INTRODUCTION MAIN FEATURES OF THE STAGE IRON EXAMPLES STEEL FEATURES EXAMPLES PROBLEMS REALISM SCULPTURE PAINTING
INTRODUCTIONAt the beginning of the19th century, the newnecessities of industryand cities lead to newsolutions in architectureand construction. Thiswas the century of theexpansion of theIndustrial Revolution inOccidental Europeand the USA. Factories in the Industrial Revolution
MAIN FEATURES OF THE STAGE The new ways of production were chain and mass production. The new materials introduced were iron, steel, concrete, glass… They abandoned historicism and gave rise to a new current, reflecting the daily reality and the touchable truth. Mass production Glass structures
IRONThe Industrial Revolution, started in 1760, gave rise toseveral innovative compositions despite a lot of critics. The Iron Bridge (Thomas Farnolls Pritchard)
The first building entirelyconstructed with iron andglass was the ChrystalPalace (1850-1850) inLondon. It was made tocelebrate the GreatExhibition in 1851. Thisbuilding was the precursorof this kind of architectureand the perfect exampleof a beautiful iron building. Chrystal Palace (Joseph Paxton)
Very criticized by theartists because of its ironugliness but nowadays it’sthe most visitedmonument in the world(6.893.000 visitors in 2007). Eiffel Tower (Alexandre Gustave Eiffel)
STEELGolden Gate Bridge (J. B. Strauss, I. F. Morrow, O. H. Ammann, C. Derleth Jr., L. S. Moisseiff, R. G. Cone)
This architectonic revolution was based specially on a newmaterial, steel. The use of steel started at the beginning of the 20th century. Its qualities allowed a faster and cheaper construction (the pieces were already done and workers only had to assemble them). It managed to eliminate the inner support, achieving clear architecture and wider inner spaces. There weren’t any intermediate columns.New York was one of the first cities in Iron workers using steel for buildings.
Home Insurance Building(William Le Baron Jenney)
In spite these advantages, the new architecturehad a lot of problems. The main of them was thelack of beauty. Buildings were less artistic thanbefore, because engineers started replacingarchitects. BEFORE AFTERLomonosov Bridge, The Bridge of Peter the Great,Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg
In the 2nd half of the 19th century there was areaction against Romanticism. Artists wanted toreflect and describe reality, instead of lookingfor beauty. This was caused because of thefailure of some political revolutions, theconsequences of industrialization, advances inscience, etc. Realistic painting (A burial at Ornans)Romantic painting (Death ofSardanapalus)
Realism was reflected in sculpture in a more detailed way of sculpting and showing ordinary themes. Some examples are: Jean Baptiste Carpeaux and Mariano Benlliure in Spain (Monuments toConstantin Meunier (The Forger) Isabella the Catholic, Alphonse XII and Augustine of Aragon)
In painting, the themes were the main difference with respect toRomanticism; ordinary life, problems derived fromindustrialization and disillusion for the failure of liberal revolutions.The main representativepainter was GustaveCourbet. He was alsoknown because hispolemic paintings. Hispainting The Artist’sStudio, was therepresentation of this styleand it caused a hugescandal on artisticpeople, because of itscrude realism.
Analysis:Title: The Artist’s studioAuthor: Gustave CourbetChronology: 1855Material used: Oil on canvasCommissioner: Alfred BruyasPresent location: Musée d’Orsay, ParisDescription: On the left are human figures from all levels of society. In thecenter, Courbet works on a landscape, while turned away from a nudemodel. On the right there are Courbets friends and associates ofCourbet including writers and collectors.Meaning: The figures in the painting are allegorical representations ofvarious influences on Courbets artistic life and the nude model is asymbol of academic art tradition.
Realism arrived later in Spain. Some Spanishrealistic paintings were from:
Cristina Blanco, Paqui Pérez. 2011. Social SciencesHistory Book 4th ESO. Campo de Criptana.Wikipedia on the Internet. 2012. Wikimedia Fundation. Jan.2012 < http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arquitectura_en_hierro>ArtEEspañA on the Internet. 2003. Arteguias de la Garma S.L . Ju.2005 < http://www.arteespana.com/arquitecturadelhierro.htm>Wikipedia on the Internet. 2012. Wikimedia Fundation. Apr.2012 < http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torre_Eiffel>Wikipedia on the Internet. 2012. Wikimedia Fundation. Sep.2011 <http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Home_Insurance_Building>Wikipedia on the Internet. 2012. Wikimedia Fundation. Dec.2011 <http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/El_taller_del_pintor>