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  1. 1. Research Baya Lee SafhillStephanie Yarrow
  2. 2. Audience Research2012 - (1,582 children and 1,491 adults)• 2% of both adults and children reported that they were vegetarian• Less than 1% reported following a vegan diet2011 - (1,095 children (1.5-18 years), 1,031 adults)• 2% of both adults and children reported that they were vegetarian• Less than 1% reported following a vegan diet2010 - (583 children (1.5-18 years), 548 adults)• 2% of both adults and children reported that they were vegetarian• Less than 1% reported following a vegan diet2011• 6% mainly vegetarian (ate fish but no meat)• 3% estimated to be completely vegetarian• 2001-2011 number of people completely vegetarian fell from 3 million to 1.9 million2007 - 1,003 adults• 8% claimed I, or another member of this household, is a vegetarian who perhaps eats fish• 7.5% claimed I, or another member of this household, used to be vegetarian, who perhaps ate fish2006 - 1,000 adults• 12% claimed to be vegetarian, or someone in the household was vegetarian• 9.9% claimed they, or someone else in the household, used be vegetarian
  3. 3. Vegetarian DemographicsThe Vegetarian Society guesses that there arearound 4 million vegetarians in UK which is 7%of the population, but recent surveys show thatthe figures near the 3 million mark which is 5%of the population.In 2001 the UK population had around 4% ofpeople which were vegetarians, which meantthat 16% of people ate meat free meals most ofthe time or all of the time.
  4. 4. FactThe meat-free and free-from food markets werevalued at £949 million for 2012 with almost four in10 consumers in the UK, buying vegetarian or meat-free food, while one in five (20%) have bought free-from food.Over 1.3 billion human beings could be fed eachyear from the grain and soybeans that go tolivestock in the United States.It takes 7.5 pounds of protein feed to create 1 poundof consumable hog protein; and it takes 5 pounds ofprotein feed to create 1 pound of consumablechicken protein. Close to 90% of protein from wheatand beans is lost to feed cycling.
  5. 5. HistoryVegetarianism is believed to have come from India andAncient Greece in the 5th century BCE.However Vegetarianism has now grown over almost allreligions and in almost all countries; especially in Egypt, Indiaand Asia; with beliefs that non-violence towards animals wasan ideal in life. This belief was promoted by religious groupsand Philosophers and spread the idea of Vegetarianism. Theidea that animals, if not most, were declared to be protectedspread the idea of Vegetarianism further.This covered all animals from parrots to bats to boneless fishto squirrel to all four-footed creatures. They would allow theanimals that had young or feeding their babies to beprotected too. They also wouldn’t allow people to burn downtrees/forests just so then they could get birds. It was allbanned by the “Edicts of Ashoka, Fifth Pillar”
  6. 6. When the Romans invaded Europe, vegetarianismdisappeared in all places apart from India. Inmedieval Europe some monks banned the eating offish; their fish were mammal like dolphins and seals.They also ate Porpoise, Barnacle geese, Puffin andbeavers.The first Vegetarian society was formed in 1847 inthe united Kingdom. Other countries followed likeGermany, Netherlands.The international Vegetarian union was founded in1908. During the 20th century the popularity ofVegetarianism grew as a result of nutritional, ethicaland environmental and economic concerns
  7. 7. Introduction and DefinitionVegetarianism is the practice of abstaining from theconsumption of meat. This includes redmeat, poultry, seafood and the flesh of any otheranimal. It may also include abstaining from the by-products of animal slaughter; this includes animal-derived rennet and gelatin, as well as animal producesuch as eggs and milk for example. Vegetarianismcovers Vegans and Vegetarians as well asLacto, Ovo, Ovo-Lacto, RawVeganism, Fruitarianism, Buddhist Vegetarianism andJain Vegetarianism.
  8. 8. Semi VegetarianismSemi vegetarian diets are diets that adopt oneaspect of meat into their diet, this can bepork, beef, fish, chicken etc. Semi vegetarian dietsinclude;• pescetarianism, which includes fish and seafood• pollotarianism, includes chicken and other poultry• pollo-pescetarian, a white meat only diet which includes poultry and fish• macrobiotic diets consisting mostly of whole grains and beans, but may sometimes include fish
  9. 9. What Vegetarians EatVegetarians abstain from eating meat, but this protein intakeneeds to replaced, and there are many meat substitutesavailable now for Vegetarians to consume.These include chicken, pork, fish and beef style products and canbe made from plant based materials from either soy or wheatprotein or from grains and pulses or mycroproteins. Theseproducts can be available fresh, dried or frozen and include foodssuch as Tofu, Tempeh, Seitan, Quorn (a branded form ofmycroprotein) as well and whole grains and legumes whichinclude pinto beans, navy beans, kidney beans, lentils, peanutsand other notes and black eyes and split peas.Link;
  10. 10. What Vegetarians Cannot EatDepending on how strict the vegetarian is depends on whatproducts they do and do not consume. However all meatbased products such as chicken, pork, beef, and fish areavoided. Foods that the individual has to decide onconsuming are animal products such as eggs, milk, honey,cheeses and creams, or animal by-products such as gelatinand animal derived rennet. Most sweets, especially jellystyled sweets contain gelatin and it is up to the Vegetarianto decide what they can and cannot eat, however most tendto avoid gelatin.
  11. 11. Why People Become VegetarianPeople become Vegetarian for a variety of reasons, howevermost choose to become Vegetarian due to not wanting toconsume meat; either on personal, religious of healthgrounds.We are going to explore why people become Vegetarian.
  12. 12. Animal Welfare and Animal RightsPeople usually become Vegetarian due to Ethical reasons andthis is known as Ethical Vegetarianism. Ethical Vegetarianism ispopular in developed countries such as the United States and theEurope due to the rise of factory farming and the lack of animalwelfare and animal rights that this causes.The Foods Standards Agency, along with the help of The RSPCAinvestigates cases of animal cruelty in farming, and set up a RedTractor, which helps consumers knows that the meat that theyare buying is produced to the required standards. However therehave been cases where this has been discovered to be untrue.Animal Cruelty in farming includes the mistreatment of animalsand abuse as well as a lack of medical treatment for sickanimals.
  13. 13. The news story to the right isfrom Farmers Weekly after anRSPCA investigation into RedTractor meat, discovered animalabuse at a pig farm in Norfolk.The RSPCA started to investigatethis farm due to receivingfootage from an insider thatrevealed the mistreatment ofpigs at the farm.Consumers can never be certainhow the meat that they arebuying and consuming, especiallywhen news stories such as theseare being produced, and this isone reason why people canabstain from eating meat.Link;
  14. 14. Health and Well BeingSome Vegetarians choose to abstain from eating meat on thegrounds of health reasons. Health reasons include animal tohuman disease transmission, personal health and dietaryreasons, as well as longevity reasons.
  15. 15. LongevityLongevity is used to describe life expectancy, and ways to increase someoneslife span through changes to their lifestyle and their diet.In 1999 a metastudy was created, and combined the data from five studiesconducted in Western countries. This metastudy reported mortality ratios aswell as the number of deaths in each category. It concluded that regular meateaters and Vegans shared a mortality rate of 1.00, which was higher that thatof fish eaters (pescetarians) at 0.82, Vegetarians at 0.84 and occasional meateaters (less that once a week) at 0.84.This shows that eating meat increasing mortality. However individual lifestylesvary and this could also have an impact, but the overall conclusion is thateating meat can increase mortality, and this could be a reason why somepeople become Vegetarian.
  16. 16. Animal to Human Disease TransmissionSome Vegetarians chose to become Vegetarian on the grounds of stoppingAnimal to Human Disease Transmission which arises when an infected animalhas infected a human, making them ill. An example of a Animal to HumanDisease Transmission is Salmonella, which has been reported to infect half ofall chickens that are sold in the United States alone.Cows also carry Animal to Human diseases, one of which is the BovineLeukaemia Virus which has been linked with the HTLV1 which causes cancersin humans. Cows also carry a form of HIV which is known as BIV – the BovineImmunodeficiency Virus – which can infect human cells.Animal to Human disease transmissions can also cause human cancers, birthdefects and mutations in babies, as well as many other diseases in humansaccording to scientists.Avian Influenza causes human deaths and is known as H5N1 and has beenfound in Chickens in Hong Kong in 1997 and in the UK in the spring of 2006.The next two slide shows how Avian Influenza was spread in the UK.Therefore avoiding eating meat decreases the chances of being affected thesediseases.Link;
  17. 17. Cancer and Other Illnesses People can also chose to become Vegetarian to help them recover or have a better quality of life from diseases and illnesses such as Arthritis and Cancer. This is due consuming a diet that is full of vitamins, phytochemicals and fibre, which are all essential in helping prevent, fight and recover from illnesses such as cancer. The article to the right is from the NHS describing that Vegetarians are less likely to develop cancer at a rate of -45%. A statement about why becoming Vegetarian or being Vegetarian, and its health benefits states that ‘One particular study made the link between dairy products and the risk of ovarian cancer due in part to the fact that the process to break down lactose (milk sugar) in turn damages the ovaries. For men, daily meatLinks; consumption increased their risk of prostatees/VegetarianDietCancerProtection.aspx enlargement by triple.’
  18. 18. ReligionPeople right adopt a Vegetarian diet due to religious, spiritual orphilosophical reasons, and many religions state that leading aVegetarian diet is beneficial.Religions that have Vegetarian diets are Baha’I Faith, Buddhism,Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Jainism, Judaism, Sikhism andRastafarism for a variety of reasons.We are going to explore these religions and why these Religionshave adopted this dietary choice.Links;
  19. 19. ChristianityDespite Vegetarianism being an uncommon practice in current Christian cultureit does occur especially with Seventh-Day Adventists, Quakers, members of theOrthodox Church and has its history of Vegetarianism from William Cowherd.Cowherd adopted a Vegetarian diet and founded the Bible Christian Church in1809. He was also one of the first people to found the philosophical beliefs of theVegetarian Society. He encouraged his members to abstain from eating meat.Seventh-day Adventists are encouraged to engage in healthy eating practices bythe General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists Nutrition Council (GCNC). Ova-lacto-vegetarian and Vegetarian diets are recommended by the GCNC for SeventhDay Adventists.Members of the Orthodox Church follow a vegan diet during fasts.Quakers have had a relation with Vegetarianism since the 1700s due to societypurity, social issues and vivisection, they founded the Friends Vegetarian Societyin 1902.Two diets which Christians follow are the Edenic diet and the Hallelujah Diet. TheEdenic diet is a diet based on what Adam and Eve are believed to have consumedin the Garden of Eden and it is either Vegetarian or Vegan but based on fruit, thisis popular amongst Christians.The Hallelujah diet was developed in 1970, and states that Christians should onlyconsume seed bearing plants and fruits and this is a form of Vegetarianism.
  20. 20. Baháí FaithThe Baháí Faith was founded in Persia, but is practiced by over six millionpeople in more than 200 countries in the world. Its faith has been created bythe messages from different messengers that include Moses, Buddha, Jesusand Muhammad among others.The Baháí Faith has no dietary restrictions in the Baháí Faith the son of thereligions founder (`Abdul-Bahá), stated to the faiths followers that avegetarian diet consisting of fruits and grains was ‘desirable’ to those peoplewho were not sick. Bahá stated that the ‘future society should graduallybecome vegetarian’ for the good of animal compassion.
  21. 21. BuddhismBuddhism does not have any specific dietary rules but some Buddhistspractice Vegetarianism. This is based on the strict interpretation of theFive Precepts.Vegetarianism has also been based on the Buddhist monks belief that ifthey ‘see, hear or know’ that a living animal has been killed for them toeat, they must refuse it, otherwise they will incur an offense fromBuddha.This does not include meat which has been commercially purchased forpeople to eat.Even though Buddha states that meat should be avoided, certain meatscannot be eaten at all and these are human, elephant, horse, dog,snake, lion, tiger, leopard, bear, and hyena meats due to theirsymbolism.Chinese Buddhists tend not to eat meat where as Tibetan and JapaneseBuddhists tend to as a majority
  22. 22. HinduismMany Hindis hold vegetarian belief for different reasons; theprinciple of nonviolence applied to animals; the intention tooffer only pure food to a deity and then to receive it back,and the conviction that a sentient diet is beneficial for ahealthy body and mind and that non-vegetarian food isessential for mind and spiritual development.Hindu vegetarians usually consume milk and dairy productsin a lacto-vegetarian diet.However, the food habits of Hindus vary according to theircommunity and according to regional traditions.
  23. 23. Rastafarian FaithThe Rastafarian faith, I-Tal, has a set of principles whichaffects the diet of many Rastafarians, and it states that onlynatural foods should be consumed, and as a result mostRastafarians tend to follow a Vegetarian diet.Other Religions That Follow Vegetarianism• Jainism• Judaism• Islamic• Sikhism• Latter Day Saint Movement
  24. 24. Sources of Information• PETA• Vegetarian Society• Quorn• Redwood• NHS Choices• The Food Doctor• Vegan Society
  25. 25. Companies that Produce Vegetarian Products• Redwood• Bute Island Foods – Sheese• Granose• Just Wholefoods• Orgran - Free From Foods• Soyatoo• Cauldron• Quorn• Linda McCartney
  26. 26. Quorn Foods’ vision is to help consumers eat more healthily and was launchednationally in 1995. It is the UK’s 35th biggest food brand. Quorn offers a widerange of meat-alternative products, made using Mycoprotein. Quorn productshave the taste and texture of meat and are significantly lower in saturated fat andcalories whilst being a good source of protein and fibre.Quorn products are available in 11 countries;• Sweden• Netherlands• Belgium• Denmark• Norway• Switzerland• Republic of Ireland• United States• Australia• New Zealand• UK
  27. 27. Redwood Redwood are a company that specialises in foods that are totally free from animal ingredients; alternatives to meat and fish to dairy free cheeses from natural plant based foods. Redwood Foods are also free from hydrogenated fats, eggs, GMOs, cholesterol , artificial colours and preservatives.
  28. 28. The Vegetarian SocietyThe Vegetarian Society was created in 1847 togive support, advice and information to helpvegetarians people and to inform the public ofVegetarianism.The Vegetarian Society is an educational charityworking to support, represent and increase thenumber of Vegetarians in the UK.The Vegetarian Society works alongsidebusinesses, government agencies and charitiesand relies on membership subscriptions anddonations to continue its work.
  29. 29. Approved products ad cateringThe Vegetarian Society states that for a product to beapproved by the Vegetarian Society as Vegetarian it mustfulfil all of the following criteria:• Be free from animal flesh (meat, fowl, fish or shellfish), meat or bone stock, animal or carcass fats, gelatine, aspic or any other ingredients resulting from animal slaughter.• Contain only free range eggs, where eggs are used.• Be free from genetically modified organisms (GMOs).• There must be no cross contamination with non- vegetarian products during the production process.• Be cruelty-free - no animal testing is permitted.
  30. 30. Famous VegetariansAbraham Lincoln, former President of US Blur, bandAdolf Hitler, infamous German Nazi PlatodictatorAlanis Morissette, singer Claudia Schiffer, modelAlbert Einstein, scientist Gary Glitter, singerAlbert Schweitzer, philosopher, and Sting, singerphysician Kate Moss, modelAlkaline Trio, Punk bankAndrew White, guitarist of Kaiser Chiefs Billy Connelly, comedianBill Clinton, former American President Mark TwainBoy George, singer Thomas EdisonBrad Pitt, actor Leonardo Da VinciDalai Lama, leader of Tibetan Buddhism Charles DarwinDemi Lovato, actress, musician Charlotte BronteEllen Degeneres, TV personalityBenjamin Franklin, former President Russell BrandMahatma Gandhi, religious leader Rosa ParksMartin Luther MorrisseyRalph Waldo Emmerson Pamela AndersonPope, religious leader Ozzy OsborneSocrates Brigitte BardotAlexa Chung Mike Tyson