Back and ab (part 2)

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Back and ab (part 2)

  1. 1. + ESS 3092: KINESIOLOGY Week 7
  2. 2. + Intervertebral Disc Bears & distributes load Mobility Nucleus pulposus  80-90% water  15-25 mm/day
  3. 3. + How many true ribs? How many false ribs? How many floating ribs? 4
  4. 4. Thoracic Cavity RIBS  true (7)  false (3)  floating (2)  costal cartilage STERNUM  manubrium  clavicular notch  body  costal facets  xiphoid process
  5. 5. + What are the 3 major muscles of the Erector Spinae? 6
  6. 6. Erector Spinae (sacrospinalis) Origin  Sacrum, spinous processes of lower two thoracic & all lumbar  Insertion  Transverse and spinous processes as well as ribs and skull  Location: Posterior  Movements (spine)  Extension (C & L)  Ipsilateral flexion  (C & L) Iliocostalis Longissimus Spinalis
  7. 7. + Cervical Joints 8
  8. 8. + Vertebral Column Cervical Joints Atlanto-occipital  Occipital condyles, 1st vertebrae  Flexion, extension (sag) Atlanto-axial  Atlas (C1), axis (C2)  Rotation  Pivot-joint  Most mobile Odontoid Process
  9. 9. + TPS: 4x6 card- List the stabilizers of the trunk Anterior Posterior Lateral 10
  10. 10. TrapeziusOrigin  spinous process (T), skull Insertion  lateral clavicle, acromion process, scapular spine Location  posterior Movements  elevation (upper & middle),  depression (lower)  retraction (adduction)  upward rotation (middle & lower) p. 66
  11. 11. Rhomboid Major & Minor Origin  spinous process (C7, T1-5) Insertion  medial border of scapula Location  posterior/medial Movements  downward rotation  elevation  retraction p. 69
  12. 12. Levator Scapulae Origin  transverse processes (C) Insertion  medial border of scapula Location  posterior Movements  elevation (primary)  retraction, downward rotation (assists) p. 68
  13. 13. VERTEBRAL COLUMN
  14. 14. + Quadratus Lumborum  Origin  Iliac crest  Insertion  12th rib and transverse process of the lumbar vertebrae  Actions  Lateral flexion  Lumbar extension 15
  15. 15. + Multifidus  Origin  Posterior sacrum  Superior iliac spine  Insertion  Spinous process of the vertebrae, excluding C1  Actions  Lateral flexion  Trunk extension 16
  16. 16. + Cervical Muscles Capitis  originate C vertebrae  insert occipital bone Anterior- flexors  lateral flexion Posterior – extensors  rotation  lateral flexion
  17. 17. SternocleidomastoidOrigin  Sternal manubrium, medial clavicle Insertion  Mastoid process of temporal bone Location: Lateral Movements  Flexion  Lateral flexion  Rotation
  18. 18. Splenius Capitis Origin (inferior)  Spinous process of C7-T4 Insertion  Mastoid process & occipital bone Location: Posterior Movements  Cervical Spine: Extension  Ipsilateral rotation, ipsilateral flexion CA
  19. 19. Splenius Cervicis  Origin (inferior)  Spinous processes of T3-6  Insertion  Transverse process of C1-3  Movements  Cervical Spine: Extension  Ipsilateral rotation, ipsilateral flexion 20
  20. 20. Semispinalis Origin  Transverse processes of C4-T7 Insertion  Occipital bone Location: Posterior Movements  Cervical Spine: Extension Contralateral rotation
  21. 21. Rectus Abdominis Origin  Pubic crest Insertion  Cartilage of ribs 5-7, xiphoid process Location: anterior Movements  Trunk flexion
  22. 22. Rectus Abdominis Controls  Post pelvic tilt & curvature LS  Flattens lower back  What effect does this have on erector spinae & hip flexors?  more effective Definition  3 depressions  area of tendinous connective tissue
  23. 23. External Oblique Origin  Lateral side of ribs 5-12 Insertion  Anterior iliac crest, pubic crest Location:  Lateral/Anterior Movements  Flexion (together)  Ipsilateral flexion  Contralateral rotation (independently)
  24. 24. Internal Oblique Origin  Anterior iliac crest Insertion  Cartilage of ribs 8-10 Location: anterior/medial Movements (LS)  Flexion  Ipsilateral flexion Fiber direction
  25. 25. Movement Analysis: Boxing Plane Axis Action Agonist Antagonist 26 PHASE 1 2
  26. 26. + KINESIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS SUMMARY SHEET ACTIVITY: Boxing 27 JOINT ANATOMICAL ACTION PLANE OF MOTION AXIS OF MOTION AGONIST MUSCLE(S) ANTAGONIST MUSCLE(S) Wrist Shoulder Elbow Neck Spine
  27. 27. + Common Injuries 28
  28. 28. + Common Injuries- Sprain Stretch and/or tear of a ligament, the fibrous band of connective tissue that joins the end of one bone with another Direct or indirect trauma knocks a joint out of position, and overstretches, and, in severe cases, ruptures the supporting ligaments  Landing on an outstretched arm; slides into a base; jumps up and lands on the side of the foot; or runs on an uneven surface 29
  29. 29. + Strain A strain is an injury of a muscle and/or tendon Chronic strains are the result of overuse (prolonged, repetitive movement) of muscles and tendons  Inadequate rest breaks during intensive training  Acute strains are caused by a direct blow to the body  Overstretching  Excessive muscle contraction 30
  30. 30. + Tendinitis  Inflammation, irritation, and swelling of a tendon  Can occur as a result of injury, overuse, or with aging as the tendon loses elasticity  Commonly affected sites include:  Elbow  Heel  Shoulder  Wrist 31
  31. 31. + Bursitis What is a bursa? “Flattened connective tissue sac that is lined by a synovial membrane” Fluid filled sac What causes bursitis? Injury Chronic pressure Infection 32
  32. 32. + Bursitis Cont.  X-ray testing can sometimes detect calcifications in the bursa when bursitis has been chronic or recurrent.  MRI scanning (magnetic resonance imaging) can also detect bursitis 33
  33. 33. + Herniated Disc 34
  34. 34. + Herniated Disc  When these cartilaginous discs are damaged from an injury, normal wear and tear, or disease, they may bulge abnormally or break open  If the herniated disc presses on a nerve root, it may cause pain, numbness, or tingling 35
  35. 35. + Osteoporosis/Osteopenia  Bone is living tissue, which is constantly being absorbed and replaced  Osteoporosis occurs when the creation of new bone doesn't keep up with the removal of old bone (osteoblast/osteoclasts)  Approximately 10 million Americans have osteoporosis  Estimates suggest that about half of all women older than 50, and up to one in four men, will break a bone because of osteoporosis 36
  36. 36. + Osteoporosis/Osteopenia  Women are far more likely to develop osteopenia and osteoporosis than men  RISK factors  Eating disorders or metabolism problems  Chemotherapy, or medicines such as steroids  Exposure to radiation  Genetics  Low body mass  White or Asian  Limited physical activity  Smoking  Regularly drinking soda  Drinking excessive amounts of alcohol 37
  37. 37. +Scoliosis Lateral deviation of the spine Primary cause: Weak musculature on the convex side Curvature plus vertebral rotation
  38. 38. +Kyphosis Excessive curvature of the thoracic region Primary cause: Compression/collapse or lack of vertebral bodies
  39. 39. +Lordosis (Lumbar/Cervical) Lumbar curvature Counteracts the anterior gravitational shift of kyphosis or seen with pregnancy
  40. 40. +Rotator Cuff Tear http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sVHe rudtPxEhttp://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=sVHerudtPxE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sVHerudtPxE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sVHerudtPxE
  41. 41. + Conditions associated with the spine Spinal Stenosis Causes: Abuse, age, natural progression Spurs, connective tissue changes, herniation, disease, inflammation Symptoms: Treatment:
  42. 42. + DJD/DDD
  43. 43. + Herniation/Rupture Intervertebral discs: Structural anatomy Function: Nutrient supply: As we age: Protrusion of the intervertebral disc Anteriorolateral/posterolateral Symptoms: Treatment:

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