. is used by plumbing products? Although a small %, why is it still important? 2. What are the two main types of conservation strategies? 3. Replacing plumbing fixtures or installing aerators on faucets are examples of what type of conservation strategy? 4. Have water conservation efforts over the past 20 years in the U.S. worked? Sources: “Estimated Uses of Water”, USGS, 2004., US Department of Commerce
    • Water Conservation Benefits The benefits of water conservation far outweigh the costs to society of developing new supplies! • Benefits • Innovative Responses
    • Water Conservation Benefits Benefit: Saves Consumers & Taxpayers Money • Saving water is less expensive than finding new supplies • Infrastructure expansions postponed • Less water pumped and treated, reducing energy and chemical costs
    • Water Conservation Benefits …And It Will Save Even More In the Future! …because water rates will continue to rise. • More than 90% public water utilities expenses - infrastructure • AWWA: $200 billion - $1 trillion in next 20 years on water systems • Energy and material costs continue to rise
    • Water Conservation Benefits Benefit: Economic Growth • In most areas, water supplies are fixed or declining (no new water) • Conservation allows water supplies to be used more effectively • Known, stable water availability attracts businesses and new residents
    • Water Conservation Benefits Benefit: Protects the Environment • Stable lake and stream levels provide better habitat for wildlife • Lower wastewater flows: — allow sewage treatment plants to function more efficiently — reduce leaks from septic systems • New dams / reservoirs are not required
    • Water Conservation Benefits Innovative Responses • New water-efficient products • New codes and legislation governing water conservation • Growing non-potable water use
    • Water Conservation Benefits Codes & Legistation: Accelerating the move toward water efficiency • Mandated use of most water efficient plumbing products by cities and states • Green building ordinances • Water offsets for new developments • Required use of reclaimed wastewater, where available. • New water efficient product specifications • Turf area restrictions and incentives for non-irrigated landscapes
    • Water Conservation Benefits Reclaimed Wastewater • Municipal wastewater is further treated, then used again • Not drinking water! - requires separate piping system • Up to 25% of water use in some communities is ―reclaimed‖ • Major uses are: • Irrigation • Groundwater recharge • Cooling towers • Process water • Toilets and urinals
    • Water Conservation Benefits Rainwater • Reduces water use and storm water runoff • Collection systems must be properly designed • Keep out sunlight! • Major uses are: • Irrigation • Cooling towers • Toilets and urinals
    • Water Conservation Benefits Review: 1. How does water conservation help save money over the long run? 2. Name two innovative responses to saving water. 3. Name two water efficient plumbing products.
    • Water Efficient Options for Indoor Water Use There are many options available to conserve water indoors without sacrificing quality of life or performance, style, and quality of products • Plumbing Products • Greywater
    • Water Efficient Options for Indoor Water Use Water-Efficient Products: Showerheads: 2.0 gpm or less Faucets: with 1.5 Toilets: 1.28 gpf Non-Water gpm aerator or less (HETs) Urinals Hot water recirculation SMART Cooling Tower systems/instant hot Irrigation Appliances Controllers Controllers water units
    • Water Efficient Options for Indoor Water Use The Current Standard: EPAct • The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) set limits on water consumption of fixtures and faucets sold in the U.S. • Toilets: 1.6 gallons per flush (gpf) • Urinals: 1.0 gpf • Showerheads: 2.5 gallons per minute (gpm) at 80 psi • Faucets: (psi) 2.2 gpm at 60 pounds per square inch • Metering Faucets: 0.25 gallons per cycle, maximum • EPAct went into effect in January, 1994. All fixtures and faucets sold in the U.S. must not use more water that this law specifies. Many products use less.
    • WaterSense Products Category Product Options WaterSense Qualifications Gravity Single Flush Dual Flush Average flush volume ≤ 1.28 gpf Tank-Type HETs Pressure Assisted MaP score ≥ 350g Electromechanical Flushing, 0.5 gpf Flush volume ≤ 0.5 gpf Urinals Flushing, 0.13 gpf Non-water urinals NOT included Flow rate ≤ 1.5 gpm at 60 psi AND Bathroom Faucets All styles Flow rate ≥ 0.8 gpm at 20 psi Builder offers homes that All WaterSense plumbing (where applicable) New Homes meet specification. Limits on landscape designs Single-Function Flow rate ≤ 2.0 gpm Showerheads Multi-Function Pressure and spray pattern requirements Not included: Commercial lavatory faucets Kitchen faucets Flushometer toilets
    • Water Efficient Options for Indoor Water Use Gravity Toilets • Single-flush gravity HETs provide 20% water savings with every flush • Dual-flush toilets allow user to select flushing volume • 2 of 3 uses are ―liquid only‖ & require less water • User must select correct button to achieve water savings Single-flush High Efficiency Dual-flush toilet Toilet (HET)
    • Water Efficient Options for Indoor Water Use Pressure-Assist Toilets • Many models use 1.1 or less gpf • Best flushing performance • Similar aesthetic to gravity toilets • New designs are quiet enough for residential applications
    • Water Efficient Options for Indoor Water Use Flushometer Toilets • Vitreous china bowl and flushometer valve sold separately • Flushometer uses water Wall-hung bowl pressure to release the proper amount of water quickly Manual • Generally used in flushometer commercial applications • 1.28 gpf and dual flush are options Bowl with automatic flushometer
    • Water Efficient Options for Indoor Water Use Urinals • Men use a urinal approximately 3 times / day • Standard urinals use 1.0 gallon per flush • High Efficiency Urinals (HEUs) use 0.5 gpf or less • 0.125 gpf (pint) urinals are widely available • HEUs provide an easy way to reduce water use
    • Water Efficient Options for Indoor Water Use Non-Water Urinals • Some designs do not require cartridges and are extremely economical • When installed and maintained, virtually odor free • Verify code compliance prior to specifying non-water urinals • Can save up to 40,000 gallons of water per fixture per year!
    • Water Efficient Options for Indoor Water Use Faucets • Replacing aerators is a very cost-effective way to save water! • Most commercial and residential faucets are compatible with aerators • Aerators are available for various flows down to 0.5 gpm • Residential lav faucets are covered under EPA’s WaterSense program
    • Water Efficient Options for Indoor Water Use Sensor Faucets • Water savings is not adequately understood • Hygienic benefits have been documented - especially in public facilities • New sensor technology eliminates false actuation • Vandal-resistant
    • Water Efficient Options for Indoor Water Use Showerheads • An average shower is ~8 minutes • At 2.5 gpm = 20 gallons of water • Many showerheads that use less than 2.5 gpm are on the market • Temperature compensating valves in showers require a minimum flow to work properly
    • Water Efficient Options for Indoor Water Use Potential Concerns From Low-Flow Products Concern Recommendation Fixture or Faucet Performance:  Purchase a quality product with Initially and Over Time quality components that performs well for the end-user New Maintenance  Proper training of maintenance and Requirements janitorial staff Drainline Carry  Carefully choose location of fixtures and faucets relative to each other and main sewer line out of the building
    • Water Efficient Options for Indoor Water Use Greywater Showers Toilets Baths Kitchen Sinks Bathroom Sinks Dishwashers Clothes Washer Blackwater = wastewater that has high bacteria or Greywater = wastewater that has a low high organic content bacteria, chemical, or solids loading
    • Water Efficient Options for Indoor Water Use Greywater – System Requirements • Relies on gravity • Separate drain lines and storage • Minimal indoor use (toilet flushing) • Codes still in development • Not allowed in all areas
    • Water Efficient Options for Indoor Water Use What’s Possible? 70 60 50 Leaks 40 Dishwasher 30 Clothes Washer 20 Showers 10 Faucets 0 Toilets Average EPAct 92 Water Graywater Home Home Efficient Home Home Units = Gallons per capita per day
    • Water Efficient Options for Indoor Water Use Review: 1. What are some of the high-efficiency toilet flushing technologies currently on the market? 2. What is a “dual-flush” toilet? 3. How much water does a High Efficiency Urinal (HEU) use? 4. How long does an average adult spend in the shower? 5. What is greywater? 6. Does the consumer have to sacrifice quality, style or performance for water efficient plumbing products?
    • Green Buildings An important driver of water conservation is Green Buildings • Why Build Green? • LEED Basics • LEED Water Efficiency • Estimating Water Savings • LEED for Homes
    • Green Buildings Why the client should consider ―green‖ buildings? • Reduced operating costs • Improved employee productivity • Renewed emphasis on environmental issues: - climate change - chemical exposure - solid waste disposal - water supplies • Tax and other incentives • Positive publicity • Client expectations
    • Green Buildings Who Sets The Standards? What Are The Standards?
    • Green Buildings LEED Basics • What is LEED? – LEED = Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design – Design standards created to define ―green‖ buildings. • LEED-New Construction (NC) Categories – Sustainable Sites 26 points – Energy & Atmosphere 35 points – Materials & Resources 14 points Certified: 40-49 points – Indoor Environmental Quality 15 points Silver: 50-59 points – Water Efficiency 10 points Gold: 60-79 points – Innovation in Design 6 points Platinum: 80+ points – Regional Priority 4 points
    • LEED-NC 2009 Water Efficiency LEED-NC Credit Description Water use reduction—reduce indoor water consumption by Prerequisite 1 20% vs. standard (required) Reduce potable water requirement for landscaping by 50% WE 1.1 (2 points) No potable water used for irrigation, or no irrigation WE 1.2 required (2 points) Innovative wastewater technologies—reduce wastewater WE 2 by 50% compared to baseline (2 points) Water use reduction—reduce indoor water consumption by WE 3.1 30% vs. standard (2 points) WE 3.2 Water use reduction—reduce indoor water consumption by 35% vs. standard (3 points) Water use reduction—reduce indoor water consumption by WE 3.3 40% vs. standard (4 points)
    • Green Buildings LEED-NC Water Efficiency • Water Efficiency Credits 3.1 - 3.3 apply to: • Toilets • Showers • Urinals • Lavatory Faucets • Kitchen Faucets • Outdoor use, such as irrigation and cooling towers, are not included in these calculations
    • Green Buildings LEED-NC Water Efficiency Credits To obtain Water Efficiency Credits 3.1 - 3.3: • Need signed LEED Water Efficiency Template • Spreadsheet showing 30% - 40% reduction of water use compared to baseline • Submit as part of project portfolio
    • Green Buildings LEED Water Efficiency Calculation • Projected water use for building is compared to EPAct baseline • Products not LEED certified, buildings are • Total water use projected; not all fixtures or faucets need to be water conserving • Water use calculators simplify the process
    • Green Buildings Toilet Example • Building with 100 men and 1400 100 women Baseline 1200 - 1.6 gpf • Use restroom 4 times per day 1000 • 75% of uses are ―liquid only‖ 800 HET- 1.1 gpf Results: 600 • HET – 31% Reduction 400 – Qualifies for 2 LEED-NC 200 Dual points* Flush - 0 1.6 / 0.8 • Dual Flush – 38% Reduction Gallons per gpf – Qualifies for 3 LEED-NC day points* *Assuming no other water-consuming fixtures or faucets are present.
    • LEED for Homes (LEED-H) LEED-H Water Efficiency (WE): at least (3) points are required – Water Reuse 5 points – Irrigation System 4 points – Indoor Water 6 points total: • All Faucets ≤ 2.0 gpm 1 point • All Showerheads ≤ 2.0 gpm 1 point • All Toilets ≤ 1.3 gpf 1 point • All Faucets ≤ 1.5 gpm 2 points Certified: 45 points Silver: 60 points • All Showerheads ≤ 1.75 gpm 2 points Gold: 75 points • All Toilets ≤ 1.1 gpf 2 points Platinum: 90 points NAHB’s National Green Building Standard, along with local green home programs use similar point-based systems.
    • Green Buildings Review: 1. What is LEED? 2. LEED-NC Water Efficiency credits require what percent reduction of indoor water use? 3. A building design that incorporates water-efficient plumbing products and reduces its water use by 35% compared to LEED’s baseline is eligible for how many LEED points? 4. To obtain the LEED-NC WE 3.1 credit, do all fixtures & faucets in the building have to use at least 30% less water than LEED’s baseline values?
    • CONCLUSION • Water conservation is a growing issue • Saving potable water saves energy, chemicals & money • The need for innovations is increasing • New water-efficient plumbing products need to be part of an overall water conservation strategy • Many of these products can be specified into green building projects • Customers do not need to sacrifice style, quality, or performance to achieve water conservation goals
    • QUESTIONS? Thank you for your time! This concludes The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems Program.
    • COPYRIGHT MATERIALS This presentation is protected by US and International copyright laws. Reproduction, distribution, display and use of the presentation without written permission of the speaker is prohibited. Kohler Co. 2007.
    • Resources Organization Website Kohler Co. www.kohler.com/savewater WaterSense www.epa.gov/watersense Alliance for Water Efficiency www.a4we.org H2Ouse www.h2ouse.org NAHB www.toolbase.org Alliance for Sustainable Built www.greenerfacilities.org Environments
    • Resources U.S. Water Use: 1% 1% Aquaculture Mining & Livestock 5% Industrial 33.5 % Irrigation 48 % Thermoelectric 11.5 % Potable Water 47 bgpd! United States Source: Estimated Uses of Water, USGS, 2004 (year 2000 data) 408 bgpd
    • Resources U.S. Water Use: 13.5 % .5 % Industrial Other 14 % Public Use / Loss 15.3% Commercial 7 bgpd 56.7% 11.5% Residential 27 bgpd Potable Water United States Potable Water Source EPA, 1990 data 408 bgpd 47 bgpd
    • Resources U.S. Water Use: 39% Commercial 3 bgpd 15.3% Indoor Use Commercial (7 bgpd) 56.7% Residential (27 bgpd) 68% Residential 18 bgpd 11.5% Indoor Use Potable Water United States Potable Water Indoor Use Source: EPA, 1992 408 bgpd 47 bgpd 21 bgpd
    • Resources U.S. Water Use: Other-5% Kitchen-14% Cooling Towers- 34% 39% Commercial Faucets-6% 15.3% Indoor Use Toilets / Commercial Urinals-41% (7 bgpd) Dishwasher-1.4% Other-2.3% Washer-21.7% 56.7% Baths-1.7% Residential Leaks-13.7% (27 bgpd) Faucets-15.7% 68% Showers-16.8% Residential 11.5% Indoor Use Potable Water Toilets-26.7% United States Potable Water Indoor Use 408 bgpd 47 bgpd 21 bgpd Sources: Mayer, et al. Residential End Uses of Water, AWWARF, 1999 & Massachusetts Water Resources Authority ICI Water Management Program
    • Resources U.S. Water Use: 47% Commercial 39% Indoor Plumbing Commercial (1.4 bgpd) 15.3% Indoor Use Commercial (7 bgpd) 56.7% 74.6% Residential Residential (27 bgpd) Indoor Plumbing (13.7 bgpd) 68% Residential 11.5% Indoor Use Potable Water United States Potable Water Indoor Use Indoor Plumbing 408 bgpd 47 bgpd 21 bgpd 15 bgpd