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Intro bacteriology
 

Intro bacteriology

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    Intro bacteriology Intro bacteriology Presentation Transcript

    • 11
      The Prokaryotes:Domains Bacteria and Archaea
    • The Prokaryotes
    • Domain Bacteria
      Proteobacteria
      From the mythical Greek god, Proteus, who could assume many shapes
      Gram-negative
    • The Alphaproteobacteria
      Human pathogens
      Bartonella
      B. hensela: Cat-scratch disease
      Brucella: Brucellosis
      Ehrlichia: Tickborne
    • The Alphaproteobacteria
      Obligate intracellular parasites
      Ehrlichia: Tickborne, ehrlichiosis
      Rickettsia: Arthropod-borne, spotted fevers
      R. prowazekii: Epidemic typhus
      R. typhi: Endemic murine typhus
      R. rickettsii: Rocky Mountain spotted fever
    • The Alphaproteobacteria
      Figure 11.1
    • The Alphaproteobacteria
      Chemoautotrophic
      Oxidize nitrogen for energy
      Fix CO2
      Nitrobacter: NH3+ NO2–
      Nitrosomonas: NO2– NO3–
    • The Betaproteobacteria
    • The Betaproteobacteria
      Thiobacillus
      Chemoautotrophic, oxidize sulfur: H2S  SO42–
      Sphaerotilus
      Chemoheterotophic, form sheaths
      Figure 11.5
    • The Betaproteobacteria
      Neisseria
      Chemoheterotrophic, cocci
      N. meningitidis
      N. gonorrhoeae
      Spirillum
      Chemoheterotrophic, helical
      Figures 11.4, 11.6
    • The Betaproteobacteria
      Bordetella
      Chemoheterotrophic, rods
      B. pertussis
      Burkholderia: Nosocomial infections
      Zoogloea: Slimy masses in aerobic sewage-treatment processes
    • The Gammaproteobacteria
    • The Gammaproteobacteria
      Pseudomonadales
      Pseudomonas
      Opportunistic pathogens
      Metabolically diverse
      Polar flagella
      Azotobacter and Azomonas: Nitrogen fixing
      Moraxella: Conjunctivitis
      Figure 11.7
    • The Gammaproteobacteria
      Legionellales
      Legionella
      Found in streams, warm-water pipes, cooling towers
      L. pneumophilia
      Coxiella
      Q fever transmitted via aerosols or milk
      Figure 24.15b
    • The Gammaproteobacteria
      Vibrionales
      Found in coastal water
      Vibrio cholerae causes cholera
      V. parahaemolyticus causes gastroenteritis
      Figure 11.8
    • The Gammaproteobacteria
      Enterobacteriales (enterics)
      Peritrichous flagella, facultatively anaerobic
      Enterobacter
      Erwinia
      Escherichia
      Klebsiella
      Proteus
      Salmonella
      Serratia
      Shigella
      Yersinia
    • The Gammaproteobacteria
      Figure 11.9
    • The Gammaproteobacteria
      Pasteurellales
      Pasteurella
      Cause pneumonia and septicemia
      Haemophilus
      Require X (heme) and V (NAD+, NADP+) factors
      Francisella
      Chemoheterotrophic, tularemia
    • The Deltaproteobacteria
    • The Epsilonproteobacteria
    • The Epsilonproteobacteria
      Campylobacter
      One polar flagellum
      Gastroenteritis
    • The Epsilonproteobacteria
      Helicobacter
      Multiple flagella
      Peptic ulcers
      Stomach cancer
      Figure 11.12
    • The Nonproteobacteria Gram-Negative Bacteria
    • Firmicutes
      Low G + C
      Gram-positive
    • Clostridiales
      Clostridium
      Endospore-producing
      Obligate anaerobes
      Epulopiscium
      Figures 11.15, 11.16
    • Bacillales
      Bacillus
      Endospore-producing rods
      Figure 11.17b
    • Bacillales
      Staphylococcus
      Cocci
      Figure 11.18
    • Lactobacillales
      Generally aerotolerant anaerobes, lack an electron-transport chain
      Lactobacillus
      Streptococcus
      Enterococcus
      Listeria
      Figure 11.19
    • Mycoplasmatales
      Wall-less, pleomorphic
      0.1 - 0.24 µm
      M. pneumoniae
      Figure 11.20a–b
    • Actinobacteria
      High G + C
      Gram-positive
    • Actinobacteria
      Actinomyces
      Corynebacterium
      Frankia
      Gardnerella
      Mycobacterium
      Nocardia
      Propionibacterium
      Streptomyces
      Figure 11.21b
    • Chlamydias
      Chlamydia trachomatis
      Trachoma
      STD, urethritis
      Chlamyiophila pneumoniae
      Chlamydophila psittaci
      Causes psittacosis
    • Chlamydias
      Figure 11.23a
    • Chlamydophila
      Figure 11.23b
    • Spirochaetes
      Borrelia
      Leptospira
      Treponema
      Figure 11.24
    • Bacteroidetes
      Anaerobic
      Bacteroides are found in the mouth and large intestine
      Cytophaga: Cellulose-degrading in soil
    • Fusobacteria
      Fusobacterium
      Are found in the mouth.
      May be involved in dental diseases.
      Figure 11.25
    • 10
      Classification of Microorganisms
    • Taxonomy
      Taxonomy
      The science of classifying organisms
      Provides universal names for organisms
      Provides a reference for identifying organisms
    • The Three-Domain System
      Table 10.1
    • The Three-Domain System
      Figure 10.1
    • Identification Methods
      Morphological characteristics: Useful for identifying eukaryotes
      Differential staining: Gram staining, acid-fast staining
      Biochemical tests: Determines presence of bacterial enzymes
      Figure 10.8
    • Figure 10.7
    • Numerical Identification
      Figure 10.9
    • Serology
      Combine known antiserum plus unknown bacterium
      Slide agglutination
      ELISA
      Western blot
      Figure 10.10
    • Western Blot
      Figure 10.12
    • Phage Typing
      Figure 10.13
    • Flow Cytometry
      Differences in electrical conductivity between species
      Fluorescence of some species
      Cells selectively stained with antibody plus fluorescent dye
      Figure 18.12
    • Genetics
      DNA base composition
      Guanine + cytosine moles% (GC)
      DNA fingerprinting
      Electrophoresis of restriction enzyme digests
      rRNA sequencing
      Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
      Figure 10.14
    • Nucleic Acid Hybridization
      Figure 10.15
    • Nucleic Acid Hybridization: DNA Probe
      Figure 10.16
    • Nucleic Acid Hybridization: DNA Chip
      Figure 10.17
    • Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH)
      Add DNA probe
      for S. aureus
      Figure 10.18a–b
    • Table 10.5
    • Dichotomous Key
      PLAY
      Animation: Dichotomous Keys
      UN 10.2
    • Cladogram
      Figure 10.19, steps 1–2
    • Cladogram
      Figure 10.19, step 3