PUTLA MO.   IKAW NANGI-ANEMIC KA   NGITIM KA NA!NOH?!       CYANOTIC KA!            INTUBATE KITA!
 is the state of narcosis, analgesia, relaxation and loss of reflex the client is not arousable even to painful stimuli
ANESTHESIOLOGIST- physician trained to deliver anesthesia and to monitor patient during surgeryANESTHETIST- health care pr...
1. To produce muscle relaxation2. Analgesia3. Loss of memory4. Artificial sleep   (unconsciousness)5. Relieves fear and an...
 Physical condition Age Presence of co-existing disease Type, site, duration of surgery Anesthesiologist’s preference...
1.Beginning2.Excitement3.Surgical4.Medullary
1.GENERAL  ANESTHESIA2.REGIONAL  ANESTHESIA
 General anesthesia  Loss of all sensation and    consciousness Regional or Local anesthesia   Loss of sensation in ON...
 Blocks the pain stimulus at the  cortex Total loss of consciousness and  sensation Produces amnesia, analgesia,  hypno...
WHAT are theADVANTAGES:DISADVANTAGE:
1.   IV INFUSION2.   INHALATION    Mask    Nasal    Oral    tracheal
1.   TRANQUILIZERS AND SEDATIVE HYPNOTICS     (Benzodiazepines)       a. Midazolam (Dormicum)       b. Diazepam (Valium)  ...
2.    OPIOIDS (Narcotics)     a. Morphine     b. Meperidine HCl (Demerol)
3.    NEUROLEPANALGESICS     a. Fentanyl (Sublimaze)     b. Sufentanil4.    DISSOCIATIVE AGENTS     a. Ketamine (Ketaralac...
5.  BARBITURATES   a. Thiopental Na (Pentothal)   b. Methohexital Na (Brevital)6. NONBARBITURATES HYPNOTICS   a. Etomidate...
5.  BARBITURATES   a. Thiopental Na (Pentothal)   b. Methohexital Na (Brevital)6. NONBARBITURATES HYPNOTICS   a. Etomidate...
1.       Positioning2.       IV line3.       Monitoring4.       Strap5.       Rapid acting drugs            Thiopental (P...
KEY POINTS DURING INDUCTION!1. Circulator should remain2. Gentle and rapid approach3. Avoid stimulation of the patient (ma...
1.    VOLATILE LIQUIDS:     a. Halothane (Fluothane)     b. Methoxyflurane (Penthrane)     c. Enflutane (Ethrane)     d. I...
2.    GASES:     a. Nitrous oxide
  Produces loss of sensation in only one   region of the body and does not cause   loss of consciousness Blocks pain sti...
1. TOPICAL – directly applied into   the area to be desensitized with   the use of a solution2. LOCAL INFILTRATION BLOCK –...
1.   FIELD BLOCK – areas proximal to     the incision site is injected and     infiltrated a barrier (“WALL IN”)2.   PERIP...
Blocks impulses along the spinal cord and nerve roots and may occur either in the subarachnoid or epidural space
1. SPINAL – produces a nerve block in   the subarachnoid space2. EPIDURAL – injection of local   anesthetic into the spina...
TOPICAL        Applied directly on               the skinINFILTRATION   Injected into a               specific area of ski...
1. Lidocaine (Xylocaine) and   Mepivacaine (Carbocaine)2. Bupivacaine (Marcaine)3. Etidocaine (Duranest)4. Procaine (Novoc...
1. Procaine (Novocaine)2. Tetracaine (Pontocaine)3. Lidocaine (Xylocaine)4. Bupivacaine (Marcaine)
Anesthesia
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Anesthesia

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Credits to Ma'am Evangeline Teruel

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Anesthesia

  1. 1. PUTLA MO. IKAW NANGI-ANEMIC KA NGITIM KA NA!NOH?! CYANOTIC KA! INTUBATE KITA!
  2. 2.  is the state of narcosis, analgesia, relaxation and loss of reflex the client is not arousable even to painful stimuli
  3. 3. ANESTHESIOLOGIST- physician trained to deliver anesthesia and to monitor patient during surgeryANESTHETIST- health care professional, such as a nurse anesthetist, who is trained to deliver anesthesia and to monitor the patients condition during surgeryANESTHETIC- the substance such as a chemical gas, used to induced anesthesia
  4. 4. 1. To produce muscle relaxation2. Analgesia3. Loss of memory4. Artificial sleep (unconsciousness)5. Relieves fear and anxiety
  5. 5.  Physical condition Age Presence of co-existing disease Type, site, duration of surgery Anesthesiologist’s preference Patient’s preference
  6. 6. 1.Beginning2.Excitement3.Surgical4.Medullary
  7. 7. 1.GENERAL ANESTHESIA2.REGIONAL ANESTHESIA
  8. 8.  General anesthesia  Loss of all sensation and consciousness Regional or Local anesthesia  Loss of sensation in ONE area with consciousness present
  9. 9.  Blocks the pain stimulus at the cortex Total loss of consciousness and sensation Produces amnesia, analgesia, hypnosis and relaxation
  10. 10. WHAT are theADVANTAGES:DISADVANTAGE:
  11. 11. 1. IV INFUSION2. INHALATION  Mask  Nasal  Oral  tracheal
  12. 12. 1. TRANQUILIZERS AND SEDATIVE HYPNOTICS (Benzodiazepines) a. Midazolam (Dormicum) b. Diazepam (Valium) c. Chlordiazepoxide (Librium) d. Droperidol (Inapsine) e. Lorazepam (Ativan)
  13. 13. 2. OPIOIDS (Narcotics) a. Morphine b. Meperidine HCl (Demerol)
  14. 14. 3. NEUROLEPANALGESICS a. Fentanyl (Sublimaze) b. Sufentanil4. DISSOCIATIVE AGENTS a. Ketamine (Ketaralac; Ketajact)
  15. 15. 5. BARBITURATES a. Thiopental Na (Pentothal) b. Methohexital Na (Brevital)6. NONBARBITURATES HYPNOTICS a. Etomidate (Amidate) b. Propofol (Diprivan)
  16. 16. 5. BARBITURATES a. Thiopental Na (Pentothal) b. Methohexital Na (Brevital)6. NONBARBITURATES HYPNOTICS a. Etomidate (Amidate) b. Propofol (Diprivan)
  17. 17. 1. Positioning2. IV line3. Monitoring4. Strap5. Rapid acting drugs  Thiopental (Pentothal)  Propofol (Diprovan)  Methohexital (Brevital)6. O2 and Gas via mask7. Muscle relaxant  ADULT: Succiniylcholine chloride (Anectine)  PEDIA: ▪ Rocuronium (Zemuron) ▪ Atracurium (Tracrium) ▪ Vecuronium (Norcuron)8. INTUBATION
  18. 18. KEY POINTS DURING INDUCTION!1. Circulator should remain2. Gentle and rapid approach3. Avoid stimulation of the patient (mandatory) “noise avoidance”4. Do not touch patient until anesthesiologist says it is safe to do so5. Precaution: ECG, defib, chest stet, BP6. Positioning: if obese elevate head to avoid pressure (protect diaphragm)7. If hypotensive- flat8. Children: circulator- to be less frightening stay close to the child
  19. 19. 1. VOLATILE LIQUIDS: a. Halothane (Fluothane) b. Methoxyflurane (Penthrane) c. Enflutane (Ethrane) d. Isoflurane (Forane) e. Sevoflurane (Ultrane) f. Desflurane (Suprane)
  20. 20. 2. GASES: a. Nitrous oxide
  21. 21.  Produces loss of sensation in only one region of the body and does not cause loss of consciousness Blocks pain stimulus at its: 1. Origin 2. Along afferent neurons 3. Along the spinal cord
  22. 22. 1. TOPICAL – directly applied into the area to be desensitized with the use of a solution2. LOCAL INFILTRATION BLOCK – blocks only peripheral nerves around the area of incision
  23. 23. 1. FIELD BLOCK – areas proximal to the incision site is injected and infiltrated a barrier (“WALL IN”)2. PERIPHERAL NERVE BLOCK – anesthetizes individual nerves or nerve plexuses rather than all the nerves anesthetized by a field block
  24. 24. Blocks impulses along the spinal cord and nerve roots and may occur either in the subarachnoid or epidural space
  25. 25. 1. SPINAL – produces a nerve block in the subarachnoid space2. EPIDURAL – injection of local anesthetic into the spinal canal in the space surrounding the dura mater3. CAUDAL (TRANS-SACRAL) – produces anesthesia of the perineum and occasionally, the lower abdomen
  26. 26. TOPICAL Applied directly on the skinINFILTRATION Injected into a specific area of skinNERVE BLOCK Injected around a nerveSPINAL Low spinalSubarachnoid anesthesiaEPIDURAL Epidural space is injected with anesthesia
  27. 27. 1. Lidocaine (Xylocaine) and Mepivacaine (Carbocaine)2. Bupivacaine (Marcaine)3. Etidocaine (Duranest)4. Procaine (Novocaine)5. Tetracaine (Pontocaine)
  28. 28. 1. Procaine (Novocaine)2. Tetracaine (Pontocaine)3. Lidocaine (Xylocaine)4. Bupivacaine (Marcaine)
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