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Computer basics
 

Computer basics

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Basic computer information about the functions of components. Descriptions of systems and how they work together.

Basic computer information about the functions of components. Descriptions of systems and how they work together.

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  • Computer Boot Camp
  • Basic Computer Components : Basic Computer Components keyboard mouse printer speakers Monitor Tower Box: Central Processing Unit - CPU (motherboard), power supply, Main Memory (RAM), Auxiliary Memory devices: Hard drive, CD, DVD, etc. CPU A Laptop – with CPU, monitor, keyboard, touch pad & speakers
  • How these Components Work Together: Input devices How these Components Work Together Monitor, Printer Keyboard, Mouse Hard drive CD R/W, DVD, floppy drive, ZIP drive, Flash memory Bus Bus
  • An inside view – the Motherboard: An inside view – the Motherboard - Card Slots: Video, Sound Network, Modem
  • An inside view – Hard Drive & Bus cables Hard Drive Bus
  • All hard drives share a basic structure and are composed of the same physical features. However, not all hard drives perform the same way — the quality of the parts inside the hard drive will affect its performance. Following is a description of the common features of the hard drive and how each part works in relation to the others. Hard drives are extremely sensitive equipment and the internal workings of a hard drive.The PlattersThe platters are the actual disks inside the drive that store the magnetized data. Traditionally platters are made of a light aluminum alloy and coated with a magnetizable material such as a ferrite compound that is applied in liquid form and spun evenly across the platter or thin metal film plating that is applied to the platter through electroplating, the same way that chrome is produced. Newer technology uses glass and/or ceramic platters because they can be made thinner and also because they are more efficient at resisting heat.The magnetic layer on the platters has tiny domains of magnetization that are oriented to store information that is transferred through the read/write heads. Most drives have at least two platters, and the larger the storage capacity of the drive, the more platters there are. Each platter is magnetized on each side, so a drive with 2 platters has 4 sides to store data.
  • CPU – Central Processing Unit works with memory to execute the arithmetic and logical processes : CPU – Central Processing Unit works with memory to execute the arithmetic and logical processes The performance of the CPU is dependent on both its speed and memory
  • One GHz represents 1 billion cycles per second. The speed of microprocessors, called the clock speed, often is measured in gigahertz. For example, a microprocessor that runs at 200 GHz executes 200 billion cycles per second. Each computerinstruction requires a fixed number of cycles, so the clock speed determines how many instructions per second the microprocessor can execute. To a large degree, this controls how powerful the microprocessor is. Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (February 22, 1857 – January 1, 1894) was a Germanphysicist who clarified and expanded the electromagnetic theory of light that had been put forth by Maxwell. He was the first to satisfactorily demonstrate the existence of electromagnetic waves by building an apparatus to produce and detect VHF or UHFradio waves.The SI unit hertz (Hz) was established in his honor by the IEC in 1930 for frequency, a measurement of the number of times that a repeated event occurs per second (also called "cycles per sec" (cps)).
  • ROM is an acronym for Read-Only Memory. It refers to computer memory chips containing permanent or semi-permanent data. Unlike RAM, ROM is non-volatile; even after you turn off your computer, the contents of ROM will remain.Almost every computer comes with a small amount of ROM containing the boot firmware. This consists of a few kilobytes of code that tell the computer what to do when it starts up, e.g., running hardware diagnostics and loading the operating system into RAM. On a PC, the boot firmware is called the BIOS.Originally, ROM was actually read-only. To update the programs in ROM, you had to remove and physically replace your ROM chips. Contemporary versions of ROM allow some limited rewriting, so you can usually upgrade firmware such as the BIOS by using installation software.
  • The performance of a computer is also dependent on the amount of Primary (Main) Memory – Random Access Memory (RAM) available. This memory temporarily stores information so that it’s readily available to the CPU. This includes the program(s) being executed and required data. If this memory is limited or slow – this will slow down the computer’s ability to process information. What is RAM memory?
  • How does Memory Work? Physically computer memory is made up of transistors & capacitors - the only information they store is a magnetic charges (high & low) represented by a 0 or 1. Computer scientists combine a series of these transistor states to represent information - They turn information into a “binary” format so it can be easily stored as magnetic charges.
  • One MB of memory can hold 500 pages of text or an average book.
  • Random Access Memory doesn’t need to be “refreshed” - but like all RAM, is erased when the power is OFF DRAM (Dynamic RAM) is a type of memory that is constantly refreshed or will loose its contents. SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic RAM) – designed to work with the CPU clock to work faster than DRAM DDR SDRAM (Double Data Rate SDRAM) – works twice as fast as SDRAM 10 ns speed 5-10X slower CPU
  • It will depend on the type of computer you have/or are buying Older systems are no always compatible with newer memory types Sometimes too much memory can cause problems with Windows It will depend on the applications you wish to run Photoshop or other graphical applications require much more memory than simple word processing Do you wish to have many applications running simultaneously? So how much and what type of memory should you get?
  • : Auxiliary Memory is cheaper/slower than Primary memory but is not erased when the Power Supply is OFF. Hard drive – A non-removable device 20-250GB ranges Floppy disk drive- 1.44MB CD’s & DVD’s – 600 MB. (Read vs. RW) Removable Hard drives –Zip, Jazz Memory Sticks To save data for later use we can store data on Secondary (Auxiliary) Memory devices
  • Hardware vs. Software For computer hardware to work it must follow a set of instructions that is supplied to it. These instructions or programs are referred to as software. Some instructions are referred to as the Operating System Software, which control the basic input/output and memory operations of the computer. Application Software are programs that work with the Operating system to perform specific tasks.
  • System Software Programs to control computer operations are called Operating Systems (OS) Instructions on loading and executing applications and transferring data loaded into main memory on startup (booting) examples: DOS, Unix,, Windows XP, Vista
  • Applications Software Computer programs written to perform specified tasks. They work in tandem with specific Operating Systems Word Processing Spreadsheets Database Management Systems Web design software Internet Access & E-mail Graphics PackagesAlternatives to expensive programs.OpenOffice, Zoho and Lotus Symphony instead of MS Office.Scribus instead of MS Publisher. Gimp & Inkscapeinstead of Photoshop.Tuxpaint instead of Paint for children. Avidemux instead of Adobe Premier for video editing.
  • What software you need will affect you decision of what hardware to buy…For example how much hard drive space will you need with the following requirements? Windows XP Professional Operating System - *1.5 GB Full install of MS Office 2003 - *450 MB Dream Weaver - *800 MB Adobe’s Photoshop - *280MB Have room to store my photo album with 150 pictures - .. Average of 500KB each In GB: 1.5+.45+.8+.28+150*.005=3.78
  • What doesn’t this ad tell us?: Is any application software included? What about a monitor, mouse, speakers etc. What about getting on the internet? What doesn’t this ad tell us?
  • The mouse Most standard “systems” come complete with a standard 2 button mouse Frequently one can upgrade the mouse 2 button with wheels Optical Mouse.. no trackballs! Wireless Mouse …no tail! $10 $200
  • The monitor Most systems do not come standard with a monitor unless buying a “complete package”. Consider the following when selecting a computer: Size 17", 19" or 21" screen sizes Monitor type CRT bigger but cheaper, LCD Display - Smaller but more expensive Dot/Stripe Pitch - The smaller the Dot Pitch the sharper the image Resolution – number of pixels that can be displayed – usually higher resolution gives a clearer image $200 - $2000+ To go with your fancy new monitor you’ll need a video card that is compatible
  • Speakers Your new computer system may or may not come with other peripheral devices including Speakers and sound cards Speakers vary based on Appearance, Subwoofer, 3D-sound Sound Cards provide interface between the speakers & computer $20 - $200+
  • Unless your purchasing a “complete package” your system will probably not come with a printer. The two most common printer types are: Laser Jet - faster, quieter. Can be single or duplex (print both sides), different sizes, multiple trays etc. Inkjet - cheaper Printers Black & White Color Its not always with printer that gets you.. It’s the price of the ink supplies! $50 - $10,000+
  • DesktopEasy to use at a desk – larger keyboard and monitor Least expensive and available with greatest speeds & memory. Easily expandable!LaptopPortable More expensive than a desktop Keyboard, mouse – not quite a easy to use Not easily expandableNet Book/iPadGreat for taking notes & keeping ad-hoc recordsPortable – able to take anywhere More expensive than a desktop Difficult to expand!
  • Getting On-line To get on-line you will need several items: An Internet Service Provider (ISP) Method of connecting Telephone with modem (56K) DSL – existing phone line but faster ISDN – digital phone line Cable – co-axial cable Hardware Modem – translate computer data to a “signal” Communications/Network Card Port Ethernet Jack – use with cable modems Phone Jack – use with telephone modems
  • The simplest communication is transmission of data over a communication channel between two computers Computer Modem Modem Computer Transmission Media A modem (modulator/demodulator) connects your computer to the Internet by modulating the digital signal from the computer to a carrier signal
  • Networking - connecting a group of computers together LAN - local area network WAN - wide area network Internet – network of networks
  • And what about security? Virus Protection – get Anti-virus software and keep it up to date Firewall – Software/Hardware that denies entry to all incoming traffic except those specifically requested or allowed Spam Filters – Available on most email packages or by providers and can be “customized”
  • http://www.slideshare.net/Beamer/computer-basics-7005869

Computer basics Computer basics Presentation Transcript

  • COMPUTER
    Presented by Bob Behm
  • Basic Computer Components
    CPU (motherboard), Power Supply, Main Memory (RAM), Hard Drive, CD/DVD, Keyboard, Monitor, External Hard Drives, Printer, Scanner, Etc.
  • How these Components Work Together
    Bus
    Human interface Devices – Mouse, Keyboard,
    Touch Screen,
    Scanner
    Monitor,
    Printer
    Bus
    Hard drive, CD/DVD,
    Floppy Drive, Zip Drive, Flash Memory
  • An inside view – the Motherboard
    Card Slots – Sound, Network, Modem, Video. Etc.
    Processor Slot
    Memory Card Slots
  • An inside view – Hard Drive & Bus cables
    Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment
    Serial Advanced Technology Attachment
  • An inside view – Hard Drive
  • CPU – Central Processing Unit works with memory to execute arithmetic and logic processes
    User hits the # ‘2’ key -
    then ‘enter’
    Output # ‘4’ displays on the screen
    The performance of the CPU is dependant on both its speed and memory
  • 1.66GHz vs 2.8GHz..what’s a GHz?
    One GHz represents 1 billion cycles per second. The speed of microprocessors, called the clock speed, often is measured in gigahertz. For example, a microprocessor that runs at 200 GHz executes 200 billion cycles per second. Each computer instruction requires a fixed number of cycles, so the clock speed determines how many instructions per second the microprocessor can execute. To a large degree, this controls how powerful the microprocessor is.
  • Primary memory
    The performance of a computer is also dependent on the amount of Primary (Main) Memory – Random Access Memory (RAM) available. This memory temporarily stores information so that it’s readily available to the CPU. This includes the program(s) being executed and required data. If this memory is limited or slow – this will slow down the computer’s ability to process information.
  • How does memory work?
    Physically computer memory is made up of transistors & capacitors - the only information they store is a magnetic charges (high & low) represented by a 0 or 1. Computer scientists combine a series of these transistor states to represent information - They turn information into a “binary” format so it can be easily stored as magnetic charges.
  • How is Information Stored in Memory?
    All data is represented by a string of 0’s and 1’s. Integers, Real Numbers, and characters are stored this way. They all are converted to a string of 0’s and 1’s in different ways. Integers are their base 2 equivalent Characters are converted via some standard (ASCII, Unicode, etc.) All information is translated by a set of instructions into this format and then processed.
  • Measuring memory
    Each 0,1- is called a bit 1 Byte is 8 bits 1 Kilobyte (KB) = 210 bytes (1111111111) ˜1000 bytes = 1x103 bytes 1 Megabyte (MB) = 220 bytes ˜1,000,000 bytes = 1x106 bytes 1 Gigabyte (GB) = 230 bytes ˜1,000,000,000 bytes = 1x109 bytes 1 MB of memory can hold approximately 500 pages of text.
  • SRAM, DRAM, SDRAM, DDR, RDRAM...
    SRAM
    Staic Random Access Memory doesn’t need to be “refreshed” – but like all RAM, is erased when the power is OFF
    CPU
    5-10x
    slower
    DRAM (Dynamic RAM) is a type that is constantly refreshed or will loose its contents.
    SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic RAM) – designed to work with the CPU to work faster than DRAM.
    DDR SDRAM (Double Data Rate SDRAM) works twice as fast as SDRAM
  • So how much memory do I need?
    It will depend on the type of computer you have
    older systems are not always compatible with newer memory types.
    Sometimes too much memory can cause problems with Windows.
    It will depend on the applications you wish to run
    Graphic and video applications require much more memory than simple word processing.
    Do you wish to have many applications running simultaneously?
  • Saving Data
    To save data for later use we can store data on Secondary (Auxiliary) Memory devices.
    Hard Drive - MB, GB and TB sizes
    (Auxiliary) Memory is cheaper/slower than Primary Memory but is not erased when the Power Supply is OFF.
    CD – 700MB & DVD – 4.7 GB
    External Hard Drive -
    MB, GB and TB sizes
    Flash Drive or Thumb Drive
    Up to 32GB
    Floppy Disks – 1.44MB
  • Hardware vs. Software
    For computer hardware to work it must follow a set of instructions that is supplied to it. These instructions or programs are referred to as software.
    These instructions are referred to as the Operating System Software, which control the basic input/output and memory operations of the computer.
    Application Software are programs that work with the operating system to perform specific tasks.
  • System Software
    Programs to control computer operations are called Operating Systems (OS)
    • Instructions on loading and executing
    applications and transferring data loaded
    into the main memory on startup
    (booting)
    • Examples: DOS, Unix, Windows XP,
    Windows 7, Linux, Mac OS, IBM OS, etc.
  • Applications Software
    Computer programs written to perform specific tasks. They work in tandem with specific Operating Systems
    • Word Processing
    • Spreadsheets
    • Database Management Systems
    • Web Design Software
    • Internet Access & E-mail
    • Graphic Packages
    • Movie Makers
  • The software you use will affect your hardware requirements.
    What software you need will affect you decision of what hardware to buy…For example how much hard drive space will you need with the following requirements?
    Windows XP Professional Operating System - *1.5 GB Full install of MS Office 2003 - *450 MB Dream Weaver - *800 MB Adobe’s Photoshop - *280MB Have room to store my photo album with 150 pictures - .. Average of 500KB each In
    Gigabytes: 1.5 + .45 + .8 + .28 + 150*.005 = 3.78GB
  • What doesn’t this ad tell us?
    $749.99
    What doesn’t this as tell us?
    • Is there any application software?
    • What about a monitor, mouse, speakers, etc?
    • What about getting on the internet?
  • The mouse:
    Most standard “systems” come complete with a standard 2 button mouse and wheel. Frequently, one can upgrade the mouse 2 button with wheels .
    Optical Mouse.. no trackballs! The balls would collect grime and would have to be cleaned quite frequently!
    Wireless Mouse …no tail! $10 - $200
  • When buying peripherals consider the type of connections available on your system… and the price!
    USB 3.0 Connection –
    Newest Technology
    - fastest
    PS2 Connection –
    Newer Technology
    - Faster than serial
    Serial Connection –
    Oldest Technology
    - slow
  • A Monitor or LCD TV?
    The monitor Most systems do not come standard with a monitor unless buying a “complete package”. Consider the following when selecting a computer: Size 17", 19" or 21" screen sizes Monitor type CRT bigger but cheaper, LCD Display - Smaller but more expensive Dot/Stripe Pitch - The smaller the Dot Pitch the sharper the image Resolution – number of pixels that can be displayed – usually higher resolution gives a clearer image $200 - $2000+ To go with your fancy new monitor you’ll need a video card that is compatible
    The new LCD TV’s currently on the market have dropped in price. They have the ability to connect to a PC through the VGA connection. Plus you have the ability to watch TV programming without using the PC.
  • Speakers and Headphones
    Your new computer system may or may not come with speakers. Speakers vary based on Appearance, Subwoofer, 3D & HD-sound . Quality headphones are also available for private listening.
  • Printers
    The two most common printer types are: Laser Jet - faster, quieter. Can be single or duplex (print both sides), different sizes, multiple trays etc. Inkjet - cheaper Printers Black & White Color. Don’t forget the all-in-ones; printer, scanner and fax machine.
    Printer connections are the older peripheral, USB and now wireless!
  • A desktop, a laptop, a netbook/iPad?
    Net Book/iPad
    • Great for taking notes & keeping ad-hoc records
    • Portable – able to take anywhere
    • More expensive than a desktop
    • Difficult to expand!
    Laptop
    • Portable
    • More expensive than a desktop
    • Keyboard, mouse – not quite a easy to use
    • Not easily expandable
    Desktop
    • Easy to use at a desk – larger keyboard and monitor
    • Least expensive and available with greatest speeds & memory.
    • Easily expandable!
  • Getting On-line
    To get on-line you will need several items:
    An Internet Service Provider (ISP)
    Method of connecting
    Telephone with modem (56K)
    DSL – existing phone line but faster
    ISDN – digital phone line
    Cable – co-axial cable
    Wireless – internal wireless card or external receiver
    Hardware
    Modem – translate computer data to a “signal”
    Communications/Network Card
    Port Ethernet Jack – use with cable modems
    Phone Jack – use with telephone modems
  • The simplest communication is transmission of data over a communications channel between two computers
    A modem
    (Modulator/demodulator)
    Connects your computer to the internet by modulating the digital signal from the computer to a carrier signal.
    Computer
    Modem
    Transmission Media
    Modem
    Computer
  • Networking – connecting a group of computers together
    LAN – Local Area Network
    WAN – Wide Area Network
  • And what about security?
    Virus Protection – get Anti-virus software and keep it up to date
    Firewall – Software/Hardware that denies entry to all incoming traffic except those specifically requested or allowed
    Spam Filters – Available on most email packages or by providers and can be “customized”
  • Computer Disposal
    http://www.ccsolidwaste.org/
    There are five Recycling & Disposal sites to recycle computers with other electronics.
    Electronic equipment can NOT be disposed of with regular garbage.
    Working electronics should be donated or sold for Reuse, thereby prolonging their useful life.
    Nonfunctioning electronics should be recycled at any of the following facilities.
    Red Hill Transfer Station and Yard - 5314 Red Hill Road, Vallecito
    (209) 754-6403 Friday - Monday 9:00 am to 5:30 pm
    Gambi Disposal – 968 Church Hill Road, San Andreas
    (209) 754-3130 Friday - Monday 9:00 am to 5:30 pm
    Wilseyville Transfer Station and Yard – End of Blizzard Mine Road, Wilseyville
    (209) 754-6403 Friday - Monday 9:00 am to 5:30 pm
    Rock Creek Solid Waste Facility – 12021 Hunt Road, Milton
    (209) 754-6403 Open Daily 8:00 am to 4:30 pm
    Avery Transfer Station – 4541 Segale Road, Avery
    (209) 754-6403 Open Friday – Tuesday 9:00 am to 5:30 pm
  • A BIG THANK YOU TO PIZZA FACTORY FOR LETTING US USE THEIR FACILITY!