Intro bacteriology

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Intro bacteriology

  1. 1. 11<br />The Prokaryotes:Domains Bacteria and Archaea<br />
  2. 2. The Prokaryotes<br />
  3. 3. Domain Bacteria<br />Proteobacteria<br />From the mythical Greek god, Proteus, who could assume many shapes<br />Gram-negative<br />
  4. 4. The Alphaproteobacteria<br />Human pathogens<br />Bartonella<br />B. hensela: Cat-scratch disease<br />Brucella: Brucellosis<br />Ehrlichia: Tickborne<br />
  5. 5. The Alphaproteobacteria<br />Obligate intracellular parasites<br />Ehrlichia: Tickborne, ehrlichiosis<br />Rickettsia: Arthropod-borne, spotted fevers<br />R. prowazekii: Epidemic typhus<br />R. typhi: Endemic murine typhus<br />R. rickettsii: Rocky Mountain spotted fever<br />
  6. 6. The Alphaproteobacteria<br />Figure 11.1<br />
  7. 7. The Alphaproteobacteria<br />Chemoautotrophic<br />Oxidize nitrogen for energy<br />Fix CO2<br />Nitrobacter: NH3+ NO2–<br />Nitrosomonas: NO2– NO3–<br />
  8. 8. The Betaproteobacteria<br />
  9. 9. The Betaproteobacteria<br />Thiobacillus<br />Chemoautotrophic, oxidize sulfur: H2S  SO42–<br />Sphaerotilus<br />Chemoheterotophic, form sheaths<br />Figure 11.5<br />
  10. 10. The Betaproteobacteria<br />Neisseria<br />Chemoheterotrophic, cocci<br />N. meningitidis<br />N. gonorrhoeae<br />Spirillum<br />Chemoheterotrophic, helical<br />Figures 11.4, 11.6<br />
  11. 11. The Betaproteobacteria<br />Bordetella<br />Chemoheterotrophic, rods<br />B. pertussis<br />Burkholderia: Nosocomial infections<br />Zoogloea: Slimy masses in aerobic sewage-treatment processes<br />
  12. 12. The Gammaproteobacteria<br />
  13. 13. The Gammaproteobacteria<br />Pseudomonadales<br />Pseudomonas<br />Opportunistic pathogens<br />Metabolically diverse<br />Polar flagella<br />Azotobacter and Azomonas: Nitrogen fixing<br />Moraxella: Conjunctivitis<br />Figure 11.7<br />
  14. 14. The Gammaproteobacteria<br />Legionellales<br />Legionella<br />Found in streams, warm-water pipes, cooling towers<br />L. pneumophilia<br />Coxiella<br />Q fever transmitted via aerosols or milk<br />Figure 24.15b<br />
  15. 15. The Gammaproteobacteria<br />Vibrionales<br />Found in coastal water<br />Vibrio cholerae causes cholera<br />V. parahaemolyticus causes gastroenteritis<br />Figure 11.8<br />
  16. 16. The Gammaproteobacteria<br />Enterobacteriales (enterics)<br />Peritrichous flagella, facultatively anaerobic<br />Enterobacter<br />Erwinia<br />Escherichia<br />Klebsiella<br />Proteus<br />Salmonella<br />Serratia<br />Shigella<br />Yersinia<br />
  17. 17. The Gammaproteobacteria<br />Figure 11.9<br />
  18. 18. The Gammaproteobacteria<br />Pasteurellales<br />Pasteurella<br />Cause pneumonia and septicemia<br />Haemophilus<br />Require X (heme) and V (NAD+, NADP+) factors<br />Francisella<br />Chemoheterotrophic, tularemia<br />
  19. 19. The Deltaproteobacteria<br />
  20. 20. The Epsilonproteobacteria<br />
  21. 21. The Epsilonproteobacteria<br />Campylobacter<br />One polar flagellum<br />Gastroenteritis<br />
  22. 22. The Epsilonproteobacteria<br />Helicobacter<br />Multiple flagella <br />Peptic ulcers<br />Stomach cancer<br />Figure 11.12<br />
  23. 23. The Nonproteobacteria Gram-Negative Bacteria<br />
  24. 24. Firmicutes<br />Low G + C<br />Gram-positive<br />
  25. 25. Clostridiales<br />Clostridium<br />Endospore-producing<br />Obligate anaerobes<br />Epulopiscium<br />Figures 11.15, 11.16<br />
  26. 26. Bacillales<br />Bacillus<br />Endospore-producing rods<br />Figure 11.17b<br />
  27. 27. Bacillales<br />Staphylococcus<br />Cocci<br />Figure 11.18<br />
  28. 28. Lactobacillales<br />Generally aerotolerant anaerobes, lack an electron-transport chain<br />Lactobacillus<br />Streptococcus<br />Enterococcus<br />Listeria<br />Figure 11.19<br />
  29. 29. Mycoplasmatales<br />Wall-less, pleomorphic<br />0.1 - 0.24 µm<br />M. pneumoniae<br />Figure 11.20a–b<br />
  30. 30. Actinobacteria<br />High G + C<br />Gram-positive<br />
  31. 31. Actinobacteria<br />Actinomyces<br />Corynebacterium<br />Frankia<br />Gardnerella<br />Mycobacterium<br />Nocardia<br />Propionibacterium<br />Streptomyces<br />Figure 11.21b<br />
  32. 32. Chlamydias<br />Chlamydia trachomatis<br />Trachoma<br />STD, urethritis<br />Chlamyiophila pneumoniae<br />Chlamydophila psittaci<br />Causes psittacosis<br />
  33. 33. Chlamydias<br />Figure 11.23a<br />
  34. 34. Chlamydophila<br />Figure 11.23b<br />
  35. 35. Spirochaetes<br />Borrelia<br />Leptospira<br />Treponema<br />Figure 11.24<br />
  36. 36. Bacteroidetes<br />Anaerobic<br />Bacteroides are found in the mouth and large intestine<br />Cytophaga: Cellulose-degrading in soil<br />
  37. 37. Fusobacteria<br />Fusobacterium<br />Are found in the mouth.<br />May be involved in dental diseases.<br />Figure 11.25<br />
  38. 38. 10<br />Classification of Microorganisms<br />
  39. 39. Taxonomy<br />Taxonomy <br />The science of classifying organisms<br />Provides universal names for organisms<br />Provides a reference for identifying organisms<br />
  40. 40. The Three-Domain System<br />Table 10.1<br />
  41. 41. The Three-Domain System<br />Figure 10.1<br />
  42. 42. Identification Methods<br />Morphological characteristics: Useful for identifying eukaryotes<br />Differential staining: Gram staining, acid-fast staining<br />Biochemical tests: Determines presence of bacterial enzymes<br />Figure 10.8<br />
  43. 43. Figure 10.7<br />
  44. 44. Numerical Identification<br />Figure 10.9<br />
  45. 45. Serology<br />Combine known antiserum plus unknown bacterium<br />Slide agglutination<br />ELISA<br />Western blot<br />Figure 10.10<br />
  46. 46. Western Blot<br />Figure 10.12<br />
  47. 47. Phage Typing<br />Figure 10.13<br />
  48. 48. Flow Cytometry<br />Differences in electrical conductivity between species<br />Fluorescence of some species<br />Cells selectively stained with antibody plus fluorescent dye <br />Figure 18.12<br />
  49. 49. Genetics<br />DNA base composition<br />Guanine + cytosine moles% (GC)<br />DNA fingerprinting<br />Electrophoresis of restriction enzyme digests<br />rRNA sequencing<br />Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)<br />Figure 10.14<br />
  50. 50. Nucleic Acid Hybridization<br />Figure 10.15<br />
  51. 51. Nucleic Acid Hybridization: DNA Probe<br />Figure 10.16<br />
  52. 52. Nucleic Acid Hybridization: DNA Chip<br />Figure 10.17<br />
  53. 53. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH)<br />Add DNA probe<br />for S. aureus<br />Figure 10.18a–b<br />
  54. 54. Table 10.5<br />
  55. 55. Dichotomous Key<br />PLAY<br />Animation: Dichotomous Keys<br />UN 10.2<br />
  56. 56. Cladogram<br />Figure 10.19, steps 1–2<br />
  57. 57. Cladogram<br />Figure 10.19, step 3<br />
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