Martin County Artificial Reef Program	<br />Kathy FitzPatrick, P.E., Coastal Engineer<br />
A unique location…<br />Florida and Subtropical Counter Currents<br />Tropical and temperate fauna<br />Pelagic species<br...
Estuary - Lagoon System<br />Important nursery habitats<br />System results in highest number of marine and estuarine fish...
The St. Lucie Inlet	<br />The vital link between systems<br />Adults come in to spawn<br />Juveniles transition to offshor...
Offshore<br />Reef lines<br />Composed of rock outcrop<br />Support growth of attaching organisms<br />Algae, Soft corals,...
Offshore	<br />Sand and shell hash<br />Comprises up to 95% of bottom surface inside 150 ft.<br />Home to 3 commercially i...
Estuaries	<br />St. Lucie River historically productive oyster habitat<br />Lost 95% of oyster population in last 40 years...
Socioeconomic Value of Reefs<br />In Martin County<br />Annual  public expenditure $7.2 million<br />Supports over 100 job...
What is an Artificial Reef?<br />
It is……<br />… one or more objects of natural or human origin deployed purposefully on the sea floor to influence physical...
Typesof Artificial Reefs<br /><ul><li>Individual Units
each unit provides surface areas & void spaces all by itself
each individual unit must be stable
Rubble Mound (Stacked) Units
spaces between units provides void spaces
interlocking of units promotes stability</li></li></ul><li>EngineeringDesign Factors<br />water depth - structure purpose<...
Acceptable Materials<br />Natural Florida Rock<br />Custom Fabricated Units<br />Concrete - new or waste, w/wo additives<b...
Custom Artificial Reef Units<br />
Recycled Materials<br />
Composite Units<br />
Florida Artificial Reef Development Plan, 1992<br />Acknowledged the:  “Growing recognition of the potential of artificial...
Martin CountyArtificial Reef Program<br />Goal:  Help a struggling environment<br />Restore lost resources<br />Create add...
Martin County’s Reef Sites<br />
Program  Elements<br />Construction of artificial reefs<br />Monitoring<br />Mapping<br />Fish count<br />Benthic identifi...
Donaldson ReefSite<br />
Mapping<br />
Donaldson Reef Site<br />
ErnstReef Site<br />
ErnstReef Site<br />
Sirotkin Reef Site<br />
SirotkinReef Site<br />
South County Reef Site<br />Newest Reef Site<br />FFWCC  Construction Grant<br />$60,000 in grant funds<br />Recycled mate...
Nearshore Reefs<br />Mi<br />
Estuary Restoration<br />The loss of hard substrates has impacted the population of … benthic species…<br />As living reef...
Oyster Restoration<br />
Oyster Reefs<br />Filter impurities<br />______Gallons/day!!<br />Provide habitat<br />Stabilization<br />
Reef Ball Construction<br />
Reef Ball Deployment<br />
One year later……<br />sponges, algae<br />and tunicates . . .<br />. . . and a shrimp<br />but not big enough for dinner<b...
Camp W.E.T.  Is:<br />A hands-on learning experience in which students explore and investigate ecosystems of south Florida...
Community Involvement<br />Martin County  Anglers Club<br />Artificial Reef fund<br />501.c.3 non-profit<br /><ul><li>Mart...
Stuart Sailfish Club
Safari 1 Deep Sea Fishing
Marine Industries
Marine Industries of the Treasure Coast</li></li></ul><li>Education<br />
Other Projects	<br />Bathtub Beach<br />
October5th, 2007<br />August17th, 2006<br />September 29th, 2007<br />November 12th <br />
Other Projects	<br />Bathtub Beach<br />St. Lucie Inlet<br />Manatee Pocket<br />Hutchinson Island Beach Project<br />
Nearshore Reefs<br /><ul><li>	Nearshore reefs 	are constructed 	with pilings from 	the 	Evans Crary 	Bridge</li></ul>•	… a...
May 5th 2007	<br />September  30th 2007<br />October 1st 2007	<br />
May9th2007<br />September 1st, 2007<br />October 1st, 2007 <br />September  30th, 2007 <br />
Evans Crary Bridge<br />Artificial Reefs<br />Martin County<br />Nearshore - Site 1<br />Nearshore - Site 2<br />Nearshore...
ernst<br />
Martin County’s “Plan”<br />
                                                                                                        <br />"Who let the...
                                                                                                      <br />"I felt like I...
The River Reefs Project is just one aspect of the Martin County Artificial Reef Plan (MCARP).<br />The MCARP is part of th...
                                                                                                 <br />Reef by Darrin(Grad...
Thank You<br />Martin County Coastal Engineering Division<br />www.martin.fl.us/GOVT/<br />
Types of Artificial Reefs<br />Individual Units<br />each unit provides surface areas & void spaces all by itself<br />eac...
Ship Disposal for Artificial Reefs<br />
Deployment of Concrete Tetrahedrons<br />
Colonization of Tetrahedron Reefs<br />
Inlet Rock Site<br />Donaldson Reef<br />
Evans Crary Bridge<br />Ernst Reef<br />
Tetrahedron Site<br />Sirotkin Reef<br />
Reef Balls<br />
Stresses to the Lagoon<br />Population increase<br />“Improvements”<br />Freshwater discharges and runoff<br />Exotic inva...
Pressures on Natural Reefs<br />Overfishing<br />Boats<br />Diving<br />Algal blooms<br />Sedimentation<br />
Reef Balls are concrete <br />bee-hive type structures<br />
The MCARP Mobile Reef Building Unit <br />aka "The Trailer"<br />
mixing <br />the ingredients<br />
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Martin County Florida, Artificial Reef Program

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  • Setting the stage Atlantic Ocean with the gulf Stream and Florida currents moderate temperatures allowing both tropical fauna found to our south and temperate fauna found to our north to survive SLR and IRL provide important nursery habitats for fish from both of these climates – most of which spend their adult lives on the offshore reefs, and the St. Lucie inlet provides the portal The presence of the 2 currents also brings the pelagic species to the area as well as transporting larvae from the Bahamas chain. In the end the IRL and coastal waters around Martin County support the settlement and survival of the hightes number of marine/estuarine fish in North America.
  • Setting the stage Atlantic Ocean with the gulf Stream and Florida currents moderate temperatures allowing both tropical fauna found to our south and temperate fauna found to our north to survive SLR and IRL provide important nursery habitats for fish from both of these climates – most of which spend their adult lives on the offshore reefs, and the St. Lucie inlet provides the portal The presence of the 2 currents also brings the pelagic species to the area as well as transporting larvae from the Bahamas chain. In the end the IRL and coastal waters around Martin County support the settlement and survival of the hightes number of marine/estuarine fish in North America.
  • The inlet allows adult reef fish access to protected waters for spawning allows juvenile fish to transition to the offshore reefs at the proper point in their lifecycle provides the flushing action to keep the estuaries healthy and able to support their very valuable residents.
  • This is where the 3 main reeflines begin to disappear – from the southMC is transition area.
  • Between 1994 and 2006, decrease of 9% in finfish landing
  • Insert cover of new plan
  • Martin County Florida, Artificial Reef Program

    1. 1. Martin County Artificial Reef Program <br />Kathy FitzPatrick, P.E., Coastal Engineer<br />
    2. 2. A unique location…<br />Florida and Subtropical Counter Currents<br />Tropical and temperate fauna<br />Pelagic species<br />Larval transport <br />
    3. 3. Estuary - Lagoon System<br />Important nursery habitats<br />System results in highest number of marine and estuarine fish in North America<br />
    4. 4. The St. Lucie Inlet <br />The vital link between systems<br />Adults come in to spawn<br />Juveniles transition to offshore<br />Flushing action keeps estuary healthy<br />
    5. 5. Offshore<br />Reef lines<br />Composed of rock outcrop<br />Support growth of attaching organisms<br />Algae, Soft corals, Sponges, Hard corals, Hydroids, Polychaete worms and more<br />Hard substrate provides shelter and food for reef fishes<br />
    6. 6. Offshore <br />Sand and shell hash<br />Comprises up to 95% of bottom surface inside 150 ft.<br />Home to 3 commercially important invertebrates <br />Rock shrimp, pink shrimp and golden crabs<br />Important food source to many reef fish<br /> “halo effect”<br />Perfect substrate for artificial reef deployment<br />Currently permitted sites comprise less that 0.1% of soft bottom<br />
    7. 7. Estuaries <br />St. Lucie River historically productive oyster habitat<br />Lost 95% of oyster population in last 40 years<br />Indian River Lagoon transformed<br />Seawalls and hardened shorelines<br />Impoundment of mangroves for mosquito control<br />Important juvenile habitat lost<br />Major impact on bird population – nothing to eat!<br />
    8. 8. Socioeconomic Value of Reefs<br />In Martin County<br />Annual public expenditure $7.2 million<br />Supports over 100 jobs<br />Results in approximately $3.2 million in income<br />
    9. 9. What is an Artificial Reef?<br />
    10. 10. It is……<br />… one or more objects of natural or human origin deployed purposefully on the sea floor to influence physical, biological or socioeconomic processes related to living marine resources. (Seaman, 2000)<br />
    11. 11. Typesof Artificial Reefs<br /><ul><li>Individual Units
    12. 12. each unit provides surface areas & void spaces all by itself
    13. 13. each individual unit must be stable
    14. 14. Rubble Mound (Stacked) Units
    15. 15. spaces between units provides void spaces
    16. 16. interlocking of units promotes stability</li></li></ul><li>EngineeringDesign Factors<br />water depth - structure purpose<br />unit size - weight, stability, anchoring<br />vertical & horizontal relief<br />surface area & void spaces<br />durability & longevity<br />waves , currents, and tides<br />scour, deposition, settlement<br />
    17. 17.
    18. 18. Acceptable Materials<br />Natural Florida Rock<br />Custom Fabricated Units<br />Concrete - new or waste, w/wo additives<br />Waste Disposal (material of opportunity)<br />Metals - ships, planes, etc.<br />Concrete structures –bridge material, culverts, construction debris, etc. <br />Hybrids<br />materials of opportunity combined into reef units <br />
    19. 19. Custom Artificial Reef Units<br />
    20. 20. Recycled Materials<br />
    21. 21. Composite Units<br />
    22. 22. Florida Artificial Reef Development Plan, 1992<br />Acknowledged the: “Growing recognition of the potential of artificial reef as management tools for yielding long-term benefits to both the resource and the resource user.”<br />
    23. 23. Martin CountyArtificial Reef Program<br />Goal: Help a struggling environment<br />Restore lost resources<br />Create additional fishery habitat<br />Reduce pressure on existing natural reefs by providing alternative recreational destinations<br />Fuel a “green” economic engine<br />Protect the Martin County way of life<br />
    24. 24. Martin County’s Reef Sites<br />
    25. 25. Program Elements<br />Construction of artificial reefs<br />Monitoring<br />Mapping<br />Fish count<br />Benthic identification<br />Project assessment<br />Public Education<br />Grant acquisition<br />
    26. 26. Donaldson ReefSite<br />
    27. 27. Mapping<br />
    28. 28. Donaldson Reef Site<br />
    29. 29. ErnstReef Site<br />
    30. 30. ErnstReef Site<br />
    31. 31. Sirotkin Reef Site<br />
    32. 32. SirotkinReef Site<br />
    33. 33. South County Reef Site<br />Newest Reef Site<br />FFWCC Construction Grant<br />$60,000 in grant funds<br />Recycled material<br />6-8 low relief sites<br />Coming<br />Soon<br />
    34. 34. Nearshore Reefs<br />Mi<br />
    35. 35. Estuary Restoration<br />The loss of hard substrates has impacted the population of … benthic species…<br />As living reefs grow, <br />They attract other <br />fish and shellfish by <br />providing food and <br />shelter.<br />Indian River Lagoon – South Feasibility Study<br />
    36. 36. Oyster Restoration<br />
    37. 37. Oyster Reefs<br />Filter impurities<br />______Gallons/day!!<br />Provide habitat<br />Stabilization<br />
    38. 38.
    39. 39. Reef Ball Construction<br />
    40. 40. Reef Ball Deployment<br />
    41. 41. One year later……<br />sponges, algae<br />and tunicates . . .<br />. . . and a shrimp<br />but not big enough for dinner<br />Photos 2006 by Kerry Dillon, Marine Consultant<br />
    42. 42. Camp W.E.T. Is:<br />A hands-on learning experience in which students explore and investigate ecosystems of south Florida, focusing on the Indian River Lagoon and Martin County.<br />
    43. 43. Community Involvement<br />Martin County Anglers Club<br />Artificial Reef fund<br />501.c.3 non-profit<br /><ul><li>Martin County Anglers Club
    44. 44. Stuart Sailfish Club
    45. 45. Safari 1 Deep Sea Fishing
    46. 46. Marine Industries
    47. 47. Marine Industries of the Treasure Coast</li></li></ul><li>Education<br />
    48. 48. Other Projects <br />Bathtub Beach<br />
    49. 49. October5th, 2007<br />August17th, 2006<br />September 29th, 2007<br />November 12th <br />
    50. 50. Other Projects <br />Bathtub Beach<br />St. Lucie Inlet<br />Manatee Pocket<br />Hutchinson Island Beach Project<br />
    51. 51. Nearshore Reefs<br /><ul><li> Nearshore reefs are constructed with pilings from the Evans Crary Bridge</li></ul>• … at NO COST to Martin County<br />
    52. 52. May 5th 2007 <br />September 30th 2007<br />October 1st 2007 <br />
    53. 53. May9th2007<br />September 1st, 2007<br />October 1st, 2007 <br />September 30th, 2007 <br />
    54. 54. Evans Crary Bridge<br />Artificial Reefs<br />Martin County<br />Nearshore - Site 1<br />Nearshore - Site 2<br />Nearshore - Site 3<br />Sirotkin Reef<br />Donaldson Reef<br />Ernst Reef<br />
    55. 55. ernst<br />
    56. 56. Martin County’s “Plan”<br />
    57. 57.                                                                                                         <br />"Who let the Reef Balls Out?"Bridget ConnerThe Walker School <br />
    58. 58.                                                                                                       <br />"I felt like I was making a difference when I helped <br />constrct a Reef Ball."Katey Ceccarelli<br />
    59. 59. The River Reefs Project is just one aspect of the Martin County Artificial Reef Plan (MCARP).<br />The MCARP is part of the State of Florida’s initiatives to restore and enhance our marine resources. <br />These initiatives are a part of the great world-wide movement to sustain and maintain the oceans of our earth and all the vital resources connected to it. <br />By becoming a participant of our River Reefs Project, you will be doing your part in aiding the preservation of our oceans, which contribute much of the living forces for sustaining our world. <br />
    60. 60.                                                                                                 <br />Reef by Darrin(Grade 5/K)<br />
    61. 61. Thank You<br />Martin County Coastal Engineering Division<br />www.martin.fl.us/GOVT/<br />
    62. 62. Types of Artificial Reefs<br />Individual Units<br />each unit provides surface areas & void spaces all by itself<br />each individual unit must be stable<br />Rubble Mound (Stacked) Units<br />spaces between units provides void spaces<br />interlocking of units promotes stability<br />
    63. 63. Ship Disposal for Artificial Reefs<br />
    64. 64. Deployment of Concrete Tetrahedrons<br />
    65. 65. Colonization of Tetrahedron Reefs<br />
    66. 66. Inlet Rock Site<br />Donaldson Reef<br />
    67. 67. Evans Crary Bridge<br />Ernst Reef<br />
    68. 68. Tetrahedron Site<br />Sirotkin Reef<br />
    69. 69. Reef Balls<br />
    70. 70. Stresses to the Lagoon<br />Population increase<br />“Improvements”<br />Freshwater discharges and runoff<br />Exotic invasive species<br />
    71. 71.
    72. 72. Pressures on Natural Reefs<br />Overfishing<br />Boats<br />Diving<br />Algal blooms<br />Sedimentation<br />
    73. 73. Reef Balls are concrete <br />bee-hive type structures<br />
    74. 74. The MCARP Mobile Reef Building Unit <br />aka "The Trailer"<br />
    75. 75. mixing <br />the ingredients<br />
    76. 76. removing the mold<br />
    77. 77. removing <br />the bladder<br />
    78. 78. Reef Balls<br />waiting to be deployed<br />
    79. 79. on the move...<br />
    80. 80. Composite Units<br />
    81. 81. Reef Ball<br />
    82. 82. Visit www.martinreefs.com<br />for more information on our Artificial Reef Program<br />

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