Fungi virus class

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Fungi virus class

  1. 1. 12<br />The Eukaryotes: Fungi, Algae, Protozoa, and Helminths<br />
  2. 2. Eukaryotic<br />Aerobic or facultatively anaerobic<br />Chemoheterotrophic<br />Most are decomposers<br />Mycology is the study of fungi<br />The Fungi<br />
  3. 3. Mycology: The Study of Fungi<br />Table 12.2<br />
  4. 4. Fungi<br />Table 12.1<br />
  5. 5. Molds<br />The fungal thallus consists of hyphae; a mass of hyphae is a mycelium.<br />Figure 12.2<br />
  6. 6. Yeasts<br />Unicellular fungi<br />Fission yeasts divide symmetrically<br />Budding yeasts divide asymmetrically<br />Figure 12.3<br />
  7. 7. Dimorphism<br />Pathogenic dimorphic fungi are yeastlike at 37°C and moldlike at 25°C<br />Figure 12.4<br />
  8. 8. Fungal Life Cycle<br />Figure 12.7<br />
  9. 9. Fungal Diseases (Mycoses)<br />Systemic mycoses: Deep within body<br />Subcutaneous mycoses: Beneath the skin<br />Cutaneous mycoses: Affect hair, skin, and nails<br />Superficial mycoses: Localized, e.g., hair shafts<br />Opportunistic mycoses: Caused by normal microbiota or environmental fungi<br />
  10. 10. Asexual Spores<br />Sporangiosphore<br />Conidiospore<br />Arthrospore<br />Blastoconidium<br />Chlamydospore<br />Figure 12.1<br />
  11. 11. Conidiospores<br />Figure 12.5a–c<br />
  12. 12. Sexual Reproduction<br />Plasmogamy: Haploid donor cell nucleus (+) penetrates cytoplasm of recipient cell (–).<br />Karyogamy: + and – nuclei fuse.<br />Meiosis:Diploid nucleus produces haploid nuclei (sexual spores).<br />
  13. 13. Sexual Spores<br />Zygospore: Fusion of haploid cells produces one zygospore.<br />Figure 12.6<br />
  14. 14. Sexual Spores<br />Ascospore: Formed in a sac (ascus).<br />Figure 12.7<br />
  15. 15. Sexual Spores<br />Basidiospore: Formed externally on a pedestal (basidium).<br />Figure 12.8<br />
  16. 16. Zygomycota<br />Conjugation fungi<br />Coenocytic<br />Produce sporangiospores and zygospores<br />Rhizopus, Mucor (opportunistic, systemic mycoses)<br />
  17. 17. Zygomycete Life Cycle<br />Figure 12.6<br />
  18. 18. Ascomycota<br />Sac fungi<br />Septate<br />Produce ascospores and frequently conidiospores.<br />Aspergillus (opportunistic, systemic mycosis)<br />Blastomyces dermatitidis, Histoplasma capsulatum (systemic mycoses)<br />Microsporum, Trichophyton (cutaneous mycoses)<br />
  19. 19. Ascomycete Life Cycle<br />Figure 12.7<br />
  20. 20. Basidiomycota<br />Club fungi<br />Septate<br />Produce basidiospores and sometimes conidiospores.<br />Cryptococcus neoformans (systematic mycosis)<br />
  21. 21. Basidiomycete Life Cycle<br />Figure 12.8<br />
  22. 22. Anamorphs<br />Teleomorphic fungi<br />Produce sexual and asexual spores.<br />Anamorphic fungi<br />Produce asexual spores only.<br />rRNA sequencing places most in Ascomycota; a few are Basidiomycota.<br />Penicillium<br />Sporothrix (subcutaneous mycosis)<br />Stachybotrys, Coccidioides, Pneumocystis (systemic mycoses)<br />Candida albicans (Cutaneous mycoses)<br />
  23. 23. Economic Effects of Fungi<br />
  24. 24. Lichens<br />Mutualistic combination of an alga (or cyanobacterium) and fungus.<br />Alga produces and secretes carbohydrates; fungus provides holdfast.<br />
  25. 25. Lichens<br />Figure 12.10<br />
  26. 26. The Algae<br />Eukaryotic<br />Unicellular, filamentous, or multicellular (thallic)<br />Most are photoautotrophs<br />
  27. 27. Algae<br />Table 12.1<br />
  28. 28. Algae<br />Figure 12.11a<br />
  29. 29. Dinoflagellata<br />Dinoflagellates<br />Cellulose in plasma membrane<br />Unicellular<br />Chlorophyll a and c, carotene, xanthins<br />Store starch<br />Some are symbionts in marine animals<br />Neurotoxins cause paralytic shellfish poisoning<br />Figure 12.14<br />
  30. 30. 13<br />Viruses, Viroids, and Prions<br />
  31. 31. Viruses<br />Contain DNA or RNA<br />Contain a protein coat<br />Some are enclosed by an envelope<br />Some viruses have spikes<br />Most viruses infect only specific types of cells in one host<br />Host range is determined by specific host attachment sites and cellular factors<br />
  32. 32. Viruses<br />Figure 13.1<br />
  33. 33. Helical Viruses<br />Figure 13.4a–b<br />
  34. 34. Polyhedral Viruses<br />Figure 13.2a–b<br />
  35. 35. Enveloped Viruses<br />Figure 13.3<br />
  36. 36. Complex Viruses<br />Figure 13.5a<br />
  37. 37. Viral Taxonomy<br />Family names end in -viridae.<br />Genus names end in -virus.<br />Viral species: A group of viruses sharing the same genetic information and ecological niche (host). Common names are used for species.<br />Subspecies are designated by a number.<br />
  38. 38. Viral Taxonomy<br />Herpesviridae<br />Herpesvirus<br />Human herpes virus HHV-1, HHV-2, HHV-3<br />Retroviridae<br />Lentivirus<br />Human immunodeficiency virus HIV-1, HIV-2<br />
  39. 39. Growing Viruses<br />Viruses must be grown in living cells.<br />Bacteriophages form plaques on a lawn of bacteria.<br />Figure 13.6<br />
  40. 40. Growing Viruses<br />Animal viruses may be grown in living animals or in embryonated eggs.<br />Figure 13.7<br />
  41. 41. Growing Viruses<br />Animal and plants viruses may be grown in cell culture.<br />Continuous cell lines may be maintained indefinitely.<br />Figure 13.8<br />
  42. 42. Virus Identification<br />Cytopathic effects<br />Serological tests<br />Detect antibodies against viruses in a patient.<br />Use antibodies to identify viruses in neutralization tests, viral hemagglutination, and Western blot.<br />Nucleic acids<br />RFLPs<br />PCR<br />
  43. 43. Virus Identification<br />Figure 13.9<br />
  44. 44. Multiplication of Bacteriophages (Lytic Cycle)<br />Attachment: Phage attaches by tail fibers to host cell.<br />Penetration: Phage lysozyme opens cell wall, tail sheath contracts to force tail core and DNA into cell.<br />Biosynthesis: Production of phage DNA and proteins.<br />Maturation: Assembly of phage particles.<br />Release: Phage lysozyme breaks cell wall.<br />
  45. 45. 1<br />2<br />3<br />Figure 13.11, steps 1–3, 6–7<br />
  46. 46. 4<br />Figure 13.11, steps 4–5, 8<br />
  47. 47. One-Step Growth Curve<br />Figure 13.10<br />
  48. 48. Lytic cycle: Phage causes lysis and death of host cell.<br />Lysogenic cycle: Prophage DNA incorporated in host DNA.<br />
  49. 49. The Lysogenic Cycle<br />Figure 13.12<br />
  50. 50. 2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />Specialized Transduction<br />Figure 13.13<br />
  51. 51. Multiplication of Animal viruses<br />Attachment: Viruses attach to cell membrane.<br />Penetration by endocytosis or fusion.<br />Uncoating by viral or host enzymes.<br />Biosynthesis: Production of nucleic acid and proteins.<br />Maturation: Nucleic acid and capsid proteins assemble.<br />Release by budding (enveloped viruses) or rupture.<br />
  52. 52. Attachment, Penetration, and Uncoating<br />Pinocytosis<br />Figure 13.14a<br />
  53. 53. Attachment, Penetration, and Uncoating<br />Fusion<br />Figure 13.14b<br />
  54. 54. Release of an Enveloped Virus by Budding<br />Figure 13.20<br />
  55. 55. Multiplication of DNA Virus<br />Figure 13.15<br />
  56. 56. DNA and RNA Viruses Compared<br />DNA: Cellular enzyme transcribes viral DNA in nucleus.<br />DNA, reverse transcriptase: Cellular enzyme transcribes viral DNA in nucleus; reverse transcriptase copies mRNA to make viral DNA.<br />RNA, + strand: Viral RNA is a template for synthesis of RNA polymerase.<br />
  57. 57. DNA and RNA Viruses Compared<br />RNA – strand: Viral enzyme copies viral RNA to make mRNA in cytoplasm. <br />RNA, double-stranded: Viral enzyme copies – strand RNA to make mRNA in cytoplasm.<br />RNA, reverse transcriptase: Viral enzyme copes viral RNA to make DNA in cytoplasm.<br />
  58. 58. Cancer<br />Activated oncogenes transform normal cells into cancerous cells.<br />Transformed cells have increased growth, loss of contact inhibition, tumor specific transplant and T antigens.<br />The genetic material of oncogenic viruses becomes integrated into the host cell's DNA.<br />
  59. 59. Oncogenic Viruses<br />Oncogenic DNA viruses<br />Adenoviridae<br />Heresviridae<br />Poxviridae<br />Papovaviridae<br />Hepadnaviridae<br />Oncogenic RNA viruses<br />Retroviridae<br />Viral RNA is transcribed to DNA which can integrate into host DNA<br />HTLV 1<br />HTLV 2<br />
  60. 60. Latent viral infections<br />Virus remains in asymptomatic host cell for long periods.<br />Cold sores, shingles<br />Presistent viral infections<br />Disease processes occurs over a long period; generally is fatal.<br />Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (measles virus)<br />Figure 13.21<br />
  61. 61. Infectious proteins<br />Inherited and transmissible by ingestion, transplant, and surgical instruments<br />Spongiform encephalopathies: Sheep scrapie, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome, fatal familial insomnia, mad cow disease<br />PrPC: Normal cellular prion protein, on cell surface<br />PrPSc: Scrapie protein; accumulates in brain cells forming plaques<br />PLAY<br />Animation: Prion Reproduction<br />Prions<br />
  62. 62. Some Plant Viruses<br />Table 13.6<br />
  63. 63. Virus Families<br />Single-stranded DNA, nonenveloped viruses<br />Parvoviridae<br />Human parvovirus<br />Fifth disease<br />Anemia in immunocompromised patients<br />Table 13.2 (1 of 20) <br />
  64. 64.
  65. 65. Double-Stranded DNA, Nonenveloped Viruses<br />Mastadenovirus<br />Respiratory infections in humans<br />Tumors in animals<br />Table 13.2 (2 of 20) <br />
  66. 66. Double-Stranded DNA, Nonenveloped Viruses<br />Papillomavirus (human wart virus)<br />Polyomavirus<br />Cause tumors; some cause cancer<br />Table 13.2 (3 of 20) <br />
  67. 67. Double-Stranded DNA, Enveloped Viruses<br />Orthopoxvirus (vaccinia and smallpox viruses)<br />Molluscipoxvirus<br />Smallpox<br />Molluscumcontagiosum<br />Cowpox<br />Table 13.2 (4 of 20) <br />
  68. 68. Double-Stranded DNA, Enveloped Viruses<br />Simplexvirus (HHV1 and HHV 2)<br />Varicellavirus (HHV 3)<br />Lymphocryptovirus (HHV 4)<br />Cytomegalovirus (HHV 5)<br />Roseolovirus (HHV 6)<br />HHV 7<br />Kaposi's sarcoma (HHV 8)<br />Some herpesviruses can remain latent in host cells.<br />Table 13.2 (5 of 20) <br />
  69. 69. Double-Stranded DNA, Enveloped Viruses<br />Hepadnavirus (Hepatitis B virus)<br />Use reverse transcriptase to produce DNA from mRNA.<br />Table 13.2 (6 of 20) <br />
  70. 70. Single-Stranded RNA, + Strand, Nonenveloped<br />Enterovirus<br />Enteroviruses include poliovirus and coxsackievirus.<br />Rhinovirus<br />Hepatitis A virus<br />Table 13.2 (7 of 20) <br />
  71. 71. Single-Stranded RNA, + Strand, Nonenveloped<br />Hepatitis E virus<br />Norovirus causes gastroenteritis.<br />Table 13.2 (8 of 20) <br />
  72. 72. Single-Stranded RNA, + Strand, Enveloped<br />Alphavirus<br />Alphaviruses are transmitted by arthropods; include EEE, WEE.<br />Rubivirus (rubella virus)<br />Table 13.2 (9 of 20) <br />
  73. 73. Single-Stranded RNA, + Strand, Enveloped<br />Arboviruses can replicate in arthropods; include yellow fever, dengue, SLE, and West Nile viruses<br />Hepatitis C virus<br />Table 13.2 (10 of 20) <br />
  74. 74. Single-Stranded RNA, + Strand, Enveloped<br />Coronavirus<br />Upper respiratory infections<br />SARS<br />Table 13.2 (11 of 20) <br />
  75. 75. Single-Stranded RNA, – Strand, One RNA Strand<br />Vesiculovirus<br />Lyssavirus (rabies virus)<br />Cause numerous animal diseases<br />Table 13.2 (12 of 20) <br />
  76. 76. Single-Stranded RNA, – Strand, One RNA Strand<br />Filovirus<br />Enveloped, helical viruses<br />Ebola and Marburg viruses<br />Table 13.2 (13 of 20) <br />
  77. 77. Single-Stranded RNA, – Strand, One RNA Strand<br />Paramyxovirus<br />Morbillivirus<br />Paramyxovirus<br />Parainfluenza<br />Mumps<br />Newcastle disease<br />Table 13.2 (14 of 20) <br />
  78. 78. Single-Stranded RNA, – Strand, One RNA Strand<br />Hepatitis D virus<br />Depends on coinfection with Hepadnavirus<br />Table 13.2 (15 of 20) <br />
  79. 79. Single-Stranded RNA, – Strand, Multiple RNA Strands<br />Influenzavirus (Influenza viruses A and B)<br />Influenza C virus<br />Envelope spikes can agglutinate RBCs.<br />Table 13.2 (16 of 20) <br />
  80. 80. Crossing the Species Barrier<br />UN 13.3<br />
  81. 81. Single-Stranded RNA, – Strand, Multiple RNA Strands<br />Bunyavirus (CE virus)<br />Hantavirus<br />Table 13.2 (17 of 20) <br />
  82. 82. Single-Stranded RNA, – Strand, Multiple RNA Strands<br />Arenavirus<br />Helical capsids contain RNA-containing granules<br />Lymphocytic choriomeningitis<br />VEE and Lassa Fever<br />Table 13.2 (18 of 20) <br />
  83. 83. Single-Stranded RNA, Two RNA Strands, Produce DNA<br />Lentivirus (HIV)<br />Oncogenic viruses<br />Use reverse transcriptase to produce DNA from viral genome.<br />Includes all RNA tumor viruses<br />Table 13.2 (19 of 20) <br />
  84. 84. Double-Stranded RNA, Nonenveloped<br />Reovirus<br /> (Respiratory Enteric Orphan)<br />Rotavirus<br />Mild respiratory infections and gastroenteritis<br />Colorado tick fever<br />Table 13.2 (20 of 20) <br />

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