Excitability, Contractility, Extensibility (ability to contract even when stretched), elasticity
Ends of clavicals, between carpals and tarsals, between articular facets. Pivot: between atlas and axis around the dens Condyl: phalange/metacarpal/tarsal
Week 2 pp
Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Foundations of Structural Kinesiology 1-1Muscle contractions: Isometric, Isotonic, IsokineticWhich of these can be both concentric andeccentric?Which of these is static or dynamic?What is an agonist?Can these be more than one agonist in amovement?What’s the differences between a neutralizer andan agonist?
Manual ofStructural Kinesiology Foundations of Structural Kinesiology 1-2What is the difference between a synergist and anagonist?When the ant. and post. deltoids counteract oneanother’s movement to allow abduction are theyhelping synergists or neutralizers?What are the four properties of a skeletal muscle?How does elasticity differ from plasticity?
Plane/gliding joints: flat or slightly curvedfaces. Ligaments prevent much movementHinge joint: MonaxialPivot joint: only rotationCondylar joints: oval articular surface sits in adepression. Biaxial
Saddle joint: concave articular surface connectsto a convex surface. Allows extensive angularmotion. Biaxial.Ball and socket: round head sits in a cup-likedepression. Allows for circumduction. Triaxial.
Connective Tissue of MuscleEpimysium: Dense connective tissue surroundingthe entire muscle. Converges to become thetendon.Perimysium: Collagen and elastin with bloodvessels and nerves. Surrounds the fascicles(bundles of muscle fibers) and separates eachfascicle.
Connective Tissue of Muscle Con’t.Endomysium: Surrounds each muscle fiber and binds it toits neighbor. Satellite cells are found between theendomysium and the sarcolemma.
Muscle fiber is a myocyte or muscle cell.Has a plasma membrane with tubesContains organelles especially extensive SRMultiple nucleiContains several protiens such as actin, myosin and titinMay or may not have extensive mitochondriaContains many sarcomeres in series.Isozyme of ATPase influences fiber type
Sliding Filament Theory1. Action potential2. Release of Ach into the synaptic junction3. Depolarization across the sarcolemma and into the T tubules4. Release of Ca from the SR5. Ca binding onto Troponin6. Release of tropomyosin from myosin binding sites located onactin7. The energized yosin (from ATP hydrolysis) attaches to actinand pulls actin8. ATP attaches to myosin and myosin releases from actin causingATP hydrolysis and thus energizing the myosin head
http://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=sliding+filament+theory+animation&view=detail&mid=0B856D6FA538FDD89AA70B856D6FA538FDD89AA7&first=0&FORM=NVPFVR&qpvt=sliding+filament+theory+animationNumber of cross-bridges attached to actin at any one time dictatesforce production.
Calcium Release –Motor Unit Recruitment –Increased number of active motor unitsPreloadingCross sectional areaShortening velocity of a muscle –
Angle of pennation:Length-tension relationshipStretch-shortening cycleMuscle fiber type -
Muscles (force) cause movement of bones (levers) around a fulcrum orcenter of rotation. Resistive force can be overcome if the muscle force isgreater than the resistive force.First class lever: Muscle force and resistive force act on opposite sides ofthe fulcrum.Second class lever: Muscle force and resistive force act on the same sideof the fulcrum. (Or resistance is between the axis and the force)However, moment arm is longer than resistance arm. Due to themechanical advantage of the MA the MF overcomes the RF. Less MF isneeded to overcome the resistance.Third class lever: Muscle force and resistive force act on the same side ofthe fulcrum. However, the MA of the MF is smaller than the MA of theRF and ones loses mechanical advantage. Greater muscle force is neededto overcome the resistance. You must exert more energy.
OKC: Free movement of the terminal jointCKC: Terminal joint meets with considerableresistance that inhibits or restrains freemotion
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