Winter Driving Safety
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Presentaion demonstrating winter driving techniques and safety points

Presentaion demonstrating winter driving techniques and safety points

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  • INTRODUCTION: GOOD MORNING/AFTERNOON. MY NAME IS __________________ AND MY ASSISTANT IS ______________. WELCOME TO THE USAREUR (FWD) WINTER DRIVING CLASS. FOR THE NEXT ___________ YOU WILL BE FAMILIARIZED WITH THE ASPECTS OF DRIVING UNDER SEVERE WINTER WEATHER CONDITIONS IN HUNGARY, CROATIA, AND BOSNIA.

Winter Driving Safety Presentation Transcript

  • 1. WINTER DRIVING
    • Adverse Weather Conditions
    • Prevention of Cold weather Injuries
    • Preventive Maintenance
    • Driving Techniques
  • 2. ADVERSE WEATHER CONDITIONS
    • FREEZING RAIN
    • BLACK ICE
    • FOG
    • SNOW
  • 3. OPERATING ON SNOW AND ICE
    • START DRIVING IN SECOND OR THIRD GEAR RATHER THAN FIRST OR LOW, AND ACCELERATE NO MORE THAN NECESSARY TO KEEP FROM STALLING.
    * AVOID QUICK ACCELERATION ON SLICK ROADS. IT WILL CAUSE YOU TO SKID.
  • 4. FRESH SNOW MAY CONCEAL AN ICY ROAD SURFACE.
  • 5. ADVERSE WEATHER CONDITIONS ... RAINS
    • DRIZZLE OR LIGHT RAINS - EXPECT:
    • FREEZING RAINS - EXPECT:
    • VISIBILITY RESTRICTION
    • SLIPPERY SURFACES
    • REDUCED TRACTION
    • INCREASED STOPPING DISTANCES
    • HIGH PROBABILITY OF SKIDS
    • HEAVY RAINS OR DOWNPOURS - EXPECT:
    • POOR VISIBILITY
    • REDUCED TRACTION
    • INCREASED STOPPING DISTANCE
    • LOSS OF DIRECTIONAL CONTROL
    • SLIPPERY SURFACES
    • POOR VISIBILITY
    • LITTLE TO NO TRACTION
    • LITTLE TO NO BRAKING ACTION
    • REDUCED DIRECTIONAL CONTROL
    • HIGH POSSIBILITY OF SKIDS
    • 4-104
    • TC 21-305
  • 6.
    • ICE IS WATER SUBSTANCE IN A SOLID FORM - EXPECT:
    • SNOW IS PRECIPITATION IN THE FORM OF SMALL ICE CRYSTALS - EXPECT:
    • FROST IS A COVERING OF MINUTE ICE CRYSTALS ON A COLD SURFACE - EXPECT:
    ADVERSE WEATHER CONDITIONS ... ICE ...
    • REDUCED TRACTION
    • INCREASED BRAKING DISTANCE
    • POOR DIRECTIONAL CONTROL
    • POSSIBILITY OF SKIDS
    • SLIPPERY SURFACES
    • REDUCED TRACTION
    • POOR VISIBILITY - WINDSHIELD
    • INCREASED BRAKING DISTANCE
    • REDUCED DIRECTIONAL CONTROL
    • REDUCED VISIBILITY
    • REDUCED TRACTION
    • REDUCED DIRECTIONAL CONTROL
    • INCREASED BRAKING DISTANCES
    • 4-105
    • TC 21-305
  • 7. ADVERSE WEATHER CONDITIONS ... ICE ...
    • HAIL IS PRECIPITATION IN THE FORM OF SMALL BALLS OR LUMPS CONSISTING
    • OF CLEAR ICE OR COMPACT SNOW - EXPECT:
    • WINDSHIELD ICING MAY OCCUR ANYTIME THE TEMPERATURE IS LOW ENOUGH
    • AND THERE IS MOISTURE PRESENT - EXPECT REDUCED OR NO FORWARD
    • VISIBILITY THROUGH THE WINDSHIELD
    • POSSIBLE SURFACE DAMAGE TO THE VEHICLE
    • POSSIBILITY OF BROKEN WINDOWS
    • SLEET IS FROZEN OR PARTLY FROZEN RAIN - EXPECT:
    • SLIPPERY SURFACES
    • POOR TRACTION
    • INCREASED BRAKING DISTANCE
    • REDUCED DIRECTIONAL CONTROL
    • LITTLE TO NO TRACTION
    • LITTLE TO NO BRAKING CAPABILITY
    • EXTREMELY POOR DIRECTIONAL CONTROL
    • HIGH POSSIBILITY OF SKIDS
    • BLACK ICE IS A THIN SHEET OF ICE, DARK IN APPEARANCE - EXPECT:
    • 4-106
    • TC 21-305
  • 8.
    • GLAZE (CLEAR) ICE IS A DEPOSIT OF ICE FORMED BY FREEZING OF RAINDROPS
    • ON SURFACES THAT ARE AT OR BELOW FREEZING (32 DEGREES F) - EXPECT:
    ADVERSE WEATHER CONDITIONS ... ICE
    • FROST HEAVING IS THE UNEVEN LIFTING AND DISTORTION OF THE GROUND
    • CLOSE TO THE SURFACE - EXPECT UNEVEN DRIVING SURFACES
    • LITTLE TO NO TRACTION
    • LITTLE TO NO BRAKING CAPABILITY
    • EXTREMELY POOR DIRECTIONAL CONTROL
    • HIGH POSSIBILITY OF SKIDS
    WHEN FOG ON MOUNTAIN BE ALERT AND DRIVE SLOWLY TURN LIGHTS ON MORE... 4-107 TC 21-305
  • 9. BLACK ICE DANGEROUS BECAUSE YOU CAN’T SEE IT! COMMON AREAS YOU FIND IT 1. Bridges/Overpasses 2. Shaded areas
  • 10. BLACK ICE REACTION DO NOT PANIC! MAKE NO SUDDEN CHANGES IN SPEED OR DIRECTION! EASE OFF ACCELERATOR! STEER IN DIRECTION THAT THE REAR OF THE VEHICLE IS SKIDDING!
  • 11. FOG WHEN DRIVING IN FOG, USE LOW-BEAM HEADLIGHTS STOP, OFF THE ROADWAY, AND WAIT FOG
  • 12. COLD INJURY PREVENTION
  • 13. TYPES OF COLD WEATHER INJURIES
    • Chilblains
    • Immersion Foot
    • Trench Foot
    • Frost Bite
    • Hypothermia
    • Snow Blindness
    • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
    • Dehydration
    • Heat Exhaustion
  • 14. SUSCEPTIBILITY FACTORS
    • 1. Previous Cold Weather Injury
    • 2. Fatigue
    • 3. Race and Geographic Origin
    • 4. Nutrition: 3000 to 4000 calories
    • 5. Overactive or Immobile
  • 15. SUSCEPTIBILITY FACTORS Cont.
    • 6. Alcohol, Drugs, or Tobacco
    • 7. Exposed Situation: Guard Duty, Sleeping Areas, Vehicles
    • 8. Wind Velocity
    • 9. Temperature of Exposure
    • 10. Duration of Exposure
  • 16. USE OF ACRONYM C.O.L.D.
    • a. C = keep it clean
    • b. O = avoid overheating
    • c. L = wear it in loose layers.
    • d. D = keep it dry.
  • 17. CHILBLAINS Inflammatory swelling or sore, usually below 50 degrees F with high humidity.
  • 18. CHILBLAINS 1. Symptoms
    • Pale and colorless
    • Upon re-warming, red in color
    • Hot, tender, and itchy
    • Skin may blister
  • 19. CHILBLAINS 2. First Aid
    • Mild Case: Warm and dry gently
    • Severe Case: Dry sterile dressing and protect from further exposure
  • 20. CHILBLAIN 3. Prevention
    • Protect exposed areas with adequate clothing
    • Use the “Buddy System”
  • 21. TRENCH/IMMERSION FOOT Results from prolonged exposure of skin to cold or wet conditions, usually at 50 degrees F or colder
  • 22. TRENCH/IMMERSION FOOT 1. Symptoms
    • Cold toes and feet
    • Swollen
    • Discolored
    • Waxy and numb
    • Blisters may develop
  • 23. TRENCH/IMMERSION FOOT 2. First Aid
    • Dry feet carefully
    • Apply foot powder
    • Clean and wrap loosely
    • Do Not break blisters
    • Evacuate to nearest medical facility
  • 24. TRENCH/IMMERSION FOOT 3. Prevention
    • Keep feet dry
    • Avoid tight boots
    • Exercise feet and legs
    • Wear proper clothing
  • 25. FROSTBITE Freezing of tissue or moisture in the skin due to exposure to temperatures below 32 degrees F
  • 26. FROSTBITE 1. Symptoms
    • Loss of sensation or numb feeling
    • Sudden blanching of the skin, followed by tingling feeling
    • Redness of skin in light-skinned people Grayish color in dark-skinned people
  • 27. FROSTBITE Symptoms cont.
    • Blisters may develop: 24-36 hours (superficial) 12-30 (deep)
    • Swelling or tender areas
    • Loss of previous sensation of pain in affected areas
    • Pale, yellowish, waxy looking skin
    • Frozen tissue, solid to the touch
  • 28. FROSTBITE 2. First Aid
    • Protect injury from further cold
    • Move casualty to warm area
    • Warm affected area evenly with body heat
    • Improve circulation by exercise
    • Remove constricting clothing and jewelry
    • Reassure the casualty
  • 29. FROSTBITE First Aid cont.
    • Do Not rub the affected area with snow
    • Do Not re-warm the affected area by massaging or exposing to open flame
    • Do Not allow the casualty to walk if feet are frozen
    • Do Not attempt to thaw seriously frozen areas
  • 30. FROSTBITE 3. Prevention
    • Eat properly and often
    • Wear clothing properly
    • Avoid direct skin exposure
    • Do Not stay inactive for long periods
    • Use the “buddy system” to check exposed areas
  • 31. HYPOTHERMIA Medical term for lowered core body temperature, caused by exposure to cold. Aggravated by wet conditions.
  • 32. HYPOTHERMIA 1. Symptoms
    • Pale skin
    • Dizziness
    • Drowsiness
    • Disoriented
    • Slurred speech
    • Stumbling
    • Mind dimmed
  • 33. HYPOTHERMIA Symptoms cont.
    • Body slows down
    • Exercise tires you quicker
    • Casualty stops shivering
    • Person wants to lay down and sleep
    • Pulse is faint or undetectable
    • Unconsciousness
    • DEATH
  • 34. HYPOTHERMIA 2. First Aid
    • Re-warm body evenly and without delay
    • Keep dry and protect from elements
    • Give food and warm liquids to produce body heat
    • Do not massage casualty
    • Do not give casualty alcohol
  • 35. HYPOTHERMIA First Aid (Severe)
    • Evacuate immediately
    • Avoid further heat loss
    • Handle gently
    • Stabilize temperature
  • 36. HYPOTHERMIA 3. Prevention
    • Eat properly and often
    • Dress in layers
    • Drink plenty of water
    • Stay physically fit
    • Keep active
    • Stay dry
  • 37. SNOW BLINDNESS Inflammation and sensitivity caused by exposure of the eyes to ultraviolet light rays reflected by the snow or ice
  • 38. SNOW BLINDNESS 1. Symptoms
    • Feeling of grit or sand in eyes
    • Pain in and over the eyes
    • Watering and redness of the eyes
    • Headache
  • 39. SNOW BLINDNESS 2. First Aid
    • Instruct casualty not to move his/her eyes
    • Protect eyes with bandages or sunglasses
    • Seek medical attention
  • 40. SNOW BLINDNESS 3. Prevention
    • Wear sunglasses
    • Use improvised sunglasses
    • Don’t wait until discomfort begins to wear sunglasses
  • 41. CARBON MONOXIDE Colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. Created by incomplete combustion.
  • 42. CARBON MONOXIDE 1. Symptoms
    • Headache, nausea, dimmed vision, dizziness, and chest pain
    • Symptoms may or may not give warning prior to collapse
    • Skin turns cherry red
  • 43. CARBON MONOXIDE 2. First Aid
    • Move casualty to fresh air
    • Artificial respiration if necessary
    • Keep warm and allow the casualty to rest
  • 44. CARBON MONOXIDE 3. Prevention
    • Assure proper ventilation
    • Don’t use unvented engines or equipment
  • 45. Clothing Cold-Weather System Principles
    • INSULATE
    • LAYER
    • VENTILATE
  • 46. Clothing Extended Cold-Weather Clothing System
    • First Layer-Polypropylene undershirt and shorts
    • Second Layer-Synthetic Fiber Pile shirt and polyester trouser liners
    • Third Light jacket and over-trousers
  • 47. Clothing Cont.
    • Fourth Layer-Windproof, waterproof parka and trousers
  • 48. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE ENSURE WINTERIZATION OF ALL VEHICLES DO BEFORE, DURING, AND AFTER OPERATION MAINTENANCE IAW APPLICABLE TM DO DRAIN ALL AIR TANKS AT THE END OF DAY KEEP ALL FUEL TANKS FULL TO KEEP MOISTURE FROM CONDENSING INSIDE FUEL LINES AND TANKS
  • 49.
    • TIRES
    • COOLING SYSTEM
    • BATTERIES
    • EXHAUST SYSTEM
    • WIPERS
    • LIGHTS
    • FLUID LEVELS
    • HEATERS/DEFROSTERS
    • PERSONAL GEAR
    PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
  • 50. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
    • PROPER MAINTENANCE HABITS ARE EVEN MORE CRITICAL IN COLD WEATHER.
    • ANTIFREEZE/COOLANT SHOULD BE CHECKED AT REGULAR INTERVALS, OR , AT LEAST TWICE PER YEAR. ( SPRING/FALL)
    • ENSURE WINDSHIELD WASHER AND, IF APPLICABLE, ALCOHOL BOTTLES ARE REPLENISHED.
  • 51. MORE PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
    • ON BRIEF HALTS DURING EXTREMELY COLD WEATHER, LET THE ENGINE RUN AT A FAST IDLE SO THAT THE AMMETER SHOWS A CHARGE.
    WHY! * BURNS FUEL BETTER * MAINTAINS EVEN ENGINE TEMPERATURE
  • 52. MORE PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
    • WHEN PERFORMING MAINTENANCE, DO NOT TOUCH METAL WITH YOUR BARE HANDS.
    • WHEN CLIMBING ON VEHICLES, USE EXTREME CAUTION. REMEMBER, THREE POINTS OF CONTACT.
  • 53.
    • Cold Hard Facts
    • Adjust to Conditions
    • Hills and Grades
    • Following Distance
    • Steering
    • Skids
  • 54. DEFENSIVE DRIVING TECHNIQUES
    • COMMUNICATION
    • MANAGE SPEED
    • SITUATIONAL AWARENESS
    • DRIVING SPACE
  • 55. COMMUNICATION ... LET OTHERS KNOW WHERE YOU ARE LET OTHERS KNOW WHAT YOU PLAN TO DO
    • USE HEADLIGHTS, BRAKE LIGHTS, AND TURN SIGNALS
    • USE HORN
    • POSITION YOUR VEHICLE SO IT CAN BE SEEN
    • USE EMERGENCY SIGNALS
    • USE EMERGENCY HAZARD SIGNALS (4-WAYS)
    • SIGNAL CHANGE OF DIRECTION
    • SIGNAL WHEN SLOWING/STOPPING
    • FLARES
    • WARNING TRIANGLES
  • 56. COMMUNICATION ... USING HEADLIGHTS
    • ON RAINY, SNOWY, OR FOGGY DAYS
    • GRAY DAYS
    • WHEN USING WINDSHIELD WIPERS
    • PRIOR TO DARKNESS
    • TO COMMUNICATE A HAZARD
    • WHENEVER IT IS DIFFICULT TO SEE
    • WHEN MOVING AND LIGHTS ARE NECESSARY
    • TO GET ATTENTION
    4-47 TC 21-305
  • 57. COMMUNICATION ... USING HORN
    • TO GIVE WARNING ONLY
    • A LIGHT TAP IF NO IMMEDIATE DANGER WHEN:
    • SOMEONE IS WALKING CLOSE TO ROAD OR ON A BIKE
    • PASSING (AS A WARNING)
    • USE SHARP BLAST WHEN REAL DANGER
    • EXISTS, SUCH AS:
    • CHILD RUNNING INTO STREET
    • IN DANGER OF BEING HIT
    • APPROACHING INATTENTIVE DRIVER
    • HAVING TROUBLE SEEING AHEAD
    • LOST CONTROL OF VEHICLE
  • 58. COMMUNICATION ... KEEP YOUR VEHICLE WHERE IT CAN BE SEEN
    • AVOID DRIVING IN VEHICLE "BLIND SPOTS"
    • GET THROUGH BLIND SPOTS QUICKLY
  • 59. COMMUNICATION ... USING EMERGENCY SIGNALS
    • EMERGENCY STOPS
    • OFF THE ROAD, OUT OF TRAFFIC
    • TURN ON 4-WAYS
    • LIFT THE HOOD & TIE WHITE CLOTH TO DOOR HANDLE
    • IF NO WARNING DEVICES, GIVE HAND WARNING
    • ALSO USE 4-WAY FLASHERS WHEN:
    • UNLOADING
    • IF IN TRAFFIC, STOP WHERE YOU CAN BE SEEN
    • GIVE WARNING (FLARES AND/OR WARNING TRIANGLES)
    • AT ACCIDENT SCENE
    • DRIVING SLOW
    • DO NOT DO MAINTENANCE IN TRAFFIC
  • 60. COMMUNICATION ... SIGNAL WHEN CHANGING DIRECTION
    • USE TURN SIGNALS BEFORE:
    • CHANGING LANES
    • PASSING
    • TURNING AT AN INTERSECTION
    • PULLING OVER TO THE SIDE OF THE ROAD
    • APPROACHING A PARALLEL PARKING PLACE
    • RULES FOR SIGNALING DIRECTION CHANGES
    • ENTERING/LEAVING A FREEWAY
    • PULLING AWAY FROM A CURB
    • SIGNAL AS A HABIT
    • SIGNAL EARLY
    • MERGING INTO TRAFFIC
    • SIGNAL AFTER INTERSECTION, PRIOR TO TURN
    • ENSURE SIGNAL IS OFF AFTER TURNING
  • 61. COMMUNICATION ... SIGNAL WHEN SLOWING OR STOPPING
    • LIGHTLY TAP BRAKE PEDAL - TO FLASH BRAKE LIGHTS - TO
    • STOPPING AT A PLACE THAT IS UNEXPECTED
    • SLOWING BECAUSE OF NO DECELERATION LANE
    • TURNING INTO A DRIVEWAY (PRIOR TO INTERSECTION)
    • AVOID SOMETHING IN THE ROAD AHEAD
    INDICATE:
  • 62. MANAGE SPEED WHAT IS SPEEDING? SPEEDING IS:
    • EXCEEDING THE LEGAL OR POSTED SPEED LIMIT
    • DRIVING TOO FAST FOR CONDITIONS
    YOU SLOW DOWN
  • 63. MANAGE SPEED ... CONDITIONS AFFECTING SAFE SPEED
    • TRACTION:
    • MEANS TIRE'S GRIP ON THE ROAD
    • DECREASED TRACTION = INCREASED STOPPING DISTANCE
    • STOP WITHIN SEEING DISTANCE
    • VISIBILITY:
    • ADJUST SPEED TO VISIBILITY CONDITIONS
    • TRAFFIC CONDITIONS:
    • MAINTAIN SAFE SPACE CUSHION
    • ADJUST SPEED TO VOLUME AND FLOW
    • ROAD CHARACTERISTICS
    • SHAPE AFFECTS TRACTION AND VISIBILITY
    • ADJUST SPEED FOR CURVES AND HILLS
    • ADJUST SPEED FOR DECREASED TRACTION
  • 64. MANAGE SPEED ... SPEED AND STOPPING DISTANCE
    • PERCEPTION DISTANCE
    • ABOUT 3/4 SECOND
    • AT 55 MPH = 60 FEET
    • AT 55 MPH = ADDED 60 FEET
    • ABOUT 3/4 SECOND
    • BRAKING DISTANCE
    • AT 55 MPH - ABOUT 4 1/2 SECONDS
    • OR ABOUT 150 FEET AT 55 MPH
    • = TOTAL STOPPING DISTANCE
    • AT 55 MPH = ABOUT 6 SECONDS
    • = ABOUT 270 FEET (300 FEET = FOOTBALL FIELD)
    • REACTION DISTANCE
  • 65. MANAGE SPEED ... EFFECT OF SPEED ON STOPPING DISTANCE
    • DOUBLE SPEED = FOUR TIMES STOPPING DISTANCE
    • SLOW DOWN = REDUCED BRAKING DISTANCE
    • CONDITIONS = SLOW DOWN
    • STOP WITHIN DISTANCE YOU CAN SEE
    • AT NIGHT - LOW BEAMS = SLOW DOWN
    SPEED AND TRAFFIC FLOW
    • SAFE SPEED = SPEED OF TRAFFIC
    • SAFE FOLLOWING DISTANCE
    • FASTER SPEEDS = CRASH OR FATIGUE
    • SAFEST IS LEGAL SPEED OF OTHER VEHICLES
    SPEED AND DISTANCE AHEAD
  • 66. MANAGE SPEED ... MATCHING SPEED TO THE ROAD SURFACE...
    • TRACTION = STEERING AND BRAKING
    • TRACTION = FRICTION
    • REDUCED TRACTION = LOWER SPEEDS:
    • WET ROADS - REDUCE SPEED BY ONE THIRD
    • WET ROADS = DOUBLE STOPPING DISTANCE
    • PACKED SNOW - REDUCE SPEED BY HALF OR MORE
    • ICE - STOP ASAP
    • SLIPPERY ROADS = TURNING/STOPPING
  • 67. MANAGE SPEED ...MATCHING SPEED TO ROAD SURFACE
    • SLIPPERY ROADS
    • SHADY AREAS
    • BRIDGES
    • VEHICLE ICING
    • BLACK ICE
    • RAINS
    • HYDROPLANING
    • MELTING ICE
  • 68. MANAGE SPEED ... SPEED AND CURVES
    • ADJUST SPEED
    • TAKING A CURVE TOO FAST =
    • WHEELS LOSE TRACTION - STRAIGHT AHEAD
    • BRAKING = SKID
    • SLOW DOWN BEFORE CURVE
    • EXIT RAMPS ARE CURVED
    • SLOW TO RIGHT SPEED
    • BE READY TO STOP AT BOTTOM OF EXIT
    • WHEELS KEEP TRACTION - ROLL OVER
  • 69. FOLLOWING DISTANCE THREE TO ELEVEN TIMES MORE DISTANCE IS REQUIRED TO STOP A VEHICLE ON PAVEMENT COVERED WITH ICE OR SNOW. 100 100 5OO METERS IDEAL ROAD CONDITIONS POOR ROAD CONDITION
  • 70. 6 SECONDS 4 SECONDS T T T T 37 37 37 37 T 66-10 AM GENERAL T T T T 37 37 37 37 T 66-10 AM GENERAL
  • 71. HILLS AND GRADES When approaching a hill or upgrade / downgrade remember to do the following: 1. Select the proper gear before approaching, usually a lower gear. 2. Use the same gear going down that you used going up. This will allow the engine to act as a brake, so you will not have to use your brake excessively. * On steep or very slippery grades, use at least one gear lower, and go slower *
  • 72. SKIDS Result from unexpected forces: 1. Black Ice 2. Driving to fast for conditions 3. Sudden steering corrections or braking 4. Sudden accelerations
  • 73. SKIDS CONTINUED If your vehicle begins to skids, take the following actions: 1. Front end skids - Release the brake and let the front wheels roll freely to regain traction and steering control. 2. Rear end skids - Take foot off of accelerator and turn wheels in the direction that the rear of the vehicle is skidding, and pump brakes lightly.
  • 74. Brake before the turn, not in the turn accelerate smoothly and slowly. Decelerate slowly, and ease up on the brakes. Make smooth gear shifts and clutch engagements. Steer in the opposite direction the trailer is skidding, while pumping the brakes lightly. VEHICLE JACKKNIFE PREVENTION 15 DEG.
  • 75. VEHICLE JACKKNIFE A JACKKNIFE OCCURS WHEN THE ANGLE BETWEEN THE TRACTOR AND TRAILER GETS TO A POINT WHERE IT CANT’T BE STRAIGHTENED OUT BY THE DRIVER. 15 DEG.
  • 76. RISK ASSESSMENT
    • EXPERIENCE
      • LIVING ENVIRONMENT
      • YEARS AND MILES DRIVEN
      • SITUATIONS
    • ROAD CONDITIONS
      • RED
      • AMBER
      • GREEN
    OH DARN! I SHOULD HAVE DONE A RISK ASSESSMENT !
  • 77. WINTER BAG
    • Minimum Requirements
    1. Wet Weather Gear 2. Over Shoes 3. Blanket 4. Wet Weather Bag 5.Field/Gortex Jacket 6. Gloves with Inserts
  • 78. CHAINS CHAINS GIVE A GOOD BITE IN SNOW OR MUD BUT TEND TO SLIDE AND SLIP ON ICE AND PACKED SNOW. oh no! He should have went to the chain class!
  • 79. CHAINS Before execution of the mission, the following checks should be made: 1. Ensure vehicle is equipped with snow chains. 2. Snow chains are serviceable, and in good condition. 3. Leadership will ensure the driver has a working knowledge of how to properly apply snow chains
  • 80. ENSURE MILITARY AND PRIVATELY OWENED VEHICLES HAVE BEEN PREPARED FOR THE WINTER MONTHS AHEAD…
    • BATTERIES
    • ANTIFREEZE
    • CRACKED WINDSHIELDS
    • EXHAUST SYSTEM
    • HEATER / DEFROSTER
    PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
  • 81. Winter Driving Hazards Windows cleared 360 Adjust speed for road conditions Bridges freeze before roadways Proper tires all weather / mud & snow Know your abilities
  • 82. WINTER DRIVING HAZARDS Ice, frost, and snow on bridges and overpasses Poorly marked state and county highways Drifting snow Poor visibility Carbon monoxide Poor traction High water at river crossings Slippery roads caused by wet leaves
  • 83. VEHICLE OCCUPANT SAFETY Seat belts properly worn by all passengers. Use of approved child safety seats. Infants not seated in front seats of vehicles with Passenger air bags.
  • 84. POV WINTER DRIVING CHECKLIST Winterize your car, and always check your equipment Ice Scraper Exhaust system tight Antifreeze Check all fluid levels Battery charged Map Lights operational and clean Wiper blades serviceable and clean Properly inflated tires, with sufficient tread Heater/defroster working properly Brakes checked for wear Windshield and mirrors clean and serviceable
  • 85. WINTER SURVIVAL KIT Flashlight Bag of Kitty litter/sand Non perishable Food Shovel Blanket Warm Clothes Water Jumper Cables Tire Chains Tow rope
  • 86. SUMMARY
    • Cold weather greatly affects the operating performance of your equipment.
    • Winter weather presents unique hazards, i.e.. snow, slush, ice, black ice, etc...
    • Drivers must continually train and gain experience for safe winter driving.
    • SLOW DOWN!
    • INCREASE INTERVALS!