Plumbing Products Contribution to Water Conservation
AIA - KWC103 HSW SD
IDCEC - #AAAA Subject B.CD
Best Practices
Kohler Co. is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of
Architects Continuing Education Systems....
Learning Objectives
Be part of the big picture. Whether you are specifying plumbing
products that meet the criteria of LEE...
Agenda
• Perspective on Water Conservation
• Water Supply and Demand
• Water Conservation Benefits
• Water Efficient Optio...
• Milestones in Water
Conservation
• Supply Management
• Importance of Water
Conservation
Water conservation is one of the...
1860 1912 1960 1980 1992
No Flow Regulations 5.0-gpf* - 3.5-gpf* 1.6-gpf*
* gpf = gallons per flush
Water Consumption Over...
• Water conservation efforts focus
on sustainable watershed
management
• A watershed is an area that is
drained by a river...
Water Conservation ―Hot Spots‖
• Seattle
• San Francisco Bay
• Southern Nevada
• Southern California
• Arizona
• New Mexic...
• Water is a limited resource
• To sustain growth we need
to use water more efficiently
Importance of Water Conservation
P...
Perspective on Water Conservation
1. Toilets in the 1960s and 1970s typically used how
much water?
2. What is an HET?
3. H...
• Water Sources
• Water Use
• Demand Management
With limited resources, creative solutions are needed to meet
current and ...
• Water for human consumption, irrigation, or industry
is taken from two types of sources:
• Surface Water (79%)
– Lakes, ...
Although plumbing products only use 3.7% of all
available water in the US, it uses the most expensive
water – potable or t...
Indoor:
• Toilets / Urinals
• Faucets
• Baths / Showers
• Clothes Washing
• Dishwashing
• Cooking
• Drinking Water
Outdoor...
• Getting People & Organizations to Use Less Water
• Demand Management is Accomplished Two Ways:
Demand Management
Behavio...
• Get consumers to change how they use water
Examples:
• Water Lawn Less
• Shorter Shower
• Turn off Water When Brushing T...
• WaterSense: EPA’s water-efficient product
labeling and public education program
• Websites with water-saving ideas
• Res...
• Making physical changes that don’t require any change
in consumer behavior. Examples:
• Replace Old Toilet or Urinal wit...
Plumbing Product Replacement Programs
• Supported and promoted by local water utilities
• Residential and commercial
• Cas...
Sources: “Estimated Uses of Water”, USGS, 2004.,
US Department of Commerce
Comparison of GDP -
Water Use &
Population, 195...
Sources: “Estimated Uses of Water”, USGS, 2004.,
US Department of Commerce
Water Supply and Demand
1. What percent of wate...
• Benefits
• Innovative Responses
The benefits of water conservation far outweigh the
costs to society of developing new s...
• Saving water is less expensive than
finding new supplies
• Infrastructure expansions postponed
• Less water pumped and t...
• More than 90% public water
utilities expenses - infrastructure
• AWWA: $200 billion - $1 trillion
in next 20 years on wa...
• In most areas, water
supplies are fixed or
declining (no new water)
• Conservation allows water
supplies to be used more...
• Stable lake and stream levels
provide better habitat for
wildlife
• Lower wastewater flows:
— allow sewage treatment pla...
• New water-efficient products
• New codes and legislation governing water conservation
• Growing non-potable water use
In...
• Mandated use of most water efficient plumbing products by
cities and states
• Green building ordinances
• Water offsets ...
Reclaimed Wastewater
• Municipal wastewater is further treated, then used again
• Not drinking water! - requires separate ...
Rainwater
• Reduces water use and storm water runoff
• Collection systems must be properly designed
• Keep out sunlight!
•...
Water Conservation Benefits
1. How does water conservation help save money over
the long run?
2. Name two innovative respo...
• Plumbing Products
• Greywater
There are many options available to conserve water
indoors without sacrificing quality of ...
Toilets: 1.28 gpf
or less (HETs)
Hot water
recirculation
systems/instant hot
water units
SMART
Irrigation
Controllers
Cool...
• The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) set limits on water
consumption of fixtures and faucets sold in the U.S.
• Toilets...
Category Product Options WaterSense Qualifications
Tank-Type HETs
Gravity Single Flush
Dual Flush
Pressure Assisted
Electr...
• Single-flush gravity HETs provide 20% water savings with
every flush
• Dual-flush toilets allow user to select flushing ...
Pressure-Assist Toilets
• Many models use 1.1 or less gpf
• Best flushing performance
• Similar aesthetic to gravity
toile...
• Vitreous china bowl and
flushometer valve sold
separately
• Flushometer uses water
pressure to release the
proper amount...
• Men use a urinal
approximately 3 times / day
• Standard urinals use 1.0
gallon per flush
• High Efficiency Urinals (HEUs...
• Some designs do not require
cartridges and are extremely
economical
• When installed and maintained,
virtually odor free...
• Replacing aerators is a
very cost-effective way to
save water!
• Most commercial and
residential faucets are
compatible ...
• Water savings is not adequately
understood
• Hygienic benefits have been
documented - especially in public
facilities
• ...
• An average shower is ~8 minutes
• At 2.5 gpm = 20 gallons of water
• Many showerheads that use less than
2.5 gpm are on ...
Potential Concerns From Low-Flow Products
Concern Recommendation
Fixture or Faucet Performance:
Initially and Over Time
 ...
Toilets
Kitchen Sinks
Dishwashers
Showers
Bathroom Sinks
Clothes Washer
Baths
Greywater = wastewater that has a low
bacter...
• Relies on gravity
• Separate drain lines
and storage
• Minimal indoor use
(toilet flushing)
• Codes still in development...
What’s Possible?
Units = Gallons per capita per day
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Average
Home
EPAct 92
Home
Water
Efficient
Home...
Water Efficient Options for Indoor Water Use
1. What are some of the high-efficiency toilet flushing
technologies currentl...
An important driver of water conservation is
Green Buildings
Green Buildings
• Why Build Green?
• LEED Basics
• LEED Water...
Why the client should consider ―green‖ buildings?
• Reduced operating costs
• Improved employee productivity
• Renewed emp...
Green Buildings
What Are The Standards?
Who Sets The Standards?
• What is LEED?
– LEED = Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
– Design standards created to define ―green‖ buildi...
LEED-NC Credit Description
Prerequisite 1
Water use reduction—reduce indoor water consumption by
20% vs. standard (require...
• Water Efficiency Credits 3.1 - 3.3 apply to:
• Toilets
• Showers
• Urinals
• Lavatory Faucets
• Kitchen Faucets
• Outdoo...
To obtain Water Efficiency Credits 3.1 - 3.3:
• Need signed LEED Water Efficiency Template
• Spreadsheet showing 30% - 40%...
LEED Water Efficiency Calculation
• Projected water use for
building is compared
to EPAct baseline
• Products not LEED
cer...
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
Gallons per
day
Baseline
- 1.6 gpf
HET- 1.1
gpf
Dual
Flush -
1.6 / 0.8
gpf
• Building wit...
LEED-H Water Efficiency (WE): at least (3) points are required
– Water Reuse 5 points
– Irrigation System 4 points
– Indoo...
Green Buildings
1. What is LEED?
2. LEED-NC Water Efficiency credits require what
percent reduction of indoor water use?
3...
CONCLUSION
• Water conservation is a growing issue
• Saving potable water saves energy, chemicals & money
• The need for i...
QUESTIONS?
This concludes The American Institute of Architects
Continuing Education Systems Program.
Thank you for your ti...
COPYRIGHT MATERIALS
This presentation is protected by US and
International copyright laws.
Reproduction, distribution, dis...
Resources
Organization Website
Kohler Co. www.kohler.com/savewater
WaterSense www.epa.gov/watersense
Alliance for Water Ef...
U.S. Water Use:
United States
408 bgpd
33.5 %
Irrigation
48 %
Thermoelectric
5 %
Industrial
11.5 %
Potable Water
1 %
Aquac...
Source EPA, 1990 data
U.S. Water Use:
Potable Water
47 bgpd
56.7%
Residential
15.3%
Commercial
27 bgpd
7 bgpd
14 %
Public ...
Source: EPA, 1992
U.S. Water Use:
68%
Residential
Indoor Use
Indoor Use
21 bgpd
39%
Commercial
Indoor Use
18 bgpd
3 bgpd
P...
Sources: Mayer, et al. Residential End Uses of
Water, AWWARF, 1999 & Massachusetts Water Resources Authority ICI Water Man...
U.S. Water Use:
Indoor Plumbing
15 bgpd
74.6%
Residential
Indoor Plumbing
(13.7 bgpd)
47%
Commercial
Indoor Plumbing
(1.4 ...
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  1. 1. Plumbing Products Contribution to Water Conservation AIA - KWC103 HSW SD IDCEC - #AAAA Subject B.CD
  2. 2. Best Practices Kohler Co. is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems. Credit earned on completion of this program will be reported to CES Records for AIA members. Certificates of completion for non-AIA members are available upon request. This program is registered with the AIA/CES, IDCEC (IIDA, ASID, IDC), NKBA, and NARI for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by these organizations of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.
  3. 3. Learning Objectives Be part of the big picture. Whether you are specifying plumbing products that meet the criteria of LEED initiatives, reduce facility operating costs or accommodate the preferences of home owners, environmentally conscious fixtures and faucets can help you address the challenging demands of your customers. This course will cover general water conservation, LEED standards and how to specify water-saving plumbing solutions that contribute to the big picture. This course was developed for all architects; specifically for those who specify plumbing products. After this course you will: - Understand water supply / demand and how they affect water conservation - Comprehend water conservation benefits to the individual and society as a whole - Know how to specify plumbing products to accomplish water conservation goals - Understand the impact plumbing products have on Green Building
  4. 4. Agenda • Perspective on Water Conservation • Water Supply and Demand • Water Conservation Benefits • Water Efficient Options for Indoor Use • Green Buildings
  5. 5. • Milestones in Water Conservation • Supply Management • Importance of Water Conservation Water conservation is one of the critical issues facing our world today, and will continue to grow in importance. Perspective on Water Conservation
  6. 6. 1860 1912 1960 1980 1992 No Flow Regulations 5.0-gpf* - 3.5-gpf* 1.6-gpf* * gpf = gallons per flush Water Consumption Over Time 1.28-gpf* (HET) 2004 Perspective on Water Conservation
  7. 7. • Water conservation efforts focus on sustainable watershed management • A watershed is an area that is drained by a river or stream • Watersheds often cross political boundaries—we must share responsibility for stewardship New Strategies – Supply Management Perspective on Water Conservation
  8. 8. Water Conservation ―Hot Spots‖ • Seattle • San Francisco Bay • Southern Nevada • Southern California • Arizona • New Mexico • South Texas • Denver area • Boston area • New York City • Washington DC area • Chicago area • Atlanta area • Coastal Carolinas • South Florida • Caribbean islands Perspective on Water Conservation
  9. 9. • Water is a limited resource • To sustain growth we need to use water more efficiently Importance of Water Conservation Perspective on Water Conservation
  10. 10. Perspective on Water Conservation 1. Toilets in the 1960s and 1970s typically used how much water? 2. What is an HET? 3. How many gallons per flush does an HET use? 4. What is a watershed? Review:
  11. 11. • Water Sources • Water Use • Demand Management With limited resources, creative solutions are needed to meet current and future demands. Water Supply and Demand
  12. 12. • Water for human consumption, irrigation, or industry is taken from two types of sources: • Surface Water (79%) – Lakes, rivers, reservoirs, oceans • Ground Water (21%) – Municipal and private wells • Sources vary in water quality, quantity, and sustainability Water Sources Water Supply and Demand
  13. 13. Although plumbing products only use 3.7% of all available water in the US, it uses the most expensive water – potable or treated. Water Supply and Demand US Total Water = 408 bgpd Potable Water = 47 bgpd Indoor Plumbing = 15 bgpd Residential Plumbing = 13.7 bgpd Commercial Plumbing = 1.4 bgpd
  14. 14. Indoor: • Toilets / Urinals • Faucets • Baths / Showers • Clothes Washing • Dishwashing • Cooking • Drinking Water Outdoor/Process: • Landscape Irrigation • Cooling Towers • Vehicle Washing • Textile Washing • Ware Washing Average Residential Indoor Water Use: 69.3 gpcd Average Residential Outdoor Water Use: 25-200 gpcd, depending on region U.S. Potable Water Consumption Water Supply and Demand
  15. 15. • Getting People & Organizations to Use Less Water • Demand Management is Accomplished Two Ways: Demand Management Behavior Modification Physical Changes Water Supply and Demand
  16. 16. • Get consumers to change how they use water Examples: • Water Lawn Less • Shorter Shower • Turn off Water When Brushing Teeth • Collect Water from Cooking to Put on Plants • Wash Full Loads Only – Dish & Clothes Washers Behavior Modification Water Supply and Demand
  17. 17. • WaterSense: EPA’s water-efficient product labeling and public education program • Websites with water-saving ideas • Residential outdoor water conservation programs Behavior Modification - Public Education Efforts Water Supply and Demand
  18. 18. • Making physical changes that don’t require any change in consumer behavior. Examples: • Replace Old Toilet or Urinal with Water Efficient Model • Install Low-Flow Aerator on a Faucet • Repair Leaks • Install Water Efficient Landscaping • Proven long-term water savings • Savings are predictable & measurable Physical Changes Water Supply and Demand
  19. 19. Plumbing Product Replacement Programs • Supported and promoted by local water utilities • Residential and commercial • Cash rebate incentives • Product exchanges • HET rebates Water Supply and Demand
  20. 20. Sources: “Estimated Uses of Water”, USGS, 2004., US Department of Commerce Comparison of GDP - Water Use & Population, 1950-2005 Have These Programs Worked? YES! Water Supply and Demand
  21. 21. Sources: “Estimated Uses of Water”, USGS, 2004., US Department of Commerce Water Supply and Demand 1. What percent of water use in the U.S. is used by plumbing products? Although a small %, why is it still important? 2. What are the two main types of conservation strategies? 3. Replacing plumbing fixtures or installing aerators on faucets are examples of what type of conservation strategy? 4. Have water conservation efforts over the past 20 years in the U.S. worked? Review:
  22. 22. • Benefits • Innovative Responses The benefits of water conservation far outweigh the costs to society of developing new supplies! Water Conservation Benefits
  23. 23. • Saving water is less expensive than finding new supplies • Infrastructure expansions postponed • Less water pumped and treated, reducing energy and chemical costs Benefit: Saves Consumers & Taxpayers Money Water Conservation Benefits
  24. 24. • More than 90% public water utilities expenses - infrastructure • AWWA: $200 billion - $1 trillion in next 20 years on water systems • Energy and material costs continue to rise …And It Will Save Even More In the Future! …because water rates will continue to rise. Water Conservation Benefits
  25. 25. • In most areas, water supplies are fixed or declining (no new water) • Conservation allows water supplies to be used more effectively • Known, stable water availability attracts businesses and new residents Benefit: Economic Growth Water Conservation Benefits
  26. 26. • Stable lake and stream levels provide better habitat for wildlife • Lower wastewater flows: — allow sewage treatment plants to function more efficiently — reduce leaks from septic systems • New dams / reservoirs are not required Benefit: Protects the Environment Water Conservation Benefits
  27. 27. • New water-efficient products • New codes and legislation governing water conservation • Growing non-potable water use Innovative Responses Water Conservation Benefits
  28. 28. • Mandated use of most water efficient plumbing products by cities and states • Green building ordinances • Water offsets for new developments • Required use of reclaimed wastewater, where available. • New water efficient product specifications • Turf area restrictions and incentives for non-irrigated landscapes Codes & Legistation: Accelerating the move toward water efficiency Water Conservation Benefits
  29. 29. Reclaimed Wastewater • Municipal wastewater is further treated, then used again • Not drinking water! - requires separate piping system • Up to 25% of water use in some communities is ―reclaimed‖ • Major uses are: • Irrigation • Groundwater recharge • Cooling towers • Process water • Toilets and urinals Water Conservation Benefits
  30. 30. Rainwater • Reduces water use and storm water runoff • Collection systems must be properly designed • Keep out sunlight! • Major uses are: • Irrigation • Cooling towers • Toilets and urinals Water Conservation Benefits
  31. 31. Water Conservation Benefits 1. How does water conservation help save money over the long run? 2. Name two innovative responses to saving water. 3. Name two water efficient plumbing products. Review:
  32. 32. • Plumbing Products • Greywater There are many options available to conserve water indoors without sacrificing quality of life or performance, style, and quality of products Water Efficient Options for Indoor Water Use
  33. 33. Toilets: 1.28 gpf or less (HETs) Hot water recirculation systems/instant hot water units SMART Irrigation Controllers Cooling Tower ControllersAppliances Non-Water Urinals Water-Efficient Products: Faucets: with 1.5 gpm aerator Showerheads: 2.0 gpm or less Water Efficient Options for Indoor Water Use
  34. 34. • The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) set limits on water consumption of fixtures and faucets sold in the U.S. • Toilets: 1.6 gallons per flush (gpf) • Urinals: 1.0 gpf • Showerheads: 2.5 gallons per minute (gpm) at 80 psi • Faucets: (psi) 2.2 gpm at 60 pounds per square inch • Metering Faucets: 0.25 gallons per cycle, maximum • EPAct went into effect in January, 1994. All fixtures and faucets sold in the U.S. must not use more water that this law specifies. Many products use less. The Current Standard: EPAct Water Efficient Options for Indoor Water Use
  35. 35. Category Product Options WaterSense Qualifications Tank-Type HETs Gravity Single Flush Dual Flush Pressure Assisted Electromechanical Average flush volume ≤ 1.28 gpf MaP score ≥ 350g Urinals Flushing, 0.5 gpf Flushing, 0.13 gpf Flush volume ≤ 0.5 gpf Non-water urinals NOT included Bathroom Faucets All styles Flow rate ≤ 1.5 gpm at 60 psi AND Flow rate ≥ 0.8 gpm at 20 psi New Homes Builder offers homes that meet specification. All WaterSense plumbing (where applicable) Limits on landscape designs Showerheads Single-Function Multi-Function Flow rate ≤ 2.0 gpm Pressure and spray pattern requirements WaterSense Products Not included: Commercial lavatory faucets Kitchen faucets Flushometer toilets
  36. 36. • Single-flush gravity HETs provide 20% water savings with every flush • Dual-flush toilets allow user to select flushing volume • 2 of 3 uses are ―liquid only‖ & require less water • User must select correct button to achieve water savings Dual-flush toiletSingle-flush High Efficiency Toilet (HET) Gravity Toilets Water Efficient Options for Indoor Water Use
  37. 37. Pressure-Assist Toilets • Many models use 1.1 or less gpf • Best flushing performance • Similar aesthetic to gravity toilets • New designs are quiet enough for residential applications Water Efficient Options for Indoor Water Use
  38. 38. • Vitreous china bowl and flushometer valve sold separately • Flushometer uses water pressure to release the proper amount of water quickly • Generally used in commercial applications • 1.28 gpf and dual flush are options Wall-hung bowl Manual flushometer Bowl with automatic flushometer Flushometer Toilets Water Efficient Options for Indoor Water Use
  39. 39. • Men use a urinal approximately 3 times / day • Standard urinals use 1.0 gallon per flush • High Efficiency Urinals (HEUs) use 0.5 gpf or less • 0.125 gpf (pint) urinals are widely available • HEUs provide an easy way to reduce water use Urinals Water Efficient Options for Indoor Water Use
  40. 40. • Some designs do not require cartridges and are extremely economical • When installed and maintained, virtually odor free • Verify code compliance prior to specifying non-water urinals • Can save up to 40,000 gallons of water per fixture per year! Non-Water Urinals Water Efficient Options for Indoor Water Use
  41. 41. • Replacing aerators is a very cost-effective way to save water! • Most commercial and residential faucets are compatible with aerators • Aerators are available for various flows down to 0.5 gpm • Residential lav faucets are covered under EPA’s WaterSense program Faucets Water Efficient Options for Indoor Water Use
  42. 42. • Water savings is not adequately understood • Hygienic benefits have been documented - especially in public facilities • New sensor technology eliminates false actuation • Vandal-resistant Sensor Faucets Water Efficient Options for Indoor Water Use
  43. 43. • An average shower is ~8 minutes • At 2.5 gpm = 20 gallons of water • Many showerheads that use less than 2.5 gpm are on the market • Temperature compensating valves in showers require a minimum flow to work properly Showerheads Water Efficient Options for Indoor Water Use
  44. 44. Potential Concerns From Low-Flow Products Concern Recommendation Fixture or Faucet Performance: Initially and Over Time  Purchase a quality product with quality components that performs well for the end-user New Maintenance Requirements  Proper training of maintenance and janitorial staff Drainline Carry  Carefully choose location of fixtures and faucets relative to each other and main sewer line out of the building Water Efficient Options for Indoor Water Use
  45. 45. Toilets Kitchen Sinks Dishwashers Showers Bathroom Sinks Clothes Washer Baths Greywater = wastewater that has a low bacteria, chemical, or solids loading Blackwater = wastewater that has high bacteria or high organic content Greywater Water Efficient Options for Indoor Water Use
  46. 46. • Relies on gravity • Separate drain lines and storage • Minimal indoor use (toilet flushing) • Codes still in development • Not allowed in all areas Greywater – System Requirements Water Efficient Options for Indoor Water Use
  47. 47. What’s Possible? Units = Gallons per capita per day 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Average Home EPAct 92 Home Water Efficient Home Graywater Home Leaks Dishwasher Clothes Washer Showers Faucets Toilets Water Efficient Options for Indoor Water Use
  48. 48. Water Efficient Options for Indoor Water Use 1. What are some of the high-efficiency toilet flushing technologies currently on the market? 2. What is a “dual-flush” toilet? 3. How much water does a High Efficiency Urinal (HEU) use? 4. How long does an average adult spend in the shower? 5. What is greywater? 6. Does the consumer have to sacrifice quality, style or performance for water efficient plumbing products? Review:
  49. 49. An important driver of water conservation is Green Buildings Green Buildings • Why Build Green? • LEED Basics • LEED Water Efficiency • Estimating Water Savings • LEED for Homes
  50. 50. Why the client should consider ―green‖ buildings? • Reduced operating costs • Improved employee productivity • Renewed emphasis on environmental issues: - climate change - chemical exposure - solid waste disposal - water supplies • Tax and other incentives • Positive publicity • Client expectations Green Buildings
  51. 51. Green Buildings What Are The Standards? Who Sets The Standards?
  52. 52. • What is LEED? – LEED = Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design – Design standards created to define ―green‖ buildings. • LEED-New Construction (NC) Categories – Sustainable Sites 26 points – Energy & Atmosphere 35 points – Materials & Resources 14 points – Indoor Environmental Quality 15 points – Water Efficiency 10 points – Innovation in Design 6 points – Regional Priority 4 points Certified: 40-49 points Silver: 50-59 points Gold: 60-79 points Platinum: 80+ points LEED Basics Green Buildings
  53. 53. LEED-NC Credit Description Prerequisite 1 Water use reduction—reduce indoor water consumption by 20% vs. standard (required) WE 1.1 Reduce potable water requirement for landscaping by 50% (2 points) WE 1.2 No potable water used for irrigation, or no irrigation required (2 points) WE 2 Innovative wastewater technologies—reduce wastewater by 50% compared to baseline (2 points) WE 3.1 Water use reduction—reduce indoor water consumption by 30% vs. standard (2 points) WE 3.2 Water use reduction—reduce indoor water consumption by 35% vs. standard (3 points) WE 3.3 Water use reduction—reduce indoor water consumption by 40% vs. standard (4 points) LEED-NC 2009 Water Efficiency
  54. 54. • Water Efficiency Credits 3.1 - 3.3 apply to: • Toilets • Showers • Urinals • Lavatory Faucets • Kitchen Faucets • Outdoor use, such as irrigation and cooling towers, are not included in these calculations LEED-NC Water Efficiency Green Buildings
  55. 55. To obtain Water Efficiency Credits 3.1 - 3.3: • Need signed LEED Water Efficiency Template • Spreadsheet showing 30% - 40% reduction of water use compared to baseline • Submit as part of project portfolio LEED-NC Water Efficiency Credits Green Buildings
  56. 56. LEED Water Efficiency Calculation • Projected water use for building is compared to EPAct baseline • Products not LEED certified, buildings are • Total water use projected; not all fixtures or faucets need to be water conserving • Water use calculators simplify the process Green Buildings
  57. 57. 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 Gallons per day Baseline - 1.6 gpf HET- 1.1 gpf Dual Flush - 1.6 / 0.8 gpf • Building with 100 men and 100 women • Use restroom 4 times per day • 75% of uses are ―liquid only‖ Results: • HET – 31% Reduction – Qualifies for 2 LEED-NC points* • Dual Flush – 38% Reduction – Qualifies for 3 LEED-NC points* Toilet Example *Assuming no other water-consuming fixtures or faucets are present. Green Buildings
  58. 58. LEED-H Water Efficiency (WE): at least (3) points are required – Water Reuse 5 points – Irrigation System 4 points – Indoor Water 6 points total: • All Faucets ≤ 2.0 gpm 1 point • All Showerheads ≤ 2.0 gpm 1 point • All Toilets ≤ 1.3 gpf 1 point • All Faucets ≤ 1.5 gpm 2 points • All Showerheads ≤ 1.75 gpm 2 points • All Toilets ≤ 1.1 gpf 2 points Certified: 45 points Silver: 60 points Gold: 75 points Platinum: 90 points NAHB’s National Green Building Standard, along with local green home programs use similar point-based systems. LEED for Homes (LEED-H)
  59. 59. Green Buildings 1. What is LEED? 2. LEED-NC Water Efficiency credits require what percent reduction of indoor water use? 3. A building design that incorporates water-efficient plumbing products and reduces its water use by 35% compared to LEED’s baseline is eligible for how many LEED points? 4. To obtain the LEED-NC WE 3.1 credit, do all fixtures & faucets in the building have to use at least 30% less water than LEED’s baseline values? Review:
  60. 60. CONCLUSION • Water conservation is a growing issue • Saving potable water saves energy, chemicals & money • The need for innovations is increasing • New water-efficient plumbing products need to be part of an overall water conservation strategy • Many of these products can be specified into green building projects • Customers do not need to sacrifice style, quality, or performance to achieve water conservation goals
  61. 61. QUESTIONS? This concludes The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems Program. Thank you for your time!
  62. 62. COPYRIGHT MATERIALS This presentation is protected by US and International copyright laws. Reproduction, distribution, display and use of the presentation without written permission of the speaker is prohibited. Kohler Co. 2007.
  63. 63. Resources Organization Website Kohler Co. www.kohler.com/savewater WaterSense www.epa.gov/watersense Alliance for Water Efficiency www.a4we.org H2Ouse www.h2ouse.org NAHB www.toolbase.org Alliance for Sustainable Built Environments www.greenerfacilities.org
  64. 64. U.S. Water Use: United States 408 bgpd 33.5 % Irrigation 48 % Thermoelectric 5 % Industrial 11.5 % Potable Water 1 % Aquaculture 1 % Mining & Livestock 47 bgpd! Source: Estimated Uses of Water, USGS, 2004 (year 2000 data) Resources
  65. 65. Source EPA, 1990 data U.S. Water Use: Potable Water 47 bgpd 56.7% Residential 15.3% Commercial 27 bgpd 7 bgpd 14 % Public Use / Loss 13.5 % Industrial .5 % Other United States 408 bgpd 11.5% Potable Water Resources
  66. 66. Source: EPA, 1992 U.S. Water Use: 68% Residential Indoor Use Indoor Use 21 bgpd 39% Commercial Indoor Use 18 bgpd 3 bgpd Potable Water 47 bgpd United States 408 bgpd 56.7% Residential (27 bgpd) 15.3% Commercial (7 bgpd) 11.5% Potable Water Resources
  67. 67. Sources: Mayer, et al. Residential End Uses of Water, AWWARF, 1999 & Massachusetts Water Resources Authority ICI Water Management Program Dishwasher-1.4% Other-2.3% Washer-21.7% Baths-1.7% Leaks-13.7% Faucets-15.7% Showers-16.8% Toilets-26.7% Other-5% Kitchen-14% Cooling Towers- 34% Faucets-6% Toilets / Urinals-41% 68% Residential Indoor Use Indoor Use 21 bgpd 39% Commercial Indoor Use Potable Water 47 bgpd United States 408 bgpd 56.7% Residential (27 bgpd) 15.3% Commercial (7 bgpd) 11.5% Potable Water U.S. Water Use: Resources
  68. 68. U.S. Water Use: Indoor Plumbing 15 bgpd 74.6% Residential Indoor Plumbing (13.7 bgpd) 47% Commercial Indoor Plumbing (1.4 bgpd) 68% Residential Indoor Use Indoor Use 21 bgpd 39% Commercial Indoor Use Potable Water 47 bgpd United States 408 bgpd 56.7% Residential (27 bgpd) 15.3% Commercial (7 bgpd) 11.5% Potable Water Resources
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