A study on Superior's Approach over the Functional Employees

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  • 1. 1 CHAPTER- I INTRODUCTION Leadership is a vital process in any organization. The success or failure of any organization mainly depends on its leadership. For instance, when a business venture or a cricket team is successful, its managing director or superior or the captain often receives the recognition. But on the other hand when failure occurs, it is usually the same individual at the top management is replaced. Thus, one of the key elements of concern in any organization is the way of inducting, training and retaining people who shall be effective leaders. People working in business enterprises, desperately need leaders who could be instrumental in guiding the efforts of groups of workers in achieving the goals of both individuals and the organization. All categories of people are led by superiors or leaders in one way or the other. Leaders or superiors thus perform key role in an organization’s success. At the same time inefficient leadership leads to the downfall of the organization. Reasons for employees’ inability stand amidst superiors’ ego, jealous and racial differentiation. And superiors exploit their power over their subordinates and functional employees. According to behavioral theory of leadership, particular behaviors of a leader provides greater satisfaction to the followers and hence recognize him as a good leader. Thus an efficient and an able leader always exercise conceptual, human and technical skills to influence the behavior of his subordinates. Rensis likert researchers at the University of Michigan conducted extensive interview with managers and the employees who reported to them. After studying numerous industrial situations the researchers concluded that two leadership styles- employee-centered and production or task centered-influenced employee performance and satisfaction. In employee – centered Leader Behaviour, an effort to lead employees by developing a cohesive work group and ensuring employee satisfaction is carried out. The employee-centered leader emphasizes employees’ well being rather than the tasks they perform. On the other hand in task-Centered Leader Behaviour, an effort to lead employees by focusing on work and how well employees perform is being found. The task-centered leader pays close attention to employees’ work, explains work procedure and is deeply interested in performance.
  • 2. 2 The Ohio State University studies identified two leadership behaviours.1) Initiating structure and Consideration after analyzing actual leadership behavior in a wide variety of situations. Consideration refers to the ability of the leader to establish rapport, mutual respect and two way communications with employees. The leader is friendly, approachable and listens to the problems of employees and allows them to suggest. Initiating Structure refers to the extent to which the leaders structure and define the activities of subordinates so that organizational goals are accomplished. In transactional leadership, the leader exercises influence during daily leader subordinate exchanges without any special emotional inputs or considerations. The leader offers rewards to subordinates who achieve the tasks assigned to them. Thus businesses have codes of conduct that are developed to outline expected, and acceptable, standards of employee behaviors. Codes of conduct function as resources for the regulations related to the inner workings of an organization. They are usually provided to employees at the start of employment so that they are aware of what is expected of them from their first day forward. When employees do not comply with the standard of behaviour expected of them, whether it is behaviour set out in the employment principles, values, Standards, Codes of Conduct, a contract of employment or in local policies and procedures, their behaviour may constitute unsatisfactory performance or misconduct.
  • 3. 3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: 1. To establish industrial peace. 2. To identify the functional employees grievances 3. To promote a mutual relationship between the functional employees and superiors. 4. To facilitate the organization to retain the employees. SCOPE OF THE STUDY: 1. Avoiding conflict among the employees. 2. Retention of employees and thereby reducing the overall attrition rate of organization. 3. To meet the needs and challenges of employees. 4. Enhancing employees’ motivation by superiors. LIMITATIONS  Some employees’ were hesitant to provide information.  Sample size was restricted to take up to 110.  Employees busy work schedule was a hurdle to conduct the study.  Employees did not disclose true information in finding out present situation.  The period of study is limited.
  • 4. 4 1.2 INDUSTRY PROFILE The Indian textile industry is one of the largest in the world with a massive raw material and textiles manufacturing base. Our economy is largely dependent on the textile manufacturing and trade in addition to other major industries. About 27% of the foreign exchange earnings are on account of export of textiles and clothing alone. The textiles and clothing sector contributes about 14% to the industrial production and 3% to the gross domestic product of the country. Around 8% of the total excise revenue collection is contributed by the textile industry. So much so, the textile industry accounts for as large as 21% of the total employment generated in the economy. Around 35 million people are directly employed in the textile manufacturing activities. Indirect employment including the manpower engaged in agricultural based raw-material production like cotton and related trade and handling could be stated to be around another 60 million. A textile is the largest single industry in India (and amongst the biggest in the world), accounting for about 20% of the total industrial production. It provides direct employment to around 20 million people. Textile and clothing exports account for one-third of the total value of exports from the country. There are 1,227 textile mills with a spinning capacity of about 29 million spindles. While yarn is mostly produced in the mills, fabrics are produced in the powerloom and handloom sectors as well. The Indian textile industry continues to be predominantly based on cotton, with about 65% of raw materials consumed being cotton. The yearly output of cotton cloth was about 12.8 billion m (about 42 billion ft). The manufacture of jute products (1.1 million metric tons) ranks next in importance to cotton weaving. Textile is one of India’s oldest industries and has a formidable presence in the national economy inasmuch as it contributes to about 14 per cent of manufacturing value-addition, accounts for around one-third of our gross export earnings and provides gainful employment to millions of people. They include cotton and jute growers, artisans and weavers who are engaged in the organised as well as decentralised and household sectors spread across the entire country.
  • 5. 5 INDIAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND GROWTH India’s textile industry is one of the economy’s largest. In 2000/01, the textile and garment industries accounted for about 4 percent of GDP, 14 percent of industrial output, 18 percent of industrial employment, and 27 percent of export earnings (Hashim). India’s textile industry is also significant in a global context, ranking second to China in the production of both cotton yarn and fabric and fifth in the production of synthetic fibers and yarns. In contrast to other major textile-producing countries, mostly mostly small-scale, nonintegrated spinning, weaving, cloth finishing, and apparel enterprises, many of which use outdated technology, characterize India’s textile sector. Some, mostly larger, firms operate in the “organized” sector where firms must comply with numerous government labor and tax regulations. Structure of India’s Textile Industry Unlike other major textile-producing countries, India’s textile industry is comprised mostly of small-scale, nonintegrated spinning, weaving, finishing, and apparel-making enterprises. This unique industry structure is primarily a legacy of government policies that have promoted labor-intensive, small-scale operations and discriminated against larger scale firms: • Composite Mills. Relatively large-scale mills that integrate spinning, weaving and, sometimes, fabric finishing are common in other major textile-producing countries. In India, however, these types of mills now account for about only 3 percent of output in the textile sector. About 276 composite mills are now operating in India, most owned by the public sector and many deemed financially “sick.” • Spinning. Spinning is the process of converting cotton or manmade fiber into yarn to be used for weaving and knitting. Largely due to deregulation beginning in the mid-1980s, spinning is the most consolidated and technically efficient sector in India’s textile industry. Average plant size remains small, however, and technology outdated, relative to other major producers. In 2002/03, India’s spinning sector consisted of about 1,146 small-scale independent firms and 1,599 larger scale independent units.
  • 6. 6 • Weaving and Knitting. Weaving and knitting converts cotton, manmade, or blended yarns into woven or knitted fabrics. India’s weaving and knitting sector remains highly fragmented, small-scale, and labor-intensive. This sector consists of about 3.9 million handlooms, 380,000 “powerloom” enterprises that operate about 1.7 million looms, and just 137,000 looms in the various composite mills. “Powerlooms” are small firms, with an average loom capacity of four to five owned by independent entrepreneurs or weavers. Modern shuttleless looms account for less than 1 percent of loom capacity. • Fabric Finishing. Fabric finishing (also referred to as processing), which includes dyeing, printing, and other cloth preparation prior to the manufacture of clothing, is also dominated by a large number of independent, small scale enterprises. Overall, about 2,300 processors are operating in India, including about 2,100 independent units and 200 units that are integrated with spinning, weaving, or knitting units. • Clothing. Apparel is produced by about 77,000 small-scale units classified as domestic manufacturers, manufacturer exporters, and fabricators (subcontractors). Growth of Textile Industry India has already completed more than 50 years of its independence. The analysis of the growth pattern of different segment of the industry during the last five decades of post independence era reveals that the growth of the industry during the first two decades after the independence had been gradual, though lower and growth had been considerably slower during the third decade. The peak level of its growth has however been reached during the fifth decade i.e., the last ten years and more particularly in the 90s. The Textile Policy of 1985 and Economic Policy of 1991 focussing in the direction of liberalisation of economy and trade had in fact accelerated the growth in 1990s. Size of Textile Industry in India
  • 7. 7 • The textile industry in India covers a wide gamut of activities ranging from production of raw material like cotton, jute, silk and wool to providing high value-added products such as fabrics and garments to consumers. • The industry uses a wide variety of fibres ranging from natural fibres like cotton, jute, silk and wool to man made fibres like polyester, viscose, acrylic and multiple blends of such fibres and filament yarn. • The textile industry plays a significant role in Indian economy by providing direct employment to an estimated 35 million people, by contributing 4 per cent of GDP and accounting for 35 per cent of gross export earnings. The textile sector contributes 14 per cent of the value-addition in the manufacturing sector. • Textile exports during the period of April-February 2003-2004 amounted to $11,698.5 million as against $11,142.2 million during the same period in the previous year, showing an increase of around 5 per cent. • Estimates say that the textile sector might achieve about 15 to 18 per cent growth this year following dismantling of MFA ROLE OF INDIAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY IN THE ECONOMY Textile industry plays a significant role in the economy. The Indian textile industry is one of the largest and most important sectors in the economy in terms of output, foreign exchange earnings and employment in India. It contributes 20 per cent of industrial production, 9 per cent of excise collections, 18 per cent of employment in industrial sector, nearly 20 per cent to the country’s total export earnings and 4 per cent ton the GDP. The sector employs nearly 35 million people and is the second highest employer in the country. The textile sector also has a direct link with the rural economy and performance of major fibre crops and crafts such as cotton, wool, silk, handicrafts and handlooms, which employ millions of farmers and crafts persons in rural and semi-urban areas. 1.3 COMPANY PROFILE Shri Renuga Textiles Ltd.,
  • 8. 8 Shri Renuga Textiles Ltd., with a Two Star Export House status and its Towels division Shri Renuga Soft-X Towels, are ISO 9001 certified enterprises. We are among the leading manufacturers of a wide range of textile products, located in Theni, Tamilnadu in the southern part of India. Shri Renuga, with over five decades in the industry runs a self reliant and composite operation. Its operation spans Spinning, Weaving, Yarn Dyeing, Wider Width Fabric Printing, Wider Width Processing and Sewing. Its products range from 100% Cotton & Blended Yarn, Bleached & Dyed Yarn, Bleached & Dyed Terry Towels, Made-ups, Bathrobes, Bed & Table Linen, Non-Sterilized Operation Room Towels, Lap Sponges to Blankets. Shri Renuga has an annual turnover of 1500 million rupees and a 3500 strong work force of skilled and dedicated employees maintaining uncompromising quality & efficiency while meeting ISO 9001 standards. Shri Renuga Spinning Division Yarn: Shri Renuga with its highly modernized state-of-the-art equipment from Reiter and Schlafhorst produces high quality Ring Spun, Compact and Open End (Carded & Combed) Yarn in both 100% Cotton and Blends. With a Spinning Capacity of 100,000 spindles and 384 rotors it can produce 30 tonnes/day of quality Yarn in counts ranging from 6’s to 100’s. in Singles, Ring Double and TFO. Quality is monitored at various stages using modern testing equipment like Uster AFIS, Uster HVI to ensure the manufacture of high quality yarn that meets international standards. Yarn Dyeing: Shri Renuga to meets its commitment to Quality is equipped with imported High Temperature - High Pressure Micro Processor Controlled Yarn Dyeing machines, RF-Dryers & MacBeth Color Matching Systems to produce 3000 kgs/day of high quality Bleached & Dyed Yarn using Reactive, Vat or Disperse dyes, in lot sizes ranging from 25 Kgs to 200 Kgs . Shri Renuga Soft-X Home Textiles Division Home Textiles:
  • 9. 9 Shri Renuga Soft-X has a well organized Sewing facility to produce Home Textiles and Terry Products. Its product range includes Bed Linen, Table Linen, Oven Mittens, Pot Holders, Napkins, Aprons, Bed-Entourage, Baby Quilted Beds, Baby Quilted Sleeping Bags and Terry products like Bath Towels, Face Towels, Hand Towels, Beach Towels, Bathrobes, Terry Hooded Towels, Terry Bibs, Placemats, Terry Plaids and Baby Diapers. Fabric Printing: Shri Renuga’s fabric printing facilities is well equipped with Brugman & Holland CBR, Bruckner Stenters, Zimmer wider width 12 color printing machines, Kusters Calendaring machines and in-house design and engraving capabilities. It produces about 50,000 mtr/day of high quality printed fabric. Products of the Company • Yarn • Terry • Fabric Quality Policy "It is the policy of Shri Renuga., to provide textile products with conformance to agreed specifications at the most competitive price, on time, to ensure the satisfaction and confidence of our valued customers.This will be achieved by our total commitment and involvement in our Quality Assurance Systems" 1.5 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Employees are the back bone of any organization. They shoulder organization’s responsibility. In most of the organizations the functional level employees are treated as close associates by their superiors. At the same time in few organizations functional employees are
  • 10. 10 badly treated by their superiors. Functional employees are refused to reap monetary or non- monetary benefits which are given by organization by superiors. Superiors abuse power over their subordinates and functional employees. TERRY R.BACON YEAR: 2011 PAGE: 10 JOURNAL: “LEADERSHIP EXCELLENCE” Power of leadership is the most important factor to lead the people. Some believe that power by its very nature, is moral, and that whenever people have any degree of control over the lives of others, they will likely abuse that power. Top managers must possess a high need for power a concern for influencing people. However, this need must be disciplined and controlled so that it is directed toward the benefit of the organization-not their personal aggrandizements. DONALD SANDEL, YEAR: 2011 PAGE: 7 JOURNAL: “LEADERSHIP EXCELLENCE” In early days of the American Revolution occurred at the battle of Bunker Hill. It demonstrates that is a valid response to all leaders. Organizations are bricks and mortar, spread sheets and policies and cannot accomplish anything without their people. Some leaders blame the economy for their loss. But focusing on people are not a response only to good times, but a strategic approach that understands that it is throughout people that customers return. Dr.NOUR MOHAMMAD YAGHOUBI, YEAR: 2011 PAGE: 46 JOURNAL: “INDIAN JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT” Regarding the extent of changes in operational organization which are form structural and conceptual perspective. Organizational behavior of employees and leader play an important role of performance and development of organizational creativity and codifying human strategies. And it demonstrated that there is positive correlation organizational intelligence and creativity. Good relationship between leaders and employees or subordinates will help the organization to have good production. YAPING GONG, YEAR: 2009 PAGE:770 JOURNAL: “ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT JOURNAL” The experience and leadership effectiveness in the organization affect human resources management and leadership encourages employees’ creativity. Here good leadership motivates
  • 11. 11 employees to demonstrate their ability towards development. And it allows employees to think innovatively for the development of the organization. Proposed study investigates the effect of transformational style on employees’ creativity. ERIC KEARNEY, DIETNER GEBERT, YEAR: 2006 PAGE:580 JOURNAL: “ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT JOURNAL” Emotions are omnipresent in leadership followed interactions, both arising from and exerting influence of these interactions. Because leaders have profound impact on the functioning of organization and leaders’ emotional displays have strong potential to influence on the way of subordinates feel. Leaders’ emotional behavior leads the subordinate under stress. MARCUS BUCKINGHAM, YEAR:2011 PAGE:5 JOURNAL: “LEADERSHIP EXCELLENCE” Since using strength makes you feel strong, pay close attention to how you feel as you complete your day-to-day tasks. When you notice yourself at work you find that you experience strong moments times when you feel invigorated, inquisitive or successful. Those moments are clues to your personal strength. If you feel these feelings while doing a task, then that activity is like one of your strengths. You should consider as a leader in order to discover your strengths. GAETANE JEAN-MARIE, YEAR:2009 PAGE:562 JOURNAL: “ADVANCES IN DEVELOPING HUMAN RESOURCES” The experiences of black women educational leaders are highlighted to examine the intersection of race and gender in their leadership experience and tease out approaches to gender inclusiveness. The participants’ transcendence of racial and gender stereotypes became the impetus for developing a leadership style that is inclusive builds consensus and is collaborative. CHAPTER-II RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Design
  • 12. 12 A research design is plan that specifies the objectives of the study, method to be adopted in the collection of the data, tools in analysis of data and helpful to frame hypothesis, “A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collections and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure.” A research design is needed because it facilitates the smooth sailing of the various project operations, thereby making the project as efficient as possible towards yielding maximum information with minimum expenditure of effort, time and money. It also minimizes bias and maximizes the reliability of the data collected. Descriptive Research This study involves the descriptive research design. It includes the surveys and fact findings enquiries of different kinds. The main purpose of this research design is to describe the state of affairs as it exists at present. It has no control over the variables. This research design gives only report what has happened or what is happening. Source of data - Primary: The data which are collected is fresh. Since it is original in character is called as primary data. Data collected from the functional level employees of Veesons Energy Systems (P) Ltd through the questionnaire method is first hand information and in research terms can be called as primary data. Secondary data: Secondary data which are collected from already published in magazine, websites. Data (Company profile, Industry profile, Review of literature) collected from websites. Sample size: It refers to the number of items to be selected from the universe to constitute a sample. The sample size should be neither excessively large nor too small. It should be optimum. 110
  • 13. 13 numbers of functional level employees from blue collars of Veesons Energy Systems (P) Ltd., were selected as size of sample (n). The sample size is 110 i.e. 18%.from the population of 607. Type of sampling: Simple Random sampling has been used to conduct the study. Statistical Tools: To make an effective research, the following two statistical tools were used to analyze and interpret the collected data. 1. PERCENTAGE METHOD 2. ANOVA TEST Percentage Method: NO. OF RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENT = -------------------------------------------- X 100 TOTAL NO. OF RESPONDENTS Tools for Analysis: SPSS 17.0 Measurement scale: 1. Nominal scale which is used to express exact opinion of respondents has been used. 2. Ordinal scale which is used to express different opinion of respondents has been used. CHAPTER-III ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION TABLE: 3.1
  • 14. 14 AGE Source: Primary data The above table reveals that 33.6% of the respondents are between the age group of 25-35 and 32.7% of the respondents are between 35-45 and 24.5% of the respondents are between 45-55 and 9.1% of the respondents are above 55 respectively. CHART: 3.1 AGE SL.NO AGE NO.OF THE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 25-35 37 33.6 2 35-45 36 32.7 3 45-55 27 24.5 4 above 55 10 9.1 Total 110 100.0
  • 15. 15 25-35 33% 35-45 33% 45-55 25% above55 9% 25-35 35-45 45-55 above55 TABLE: 3.2
  • 16. 16 EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION SL.NO EDUCATION NO.OF THE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 HSC 13 11.8 2 Diploma 44 40.0 3 Graduate 37 33.6 4 Post Graduate 16 14.5 Total 110 100.0 Source: Primary data Above table reveals that 78.2% of the respondents are literate and 21.8% of the respondents are illiterate. CHART: 3.2 EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION
  • 17. 17 HSC 12% Diploma 39% Graduate 34% Post Graduate 15% HSC Diploma Graduate Post Graduate TABLE: 3.3 JOB SATISFACTION
  • 18. 18 SL.NO OPINION NO. OF THE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Highly satisfied 7 6.4 2 Satisfied 11 10.0 3 Neutral 3 2.7 4 Dissatisfied 46 41.8 5 Highly dissatisfied 43 39.1 Total 110 100.0 Source: Primary data Above table reveals that 6.4% of the respondents are highly satisfied with their job and 10.0% of the respondents are satisfied and 2.7% of the respondents are neutral with their job and 41.8% of the respondents are dissatisfied with their job, 39.1% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied. CHART: 3.3 JOB SATISFACTION
  • 19. 19 Dissatisfied 42% Highlydissatisfied 39% Highlysatisfied 6% Satisfied 10% Neutral 3% OPINION Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied TABLE: 3.4 RELATIONSHIP WITH SUPERIORS
  • 20. 20 SL.NO OPINION NO.OF THE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Good 48 43.6 2 Better 35 31.8 3 Normal 26 23.6 4 Bad 1 .9 Total 110 100.0 Source: Primary data Above table reveals that 43.6% of the respondents have a good relationship with superior and 31.8% of the respondents have a better relationship with superior and 23.6% of the respondents have a normal relationship with their superior and only 0.9% of the respondent opined that bad relationship. CHART: 3.4 RELATIONSHIP WITH SUPERIORS
  • 21. 21 Good 43% Better 32% Normal 24% Bad 1% Good Better Normal Bad TABLE: 3.5 IMMORAL BEHAVIOR
  • 22. 22 SL.NO OPINION NO.OF OF THE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Yes 12 10.9 2 No 98 89.1 Total 110 100.0 Source: Primary data The above table reveals that 10.9% of the respondents have accepted that superiors behave with them immorally and 89.1% of the respondents have accepted that superiors behave with them morally. CHART: 3.5 IMMORAL BEHAVIOR
  • 23. 23 Yes 11% No 89% Yes No TABLE: 3.6 EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION
  • 24. 24 SL.NO OPINION NO.OF OF THE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Above average 81 73.6 2 Average 24 21.8 3 Below average 5 4.5 Total 110 100.0 Source: Primary data The above table reveals that 73.6% of the respondents have opined that employee motivation is above average and 21.8% of the respondents have opined that average and 4.5% of the respondents have opined that below average. CHART: 3.6 EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION
  • 25. 25 Aboveaverage 73% Average 22% Belowaverage 5% Aboveaverage Average Belowaverage TABLE: 3.7
  • 26. 26 CHANCE FOR RECTIFICATION OF ERRORS SL.NO OPINION NO.OF THE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Mostly 84 76.4 2 Rarely 5 4.5 3 Sometimes 21 19.1 Total 110 100.0 Source: Primary data The above table reveals that 76.4% of the respondents have opined that Error rectification chance is given mostly and 4.5% of the respondents have opined that chance is given rarely and 19.1% of the respondents have opined that chance is given at sometimes. CHART: 3.7 CHANCE FOR RECTIFICATION OF ERRORS
  • 27. 27 Mostly 76% Rarely 5% Sometimes 19% Mostly Rarely Sometimes TABLE: 3.8 SHARING OF OPINION AMONG THE SUPERIORS
  • 28. 28 SL.NO OPINION NO.OF THE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Strongly Agreed 12 10.9 2 Agreed 18 16.4 3 Disagreed 31 28.2 4 Strongly disagreed 49 44.5 Total 110 100.0 Source: Primary data The above table reveals that 10.9% of the respondents are strongly agreed regarding allowed to share opinion and 16.4% of the respondents are agreed and 28.2% of the respondents are disagreed, 44.5% of the respondents are strongly disagreed. CHART: 3.8 SHARING OF OPINION AMONG THE SUPERIORS
  • 29. 29 Strongly Agreed 11% Agreed 16% Disagreed 28% Strongly disagreed 45% OPINION Strongly Agreed Agreed Disagreed Strongly disagreed TABLE: 3.9 ALLOWING TO ENGAGE IN EFFECTIVE DIALOGUE AMONG THE EMPLOYEES
  • 30. 30 SL.NO OPINION NO.OF THE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Committed listening 28 25.5 2 Speaking 11 10.0 3 Observing 71 64.5 Total 110 100.0 Source: Primary data The above table reveals that 25.5% of the respondents have opined that committed listening is allowed and 10.0% of the respondents have opined that speaking is allowed and 64.5% of the respondents have opined that observing is allowed. CHART: 3.9 ALLOWING TO ENGAGE IN EFFECTIVE DIALOGUE AMONG THE EMPLOYEES
  • 31. 31 Committed listening 25% Speaking 10% Observing 65% Committed listening Speaking Observing TABLE: 3.10 SUPERIOR’S MORAL ASSISTANCE
  • 32. 32 SL.NO OPINION NO.OF THE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Mostly 78 70.9 2 Rarely 1 .9 3 Sometimes 31 28.2 Total 110 100.0 Source: Primary data The above table reveals that 70.9% of the respondents have opined that Mostly superiors’ assist morally and 0.9% of the respondents have opined that superiors’ assist rarely and 28.2% of the respondents have opined that superiors’ assist at sometimes. CHART: 3.10 SUPERIOR’S MORAL ASSISTANCE
  • 33. 33 Mostly 71% Rarely 1% Sometimes 28% Mostly Rarely Sometimes TABLE: 3.11
  • 34. 34 EMPLOYEES ENGAGED IN UNRELATED WORK SL.NO OPINION NO.OF THE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Yes 5 4.5 2 No 105 95.5 Total 110 100.0 Source: Primary data The above table reveals that 4.5% of the respondents have opined that they are allowed to engage in unrelated work and 95.5% of the respondents have opined that hey are allowed to engage in unrelated work . CHART: 3.11 EMPLOYEES ENGAGED IN UNRELATED WORK
  • 35. 35 Yes 5% No 95% Yes No TABLE: 3.12 LEVEL OF GRIEVANCE REDRESSAL
  • 36. 36 SL.NO OPINION NO.OF THE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Mostly 32 29.1 2 Rarely 69 62.7 3 Sometimes 9 8.2 Total 110 100.0 Source: Primary data The above table reveals that 29.1% of the respondents have opined that grievance redressed often mostly and 62.7% of the respondents have opined that rarely and 8.2% of the respondents have opined that sometimes grievance is redressed. CHART: 3. 12 LEVEL OF GRIEVANCE REDRESSAL
  • 37. 37 Mostly 29% Rarely 63% Sometimes 8% OPINION Mostly Rarely Sometimes TABLE: 3.13 OPEN COMMUNICATION AMONG THE EMPLOYEES
  • 38. 38 Source: Primary data The above table reveals that 5.5% of the respondents strongly agreed regarding open communication and 7.3% of the respondents agreed and 47.3% of the respondents disagreed regarding open communication, 40.0% of the respondents are strong disagreed. CHART: 3.13 OPEN COMMUNICATION AMONG THE EMPLOYEES SL.NO OPINION NO.OF THE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Strongly Agreed 6 5.5 2 Agreed 8 7.3 3 Disagreed 52 47.3 4 Strongly disagreed 44 40.0 Total 110 100.0
  • 39. 39 Agreed 7% Disagreed 48% Strongly disagreed 40% Strongly Agreed 5% OPINION Strongly Agreed Agreed Disagreed Strongly disagreed TABLE: 3.14 SATISFACTION LEVEL OF CURRENT REMUNERATION
  • 40. 40 SL.NO OPINION NO.OF THE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Highly Satisfied 69 62.7 2 Satisfied 37 33.6 3 Neutral 4 3.6 Total 110 100.0 Source: Primary data The above table reveals that 62.7% of the respondents are highly satisfied with current remuneration and 33.6% of the respondents are satisfied and 3.6% of the respondents are neutral regarding current remuneration. CHART: 3.14 SATISFACTION LEVEL OF CURRENT REMUNERATION
  • 41. 41 Highly Satisfied 62% Satisfied 34% Neutral 4% Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neutral TABLE: 3.15 REMUNERATION FOR OVERTIME DUTY
  • 42. 42 SL.NO OPINION NO.OF THE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Yes 98 89.1 2 No 12 10.9 Total 110 100.0 Source: Primary data The above table reveals that 89.1% of the respondents have opined that fair remuneration is given to overtime duty and 10.9% of the respondents have opined that they are not given fair remuneration for overtime duty. CHART: 3.15 REMUNERATION FOR OVERTIME DUTY
  • 43. 43 Yes 89% No 11% Yes No TABLE: 3.16 EMPLOYEE RELATIONSHIP WITH THEIR COLLEAGUES
  • 44. 44 SL.NO OPINION NO.OF THE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Good 68 61.8 2 Better 26 23.6 3 Normal 16 14.5 Total 110 100.0 Source: Primary data The above table reveals that 61.8% of the respondents have good relationship with colleagues and 23.6% of the respondents have better relationship with colleagues and 14.5% of the respondents have normal relationship with their colleagues. CHART: 3.16 EMPLOYEE RELATIONSHIP WITH THEIR COLLEAGUES
  • 45. 45 Good 61% Better 24% Normal 15% Good Better Normal TABLE: 3.17 PARTICIPATION LEVEL IN ANALYSING ISSUES
  • 46. 46 SL.NO OPINION NO.OF THE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Mostly 88 80.0 2 Rarely 3 2.7 3 Sometimes 19 17.3 Total 110 100.0 Source: Primary data The above table reveals that 80% of the respondents have opined that they are allowed to participate in analyzing issues and problems mostly and 2.7% of the respondents opined that rarely they are allowed to participate in analyzing issues and 17.3% of the respondents have opined that sometimes they are allowed to participate in analyzing issues. CHART: 3.17 PARTICIPATION LEVEL IN ANALYSING ISSUES
  • 47. 47 Mostly 80% Rarely 3% Sometimes 17% Mostly Rarely Sometimes TABLE: 3.18
  • 48. 48 EVALUATING FACTOR FOR EMPLOYEES ENHANCEMENT SL.NO OPINION NO.OF THE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Performance 19 17.3 2 Strong affiliation towards your superior 68 61.8 3 any other factor 23 20.9 Total 110 100.0 Source: Primary data The above table reveals that 17.3% of the respondents have opined that evaluation is conducted on the basis of performance of employee. And 61.8% of the respondents have opined that evaluation is conducted on the basis of affiliation and 20.9% of the respondents have opined that other factor is used to evaluate performance. CHART: 3.18
  • 49. 49 EVALUATING FACTOR FOR EMPLOYEES ENHANCEMENT Performance 17% Strong affiliation towards your superior 62% any other factor 21% OPINION Performance Strong affiliation towards your superior any other factor TABLE: 3.19 ORGANIZING LEVEL OF LEARNING PROGRAMMES
  • 50. 50 SL.NO OPINION NO.OF THE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Strongly Agreed 80 72.7 2 Agreed 25 22.7 3 Disagreed 5 4.5 Total 110 100.0 Source: Primary data The above table reveals that 72.7% of the respondents are strongly agreed regarding organization learning programme and 22.7% of the respondents are agreed and 4.5% of the respondents are disagreed in organization learning programme. CHART: 3.19 ORGANIZING LEVEL OF LEARNING PROGRAMMES
  • 51. 51 Strongly Agree 72% Agree 23% Disagree 5% Strongly Agree Agree Disagree TABLE: 3.20 ASSESSMENT OF EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE TO SUPERIORS
  • 52. 52 SL.NO OPINION NO.OF THE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 1 Rarely 85 77.3 2 Sometimes 12 10.9 3 Mostly 13 11.8 Total 110 100.0 Source: Primary data The above table reveals that 77.3% of the respondents have opined that rarely performance conveyed in right manner and 10.9% of the respondents have opined that sometimes performance conveyed in right manner and 11.8% of the respondents have opined that mostly performance conveyed in right manner. CHART: 3.20 ASSESSMENT OF EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE TO SUPERIORS
  • 53. 53 Rarely 77% Sometimes 11% Mostly 12% OPINION Rarely Sometimes Mostly TABLE: 3.21 SHARING OF WORK RELATED INFORMATION
  • 54. 54 SL.NO OPINION NO.OF THE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Yes 17 15.5 2 No 93 84.5 Total 110 100.0 Source: Primary data The above table reveals that 15.5% of the respondents have opined that work related information is hidden and 84.5% of the respondents have opined that work related information does not hide. CHART: 3.21 SHARING OF WORK RELATED INFORMATION
  • 55. 55 ANALYSIS Null Hypothesis (0) There is no relationship between superiors and functional employees. Descriptive Leader Relationship N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval for Mean Minimum MaximumLower Bound Upper Bound 25-35 37 1.4595 .73009 .12003 1.2160 1.7029 1.00 3.00 35-45 36 2.0278 .81015 .13503 1.7537 2.3019 1.00 3.00 45-55 27 2.0370 .89792 .17281 1.6818 2.3922 1.00 4.00 above 55 10 1.8000 .63246 .20000 1.3476 2.2524 1.00 3.00 Total 110 1.8182 .82598 .07875 1.6621 1.9743 1.00 4.00
  • 56. 56 ANOVA Leader Relationship Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 7.639 3 2.546 4.045 .009 Within Groups 66.724 106 .629 Total 74.364 109 Inference: • The significant value of superior and age group of functional employees is 0.009 which is less than 0.05. • So there is a relationship between superiors and the functional employees. • Majority of the employees’ age group of 35-45, 45-55 have a good relationship with their superior.
  • 57. 57 Null Hypothesis (0): There is no employee motivation Descriptives Employee Motivation N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval for Mean Minimum MaximumLower Bound Upper Bound 25-35 37 1.2162 .47930 .07880 1.0564 1.3760 1.00 3.00 35-45 36 1.2778 .56625 .09437 1.0862 1.4694 1.00 3.00 45-55 27 1.5185 .64273 .12369 1.2643 1.7728 1.00 3.00 above 55 10 1.2000 .42164 .13333 .8984 1.5016 1.00 2.00 Total 110 1.3091 .55431 .05285 1.2043 1.4138 1.00 3.00
  • 58. 58 Inference: • The significant value of motivation according to age group of functional employees is 0.144 which is greater than 0.05 • So there is no motivation to the functional employees. ANOVA Employee motivation Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 1.658 3 .553 1.840 .144 Within Groups 31.833 106 .300 Total 33.491 109
  • 59. 59 Null Hypothesis (0): There is no job satisfaction with the functional employees. Descriptives Job Satisfaction N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval for Mean Minimum MaximumLower Bound Upper Bound 25-35 37 3.9189 1.23330 .20275 3.5077 4.3301 1.00 5.00 35-45 36 4.1667 1.23056 .20509 3.7503 4.5830 1.00 5.00 45-55 27 4.0000 .96077 .18490 3.6199 4.3801 1.00 5.00 above 55 10 3.4000 1.34990 .42687 2.4343 4.3657 1.00 5.00 Total 110 3.9727 1.18445 .11293 3.7489 4.1966 1.00 5.00
  • 60. 60 Inference: ANOVA Job satisfaction Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 4.761 3 1.587 1.136 .338 Within Groups 148.157 106 1.398 Total 152.918 109
  • 61. 61 The significant value of job satisfaction according to the age group of functional employees is 0.338 which is greater than 0.05 So there is no job satisfaction. CHAPTER-IV 4.1 FINDINGS 1. 41.8% of the respondents dissatisfied and 39.1% of respondents highly dissatisfied regarding job satisfaction. 2. 43.6% of the respondents have good relationship with their leader. 3. Two-way communication has been found in the organization with the support of 100% of respondents. 4. 44.5% of the respondents have been found with the opinion of strongly disagreed and 28.2% of respondents disagreed regarding sharing opinion on work. 5. 62.7% of the respondents have opined that rarely grievance is redressed.
  • 62. 62 6. 47.3% of the respondents have been found with the opinion of disagreed and 40% of the respondents have been found with strongly disagreed regarding open communication between superior and them. 7. Satisfaction of current remuneration has been found with the support of 62.7% of the respondents with opinion of highly satisfied. 8. Majority of the respondents have been found with the opinion of mostly superior assists at working place. 9. Most of the respondents (80%) are allowed to participate in analyzing issues and problems mostly. 10. Employees’ performance which is evaluated on the basis of strong affiliation towards superior has been found with the support of 61.8% of the respondents. 11. Employees’ performance which is conveyed rarely in right manner has been found with the support of majority of people (77.3%). 4.2 SUGGESTIONS 1. Job rotation shall be recommended to increase employees’ job satisfaction and to eliminate fatigue of employees and know about various jobs in the organization. 2. Parent child relationship shall be recommended to enhance the level of affiliation to reduce the mistake of superior and functional employees and to build mutual understanding. 3. Grievance Redressal shall be recommended to conduct twice in a year to reduce discontent or dissatisfaction of employees. 4. Employee engagement activity shall be recommended to increase which will help employees get away from the boredom and relax from work burden.
  • 63. 63 5. Counseling shall be recommended to all superiors to eliminate mistake over their colleagues. 6. Open communication shall be recommended which will help the employees to know about current status of work and company and will help the employees bonding with organization and superior. 7. Independent opinion over the job shall be recommended to execute the work efficiently. 8. Evaluation of employees’ shall be recommended to conduct on the basis of personal observation, statistical reports, oral reports and written reports. 4.3 CONCLUSION Leadership is a vital process in any organization. The success or failure of any organization mainly depends on its leadership. Employees are led by their superiors in order to achieve the target which is set by the company. Effective leadership helps the employees’ to have a strong affiliation towards the organization. Parent child relationship between the superiors and functional employees shall help to reduce the mistakes on the work. And leader should admire about his/her colleagues in presence of others which will create mutual relationship among them. Findings of the study have revealed lack of open communication and grievance redress, job satisfaction, evaluation factor. In the organization leader should not hide work related problem which will cause belief of employees over the leader and the organization. Open
  • 64. 64 communication will help to assess the employees’ opinion over the job and Grievance should be redressed promptly without showing indifference. Employees’ performance should be assessed by personal observation and statistical reports, oral reports and written reports. Evaluation should be conducted based on affiliation towards superior. It will cause morale of employees. Effective leadership shall shoulder the organization and helps in the development of the business. APPENDIX QUESTIONNAIRE Employee’s Details: Name : Gender : (a) Male (b) Female Age : (a) 25-35 (b) 35-45 (c) 45-55 (d) above 55 Educational Qualification: (a) HSC (b) Diploma (c) Graduate (d) Post Graduate 1. Are you satisfied with your current job? a) Highly satisfied. b) Satisfied c) Neutral d) Dissatisfied e) Highly dissatisfied. 2. How is your relationship with your team leader? a) Good b) Better c) Normal d) Bad e) Worst
  • 65. 65 3. Have you noticed any behavior in your team leader that you feel is not morally right? a) Yes (b) No 4. How would you rate employee motivation in this organization? a) Above average (b) Average c) Below average 5. Do you think that you been given a chance for rectification of your mistake or not? a) Mostly b) Rarely c) Sometimes 6. Do you agree that you are allowed to share your opinion on work? a) Strongly Agree (b) Agree c) Disagree d) Strongly disagree 7. What type of communication is taking place between you and your superior? a) One-way (b) Two-way 8. Are you allowed to engaging in effective dialogue with others? a) Committed listening b) Speaking c)Observing d) Writing e) Delivery of presentations. 9. Does your superior assist you morally at working place? a) Mostly b) Rarely c) Sometimes 10. Are you asked to do unrelated work during your work hours? a) Yes b) No 11. Do you agree that your grievances are all redressed often? a) Mostly b) Rarely c) Sometimes 12. Do you agree that open communication is being held between you and your superior? a) Strongly Agree (b) Agree c) Disagree d) Strongly disagree 13. Are you satisfied with your current remuneration? a) Highly Satisfied. b) Satisfied c) Neutral d) Dissatisfied e) Highly dissatisfied. 14. Are you given fair remuneration during overtime hours? (a) Yes (b) No 15. How is your relationship with your colleagues? a) Good b) Better c) Normal d) Bad e) Worst
  • 66. 66 16. Are you allowed to participate in analyzing issues and problems systematically and thoroughly? a) Mostly b) Rarely c) Sometimes 17. Are you evaluated based on the following factors? a) Performance b) Strong affiliation towards your superior c) any other factor 18. Do you agree that you are given organization learning programme? a) Strongly Agree (b) Agree c) Disagree d) Strongly disagree 19. Do you agree that your performance is conveyed to the superior in right manner? a) Rarely (b) Sometimes (c) Mostly 20. Does your superior hide work related information from you? a) Yes (b) No BIBLIOGRAPHY G.Yukl, Leadership in Organizations, Prentice Hall, NY, 1994 S.P.Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Prentice Hall, New Delhi,2000. Terry R.Bacon year: 2011 page: 10 journal: “leadership excellence” George. P. Johnston, Management Research- Emerging employment relationship Gaetane Jean-Marie, Year: 2009 page:562 journal: “advances in developing human resources” Derek Stockley, A journal of Human Resource- Dealing with positive employee performance.
  • 67. 67 Websites: http:// www.hrvillage.com http:// www.leaderx.com http:// www.ccl.org