Personalization Principle by Group A

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This presentation covers the Personalization Principle including Conversational Style, Onscreen Coaches, and Visible Authors.

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  • Personalization Principle by Group A

    1. 1. The Personalization Principle of e-Learning As presented by Study Group A Information in this presentation is taken from the text by Clark & Mayer: “ e-Learning and the Science of Instruction”, 2008
    2. 2. Content <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Personalization Principles 1, 2, and 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Conversational Style </li></ul><ul><li>Conversational Style: Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>On Screen Coaches </li></ul><ul><li>On Screen Coaches: Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Visible Authors </li></ul><ul><li>Visible Authors: Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul>
    3. 3. Personalization Principle Defined <ul><li>People learn more deeply from multimedia lessons when learners experience heightened social presence, as when a conversational script or learning agents are used. </li></ul>
    4. 4. A More “Personal” Personalization Principle Definition <ul><li>We learn more deeply from multimedia lessons when we experience heightened social awareness by interacting with a conversational script or learning agent. </li></ul><ul><li>Did you see a difference? Lets find out why. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Personalization Principles <ul><li>Use Conversational Style Rather than Formal Style </li></ul><ul><li>Use Effective On-Screen Coaches to Promote Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Make the Author Visible to Promote Learning </li></ul>
    6. 6. Conversational Style <ul><li>A writing style that uses first and second person constructions, active voice, and speech-like phrases. </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking with a friendly human voice </li></ul><ul><li>Using polite wording </li></ul>
    7. 7. Personalization Principle 1 <ul><li>We should use conversational instead of formal writing so learners interact with the computer as a social partner </li></ul><ul><li>We want to avoid impersonal third person language it turns learners off </li></ul>
    8. 8. Why Use Conversational Style? <ul><li>Research shows we work harder to comprehend when we interact socially </li></ul><ul><li>Social cues engage our minds in deeper cognitive processing and deeper learning </li></ul>+ =
    9. 9. How to Use Conversational Style <ul><li>Instead of a distant third person like in this slide we should use first and second person statements </li></ul><ul><li>We can replace “teacher”, “students”, or “learners” with “I”, “my”, “we”, “our”, “you”, or “your” </li></ul><ul><li>Our goal is a more user-friendly tone </li></ul>
    10. 10. How to Use Conversational Style <ul><li>We should use first and second person – replace third person with “I”, “we”, “me”, “my”, “you”, and/or “your” </li></ul><ul><li>Impersonal text: </li></ul><ul><li>“ YouTube is a social networking where people can view and share videos.” </li></ul><ul><li>Text after personalization principle applied: </li></ul><ul><li>“ YouTube is a social networking where you and I can view and share videos.” </li></ul>
    11. 11. Voice Quality People learn better from agents in eLearning situations when the narrator uses a human voice rather than a machine voice. Human = Good Machine = Bad
    12. 12. Polite Speech vs. Direct Statements On-screen agents are more effective when using polite speech and indirect statements that allow the learner freedom of action. Polite, Indirect Let’s press the escape key. This might be a good time for you to find a common denominator. If you are done, you might want to click the ‘next’ button. Direct Statements Press the escape key. Find a common denominator. Click the next button now. Effective Ineffective
    13. 13. On-Screen Coaches <ul><li>Are characters on the computer screen that teach learning material </li></ul><ul><li>They demonstrate techniques and direct learning </li></ul><ul><li>Learners generate more correct responses with on-screen coaches </li></ul>
    14. 14. Examples of On-Screen Coaches <ul><li>Examples of websites that provide on-screen coaches: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voki Characters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Code Baby Virtual Agents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vcom3D Characters </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. On-Screen Coaches: Characteristics <ul><li>Must sound conversational </li></ul><ul><li>Can look real or cartoon-like </li></ul><ul><li>Better to present words as speech rather than text </li></ul><ul><li>Use On-Screen coaches to provide: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worked examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explanations </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Visible Authors Visible authors are visible on the screen.
    17. 17. Characteristics of Visible Authors <ul><li>Promotes and increases learner motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Speaks directly to the reader in a personal style </li></ul>
    18. 18. Review Questions <ul><li>Which of the following better enriches learning provided from multimedia? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A well scripted formal teaching style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A informal conversational teaching style </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When writing conversational style of learning, it is more effective to incorporate which of the following? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct facts or statements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use more polite wording </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Review Questions Continued <ul><li>When incorporating voice into multimedia lessons, the learner responds better which of the following </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A human voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A machine voice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When utilizing an on-screen coach to teach, which of the following is more likely to occur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The learner is more likely to generate more correct responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The tool would become a distraction which would interfere with learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When applying a visible author to learning, which of the following should apply? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You should continue to the informal approach of teaching since the avatar is present. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You should speak directly to the readers in a personal style. </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Conclusion <ul><li>Material using a conversational writing style and the addition of on-screen characters can be more effective for some types of learners. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Personalization Resources <ul><li>Personalization of Web Services- Opportunities and Challenges: How to use Personalization in Marketing: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue28/personalization/ </li></ul><ul><li>How to Write in a Conversational Style: </li></ul><ul><li>http://ezinearticles.com/?How-To-Write-a-Conversational-Style-Article&id =1082917 </li></ul><ul><li>Conversational Writing is better than Formal Writing: http://www.willatworklearning.com/2005/12/conversational_.html </li></ul><ul><li>How Pedagogical Agents Improve Instruction: </li></ul><ul><li>http:// coe.sdsu.edu/eet/articles/pedagents/index.htm </li></ul><ul><li>What is an Interactive Animated Pedagogical Agent?: http:// ldt.stanford.edu/~slater/pages/agents/main.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Agents that Reduce Work and Information Overload: http://web.media.mit.edu/~pattie/CACM-94/CACM-94.p1.html </li></ul>
    22. 22. Presentation References <ul><li>Information References : </li></ul><ul><li>Beck, I. L., McKeown, M. G., Sandora, C., Kucan, L., & Worthy, J. (1996). Questioning the Author. The Elementary School Journal , 95, 395–414. </li></ul><ul><li>Clark, R.C. & Mayer, R.E. (2008). Applying the personalization principle . (2nd Ed.), e-Learning and the science of instruction, (pp. 157-180). San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer. </li></ul><ul><li>Photo References: </li></ul><ul><li>http://library.galciv2.com/mvlib/ss/Fullview_CylonPortrait.PNG </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.research.att.com/~ttsweb/tts/demo.php </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.camct.com/shopping/standard/images/564_1_pic_conversation.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>Online agent group: http://www.vcom3d.com/images/custom_characters_large.png </li></ul><ul><li>Online tire agent: http:// www.codebaby.com/solutions/elearning.html </li></ul>

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