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Fungi virus class

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  • 1. 12
    The Eukaryotes: Fungi, Algae, Protozoa, and Helminths
  • 2. Eukaryotic
    Aerobic or facultatively anaerobic
    Chemoheterotrophic
    Most are decomposers
    Mycology is the study of fungi
    The Fungi
  • 3. Mycology: The Study of Fungi
    Table 12.2
  • 4. Fungi
    Table 12.1
  • 5. Molds
    The fungal thallus consists of hyphae; a mass of hyphae is a mycelium.
    Figure 12.2
  • 6. Yeasts
    Unicellular fungi
    Fission yeasts divide symmetrically
    Budding yeasts divide asymmetrically
    Figure 12.3
  • 7. Dimorphism
    Pathogenic dimorphic fungi are yeastlike at 37°C and moldlike at 25°C
    Figure 12.4
  • 8. Fungal Life Cycle
    Figure 12.7
  • 9. Fungal Diseases (Mycoses)
    Systemic mycoses: Deep within body
    Subcutaneous mycoses: Beneath the skin
    Cutaneous mycoses: Affect hair, skin, and nails
    Superficial mycoses: Localized, e.g., hair shafts
    Opportunistic mycoses: Caused by normal microbiota or environmental fungi
  • 10. Asexual Spores
    Sporangiosphore
    Conidiospore
    Arthrospore
    Blastoconidium
    Chlamydospore
    Figure 12.1
  • 11. Conidiospores
    Figure 12.5a–c
  • 12. Sexual Reproduction
    Plasmogamy: Haploid donor cell nucleus (+) penetrates cytoplasm of recipient cell (–).
    Karyogamy: + and – nuclei fuse.
    Meiosis:Diploid nucleus produces haploid nuclei (sexual spores).
  • 13. Sexual Spores
    Zygospore: Fusion of haploid cells produces one zygospore.
    Figure 12.6
  • 14. Sexual Spores
    Ascospore: Formed in a sac (ascus).
    Figure 12.7
  • 15. Sexual Spores
    Basidiospore: Formed externally on a pedestal (basidium).
    Figure 12.8
  • 16. Zygomycota
    Conjugation fungi
    Coenocytic
    Produce sporangiospores and zygospores
    Rhizopus, Mucor (opportunistic, systemic mycoses)
  • 17. Zygomycete Life Cycle
    Figure 12.6
  • 18. Ascomycota
    Sac fungi
    Septate
    Produce ascospores and frequently conidiospores.
    Aspergillus (opportunistic, systemic mycosis)
    Blastomyces dermatitidis, Histoplasma capsulatum (systemic mycoses)
    Microsporum, Trichophyton (cutaneous mycoses)
  • 19. Ascomycete Life Cycle
    Figure 12.7
  • 20. Basidiomycota
    Club fungi
    Septate
    Produce basidiospores and sometimes conidiospores.
    Cryptococcus neoformans (systematic mycosis)
  • 21. Basidiomycete Life Cycle
    Figure 12.8
  • 22. Anamorphs
    Teleomorphic fungi
    Produce sexual and asexual spores.
    Anamorphic fungi
    Produce asexual spores only.
    rRNA sequencing places most in Ascomycota; a few are Basidiomycota.
    Penicillium
    Sporothrix (subcutaneous mycosis)
    Stachybotrys, Coccidioides, Pneumocystis (systemic mycoses)
    Candida albicans (Cutaneous mycoses)
  • 23. Economic Effects of Fungi
  • 24. Lichens
    Mutualistic combination of an alga (or cyanobacterium) and fungus.
    Alga produces and secretes carbohydrates; fungus provides holdfast.
  • 25. Lichens
    Figure 12.10
  • 26. The Algae
    Eukaryotic
    Unicellular, filamentous, or multicellular (thallic)
    Most are photoautotrophs
  • 27. Algae
    Table 12.1
  • 28. Algae
    Figure 12.11a
  • 29. Dinoflagellata
    Dinoflagellates
    Cellulose in plasma membrane
    Unicellular
    Chlorophyll a and c, carotene, xanthins
    Store starch
    Some are symbionts in marine animals
    Neurotoxins cause paralytic shellfish poisoning
    Figure 12.14
  • 30. 13
    Viruses, Viroids, and Prions
  • 31. Viruses
    Contain DNA or RNA
    Contain a protein coat
    Some are enclosed by an envelope
    Some viruses have spikes
    Most viruses infect only specific types of cells in one host
    Host range is determined by specific host attachment sites and cellular factors
  • 32. Viruses
    Figure 13.1
  • 33. Helical Viruses
    Figure 13.4a–b
  • 34. Polyhedral Viruses
    Figure 13.2a–b
  • 35. Enveloped Viruses
    Figure 13.3
  • 36. Complex Viruses
    Figure 13.5a
  • 37. Viral Taxonomy
    Family names end in -viridae.
    Genus names end in -virus.
    Viral species: A group of viruses sharing the same genetic information and ecological niche (host). Common names are used for species.
    Subspecies are designated by a number.
  • 38. Viral Taxonomy
    Herpesviridae
    Herpesvirus
    Human herpes virus HHV-1, HHV-2, HHV-3
    Retroviridae
    Lentivirus
    Human immunodeficiency virus HIV-1, HIV-2
  • 39. Growing Viruses
    Viruses must be grown in living cells.
    Bacteriophages form plaques on a lawn of bacteria.
    Figure 13.6
  • 40. Growing Viruses
    Animal viruses may be grown in living animals or in embryonated eggs.
    Figure 13.7
  • 41. Growing Viruses
    Animal and plants viruses may be grown in cell culture.
    Continuous cell lines may be maintained indefinitely.
    Figure 13.8
  • 42. Virus Identification
    Cytopathic effects
    Serological tests
    Detect antibodies against viruses in a patient.
    Use antibodies to identify viruses in neutralization tests, viral hemagglutination, and Western blot.
    Nucleic acids
    RFLPs
    PCR
  • 43. Virus Identification
    Figure 13.9
  • 44. Multiplication of Bacteriophages (Lytic Cycle)
    Attachment: Phage attaches by tail fibers to host cell.
    Penetration: Phage lysozyme opens cell wall, tail sheath contracts to force tail core and DNA into cell.
    Biosynthesis: Production of phage DNA and proteins.
    Maturation: Assembly of phage particles.
    Release: Phage lysozyme breaks cell wall.
  • 45. 1
    2
    3
    Figure 13.11, steps 1–3, 6–7
  • 46. 4
    Figure 13.11, steps 4–5, 8
  • 47. One-Step Growth Curve
    Figure 13.10
  • 48. Lytic cycle: Phage causes lysis and death of host cell.
    Lysogenic cycle: Prophage DNA incorporated in host DNA.
  • 49. The Lysogenic Cycle
    Figure 13.12
  • 50. 2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    Specialized Transduction
    Figure 13.13
  • 51. Multiplication of Animal viruses
    Attachment: Viruses attach to cell membrane.
    Penetration by endocytosis or fusion.
    Uncoating by viral or host enzymes.
    Biosynthesis: Production of nucleic acid and proteins.
    Maturation: Nucleic acid and capsid proteins assemble.
    Release by budding (enveloped viruses) or rupture.
  • 52. Attachment, Penetration, and Uncoating
    Pinocytosis
    Figure 13.14a
  • 53. Attachment, Penetration, and Uncoating
    Fusion
    Figure 13.14b
  • 54. Release of an Enveloped Virus by Budding
    Figure 13.20
  • 55. Multiplication of DNA Virus
    Figure 13.15
  • 56. DNA and RNA Viruses Compared
    DNA: Cellular enzyme transcribes viral DNA in nucleus.
    DNA, reverse transcriptase: Cellular enzyme transcribes viral DNA in nucleus; reverse transcriptase copies mRNA to make viral DNA.
    RNA, + strand: Viral RNA is a template for synthesis of RNA polymerase.
  • 57. DNA and RNA Viruses Compared
    RNA – strand: Viral enzyme copies viral RNA to make mRNA in cytoplasm.
    RNA, double-stranded: Viral enzyme copies – strand RNA to make mRNA in cytoplasm.
    RNA, reverse transcriptase: Viral enzyme copes viral RNA to make DNA in cytoplasm.
  • 58. Cancer
    Activated oncogenes transform normal cells into cancerous cells.
    Transformed cells have increased growth, loss of contact inhibition, tumor specific transplant and T antigens.
    The genetic material of oncogenic viruses becomes integrated into the host cell's DNA.
  • 59. Oncogenic Viruses
    Oncogenic DNA viruses
    Adenoviridae
    Heresviridae
    Poxviridae
    Papovaviridae
    Hepadnaviridae
    Oncogenic RNA viruses
    Retroviridae
    Viral RNA is transcribed to DNA which can integrate into host DNA
    HTLV 1
    HTLV 2
  • 60. Latent viral infections
    Virus remains in asymptomatic host cell for long periods.
    Cold sores, shingles
    Presistent viral infections
    Disease processes occurs over a long period; generally is fatal.
    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (measles virus)
    Figure 13.21
  • 61. Infectious proteins
    Inherited and transmissible by ingestion, transplant, and surgical instruments
    Spongiform encephalopathies: Sheep scrapie, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome, fatal familial insomnia, mad cow disease
    PrPC: Normal cellular prion protein, on cell surface
    PrPSc: Scrapie protein; accumulates in brain cells forming plaques
    PLAY
    Animation: Prion Reproduction
    Prions
  • 62. Some Plant Viruses
    Table 13.6
  • 63. Virus Families
    Single-stranded DNA, nonenveloped viruses
    Parvoviridae
    Human parvovirus
    Fifth disease
    Anemia in immunocompromised patients
    Table 13.2 (1 of 20)
  • 64.
  • 65. Double-Stranded DNA, Nonenveloped Viruses
    Mastadenovirus
    Respiratory infections in humans
    Tumors in animals
    Table 13.2 (2 of 20)
  • 66. Double-Stranded DNA, Nonenveloped Viruses
    Papillomavirus (human wart virus)
    Polyomavirus
    Cause tumors; some cause cancer
    Table 13.2 (3 of 20)
  • 67. Double-Stranded DNA, Enveloped Viruses
    Orthopoxvirus (vaccinia and smallpox viruses)
    Molluscipoxvirus
    Smallpox
    Molluscumcontagiosum
    Cowpox
    Table 13.2 (4 of 20)
  • 68. Double-Stranded DNA, Enveloped Viruses
    Simplexvirus (HHV1 and HHV 2)
    Varicellavirus (HHV 3)
    Lymphocryptovirus (HHV 4)
    Cytomegalovirus (HHV 5)
    Roseolovirus (HHV 6)
    HHV 7
    Kaposi's sarcoma (HHV 8)
    Some herpesviruses can remain latent in host cells.
    Table 13.2 (5 of 20)
  • 69. Double-Stranded DNA, Enveloped Viruses
    Hepadnavirus (Hepatitis B virus)
    Use reverse transcriptase to produce DNA from mRNA.
    Table 13.2 (6 of 20)
  • 70. Single-Stranded RNA, + Strand, Nonenveloped
    Enterovirus
    Enteroviruses include poliovirus and coxsackievirus.
    Rhinovirus
    Hepatitis A virus
    Table 13.2 (7 of 20)
  • 71. Single-Stranded RNA, + Strand, Nonenveloped
    Hepatitis E virus
    Norovirus causes gastroenteritis.
    Table 13.2 (8 of 20)
  • 72. Single-Stranded RNA, + Strand, Enveloped
    Alphavirus
    Alphaviruses are transmitted by arthropods; include EEE, WEE.
    Rubivirus (rubella virus)
    Table 13.2 (9 of 20)
  • 73. Single-Stranded RNA, + Strand, Enveloped
    Arboviruses can replicate in arthropods; include yellow fever, dengue, SLE, and West Nile viruses
    Hepatitis C virus
    Table 13.2 (10 of 20)
  • 74. Single-Stranded RNA, + Strand, Enveloped
    Coronavirus
    Upper respiratory infections
    SARS
    Table 13.2 (11 of 20)
  • 75. Single-Stranded RNA, – Strand, One RNA Strand
    Vesiculovirus
    Lyssavirus (rabies virus)
    Cause numerous animal diseases
    Table 13.2 (12 of 20)
  • 76. Single-Stranded RNA, – Strand, One RNA Strand
    Filovirus
    Enveloped, helical viruses
    Ebola and Marburg viruses
    Table 13.2 (13 of 20)
  • 77. Single-Stranded RNA, – Strand, One RNA Strand
    Paramyxovirus
    Morbillivirus
    Paramyxovirus
    Parainfluenza
    Mumps
    Newcastle disease
    Table 13.2 (14 of 20)
  • 78. Single-Stranded RNA, – Strand, One RNA Strand
    Hepatitis D virus
    Depends on coinfection with Hepadnavirus
    Table 13.2 (15 of 20)
  • 79. Single-Stranded RNA, – Strand, Multiple RNA Strands
    Influenzavirus (Influenza viruses A and B)
    Influenza C virus
    Envelope spikes can agglutinate RBCs.
    Table 13.2 (16 of 20)
  • 80. Crossing the Species Barrier
    UN 13.3
  • 81. Single-Stranded RNA, – Strand, Multiple RNA Strands
    Bunyavirus (CE virus)
    Hantavirus
    Table 13.2 (17 of 20)
  • 82. Single-Stranded RNA, – Strand, Multiple RNA Strands
    Arenavirus
    Helical capsids contain RNA-containing granules
    Lymphocytic choriomeningitis
    VEE and Lassa Fever
    Table 13.2 (18 of 20)
  • 83. Single-Stranded RNA, Two RNA Strands, Produce DNA
    Lentivirus (HIV)
    Oncogenic viruses
    Use reverse transcriptase to produce DNA from viral genome.
    Includes all RNA tumor viruses
    Table 13.2 (19 of 20)
  • 84. Double-Stranded RNA, Nonenveloped
    Reovirus
    (Respiratory Enteric Orphan)
    Rotavirus
    Mild respiratory infections and gastroenteritis
    Colorado tick fever
    Table 13.2 (20 of 20)