Lung Cancer Awareness DR. BASSEM TOEMA Medical Oncology Specialist Saad Specialist Hospital ESMO Member
Our Children deserve to breathe in a smoke-free environment
Smoking Prevalence Cigarette Smoking in US Male 32% Female 27%Cigarette smoking among educated groups in US College graduate 12% Some College 20% High School 31% Physician 3%
Smoking PrevalenceSmoking in Saudi Arabia in Adults (30-70 Years Old) Males 19.1%Females 8.3%Overall 13.4%Smoking in Saudi Arabia in Youth Males 20.2%
Globally47% Male 12% Female Developing Countries Developed Countries48% Male 7% Female 42% Male 24% Female
Smoking as a risk factor to Lung Cancer• 87% of Lung Cancer Cases are thought to result from smoking.• The Longer you smoke and the more packs per day you smoke, the greater the risk.• Second hand or environmental tobacco smoke increase the risk.• A nonsmoker married to a smoker has a 30% greater risk.• Workers exposed to tobacco smoke at the workplace are at a higher risk.• Cigar smoking / Pipe smoking / Water pipe smoking are almost as likely as Cigarette smoking to cause Lung cancer.
The Evidence for a Causal Association• The lifetime risk of developing lung cancer in smokers is approximately 10%.• Lung cancer is directly related to smoking.• Over 40 carcinogens have been identified in cigarette smoke.• Carcinogens mutate dormant Oncogenes (as Ras oncogene) activating them and mutate active Tumor suppressor genes ( as P53) inhibiting them.
In UK one case diagnosed every 15 min with lung cancer
Smoking and Mortality 2ry to Lung CancerSmoking has been implicated in:• 80% of lung Cancer deaths in men.• 75% of lung Cancer deaths in women.• 13% of lung Cancer deaths in nonsmokers.• 28% of all Cancer deaths.
The Magnitude of the Problem• In 2005, an estimated 172,570 Americans will be diagnosed with lung Cancer, and 163,510 will die from it.• It is the 2nd most common cancer among both men and woman after prostate cancer in men and breast cancer in women.• The leading cause of all cancer related deaths, accounting for 28% of all cancer deaths.• Almost 60% of patients diagnosed with lung cancer die within 2 years.• According to WHO, three people die every minute worldwide from lung cancer.
The Magnitude of the Problem• Here in Saudi Arabia, Lung cancer is ranked as the 7th most common cancer among the Saudi citizens (both males and females) with an overall prevalence rate of 4.7%.• Among the Male Saudi citizens, the lung cancer is ranked as the 4th most common cancer with an overall prevalence rate of 7%.
Late is never too late• By avoiding smoking from the start, more than 90% of lung cancers can be prevented.• Some risk of lung cancer persists for many years following smoking cessation, yet this risk diminishes with time.• Protection of non-smokers:4. Smoking is banned or restricted in government offices.5. Nurses, doctors, teachers are encouraged to refrain from smoking in the presence of children.6. Airline companies have banned smoking on all domestic and international airline flights.
Tobacco control measures• Limits on tar and nicotine levels for cigarettes of 12 and 0.8 mg respectively.• A health warning in Arabic and English to be printed on cigarette packets "Smoking is the main cause of lung cancer, lung diseases and of heart and arteries disease“.• Import duties Taxes on cigarettes to be increased from 30% to 50%.• The import of chewing tobacco to be banned and the imposition of curbs on the advertisement and promotion of cigarettes.• The import of products that could promote smoking by children, such as sweets designed to look like cigarettes or cigarette packets is banned.