“ Contextualising Forensic Science” Masuma Ahmed-Ali BSc (Hons) MSc PgCLTHE  &  Victoria Halliday BSc (Hons) MSc PgCLTHE A...
Timetable for the week <ul><li>Day 1- Contextualising Forensic Science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction to the week </li...
Day 2- Fingerprints and other impression evidence <ul><li>Introduce mark and impression evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss...
Day 3-Forensic Biology <ul><li>Provide an overview of forensic biology </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the identification of bod...
Day 4- Laboratory Safety and Management <ul><li>Principles of laboratory practice </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Management Sys...
Day 5- Forensic Toxicology & Plenary Session <ul><li>Define Forensic Analytical Toxicology (FAT) </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss...
Day 1-Learning Outcomes <ul><li>Participants will be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a definition of forensic scien...
Ice Breaker
Get the person sitting next to you to answer the following questions: What is your name? What department do you work in? H...
What is Forensic Science? <ul><li>Derived from the Latin word  forensis  which means “of the forum” </li></ul><ul><li>Is t...
History <ul><li>Mathiew Orfila </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Considered Father of Toxicology – published book (1813) </li></ul></u...
Disciplines in Forensic Science <ul><li>Common evidence types </li></ul><ul><li>Fingerprints </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs </li>...
Forensic Biology <ul><li>Molecular biology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Botany </li></ul><ul>...
Forensic Chemistry <ul><li>Drugs  </li></ul><ul><li>Toxicology </li></ul><ul><li>Fibre analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Paint an...
Forensic Science in the UK <ul><li>Providers in England and Wales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FSS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LGC...
Forensic Science in the UK <ul><li>Scientific Support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes Crime Scene Investigators, Fingerprin...
Role of the forensic scientist in the UK <ul><li>At the crime scene </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rarely </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In...
Locard’s Principle <ul><li>“ every contact leaves a trace” </li></ul><ul><li>What is a crime scene? </li></ul>Crime Scene ...
What is a crime scene? <ul><li>Location where event took place e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be a vehicle </li></ul></ul>...
What is Evidence? <ul><li>Specifically physical evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence can determine: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>w...
Type of Evidence <ul><li>Type of evidence determines the type of analysis that is carried out </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis n...
Collection & Preservation  of Evidence <ul><li>Crime scene must be thoroughly documented, photographed & sketched before a...
Collection & Preservation of Evidence <ul><li>Compromise of physical evidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breakage </li></ul></u...
Collection & Preservation of Evidence <ul><li>Documentation of the evidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collecting person’s init...
Collection & Preservation of Evidence <ul><li>Chain of custody </li></ul><ul><ul><li>List of persons who came into possess...
Collection & Preservation of Evidence <ul><li>Equipment used to collect evidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forceps, tweezers, ...
Collection & Preservation of Evidence <ul><li>Collection of Evidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fingerprints/palmprints/footpri...
Collection & Preservation of Evidence <ul><li>Collection of Evidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glass- separate questioned from...
Collection & Preservation of Evidence <ul><li>Collection of Evidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood evidence </li></ul></ul><...
Collection & Preservation of Evidence <ul><li>Submission of Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example 1- blood/ hair from sus...
Issues- Contamination <ul><li>Discredits the integrity of the evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Should be avoided  </li></ul><ul>...
Issues- Continuity <ul><li>Chain of custody </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Documented proof that the integrity of an item, that may...
Analysis of Evidence <ul><li>Divided into those that are examined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In-force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Analysis of Evidence <ul><li>Fingermarks not visible to the naked eye are called latent marks. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can b...
Analysis of Evidence <ul><li>The type of chemical used may include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amido black if the fingerprints ...
Analysis of Evidence <ul><li>Other types of Forensic Evidence  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g.  blood and hairs are submitted t...
Analysis of Evidence <ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use LMG (Leucomalachite Green)...
Laboratory Practice <ul><li>Protection (appropriate to the environment) </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Protective Equipment (P...
General personal safety <ul><li>Staff are responsible for their own safety and the safety of others </li></ul><ul><li>Alwa...
Laboratory Practice <ul><li>Anti contamination procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wipe down work area with medi-wipes </li><...
Laboratory Practice <ul><li>Miscellaneous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring equipment on daily basis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Individualisation <ul><li>Depending on the type of evidence can individualise or not </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fingermarks ind...
Interpretation <ul><li>Interpretation is the drawing of rational and balanced inferences from observations, test results a...
Strength Of Evidence <ul><li>Depends on Evidence type </li></ul><ul><li>No support </li></ul><ul><li>Some support </li></u...
Presentation of Evidence in the UK <ul><li>Two different forms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written Statement  </li></ul></ul><u...
Presentation of Evidence in the UK <ul><li>Two main types of criminal court in England and Wales: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ma...
Presentation of Evidence in the UK <ul><li>More serious crimes go to Crown Court </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verdict by a jury <...
Expert Evidence <ul><li>Mainly evidence of opinion rather than fact </li></ul><ul><li>Court admits and considers on the ba...
Experts in UK <ul><li>Council for the Registration of Forensic Practitioners (CRFP) </li></ul><ul><li>Forensic Science Soc...
Any Questions?
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Day 1 london met at adp

  1. 1. “ Contextualising Forensic Science” Masuma Ahmed-Ali BSc (Hons) MSc PgCLTHE & Victoria Halliday BSc (Hons) MSc PgCLTHE Abu Dhabi Police 8 th February 2009 Translated by: Bashar Sasa
  2. 2. Timetable for the week <ul><li>Day 1- Contextualising Forensic Science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction to the week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define forensic science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of Locard’s principle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss issues relevant to forensic science </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Day 2- Fingerprints and other impression evidence <ul><li>Introduce mark and impression evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the different types of mark and impression evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the significance of such evidence </li></ul>
  4. 4. Day 3-Forensic Biology <ul><li>Provide an overview of forensic biology </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the identification of body fluids </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the techniques employed in the production of a DNA profile </li></ul>
  5. 5. Day 4- Laboratory Safety and Management <ul><li>Principles of laboratory practice </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Management System for Testing Laboratories & ISO 17025/2005 requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Health and Safety requirements for Testing Laboratories </li></ul>
  6. 6. Day 5- Forensic Toxicology & Plenary Session <ul><li>Define Forensic Analytical Toxicology (FAT) </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the relationship of FAT with Clinical Analytical Toxicology (CAT) and Performance Analytical Toxicology (PAT) </li></ul><ul><li>Dose Response Relationship and Therapeutic Index </li></ul><ul><li>Specimen Collection and specific examples </li></ul>
  7. 7. Day 1-Learning Outcomes <ul><li>Participants will be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a definition of forensic science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have an insight into the developmental history of forensic science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand the variety of disciplines available in forensic science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appreciate the main principles of forensic science including Locard’s principle, continuity and contamination </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Ice Breaker
  9. 9. Get the person sitting next to you to answer the following questions: What is your name? What department do you work in? How long have you worked in the department? Then tell us…..
  10. 10. What is Forensic Science? <ul><li>Derived from the Latin word forensis which means “of the forum” </li></ul><ul><li>Is the study and application of science to the processes of law </li></ul><ul><li>Science + Circumstance </li></ul>
  11. 11. History <ul><li>Mathiew Orfila </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Considered Father of Toxicology – published book (1813) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sir Edward Henry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced Fingerprint Bureau to UK (1901) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Edmund Locard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Principle of Exchange of Evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established First Police Crime Laboratory (1910) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Professor Sir Alec Jeffreys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed first DNA profiling test (1984) used in a criminal investigation (1986) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(www.forensicdna.com) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Disciplines in Forensic Science <ul><li>Common evidence types </li></ul><ul><li>Fingerprints </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Firearms </li></ul><ul><li>Toxicology </li></ul><ul><li>Trace Evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Tool marks </li></ul><ul><li>Documents </li></ul><ul><li>Fire Investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Specialisms </li></ul><ul><li>Biology </li></ul><ul><li>Chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Odontology </li></ul><ul><li>Geology </li></ul><ul><li>Archaeology </li></ul><ul><li>Entomology </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Customs and Excise </li></ul>The list goes on…….
  13. 13. Forensic Biology <ul><li>Molecular biology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Botany </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fungus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pollen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bacteria and Viruses </li></ul><ul><li>Entomology </li></ul>
  14. 14. Forensic Chemistry <ul><li>Drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Toxicology </li></ul><ul><li>Fibre analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Paint analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Glass analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Accelerants </li></ul><ul><li>Fake goods </li></ul>
  15. 15. Forensic Science in the UK <ul><li>Providers in England and Wales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FSS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LGC Forensics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent Laboratories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Providers in Scotland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laboratories are linked to specific Police Forces </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Forensic Science in the UK <ul><li>Scientific Support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes Crime Scene Investigators, Fingerprint Bureau, Photographers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually sit in Police Forces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crown Prosecution Service (Procurator Fiscal in Scotland) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home Office Pathologists/Coroners Office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forensic Medical Examiners </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Role of the forensic scientist in the UK <ul><li>At the crime scene </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rarely </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the laboratory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It depends </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the court room </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expert Witness </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Locard’s Principle <ul><li>“ every contact leaves a trace” </li></ul><ul><li>What is a crime scene? </li></ul>Crime Scene Victim Suspect
  19. 19. What is a crime scene? <ul><li>Location where event took place e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be a vehicle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inside a building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Out in the open air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can even be the victim </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. What is Evidence? <ul><li>Specifically physical evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence can determine: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>whether a crime has been committed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what was involved e.g. a vehicle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>identify who was involved with the crime </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evidence CAN prove a suspect is guilty or show that some or no link is present between the suspect and the crime </li></ul>
  21. 21. Type of Evidence <ul><li>Type of evidence determines the type of analysis that is carried out </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis needs to be relevant to the circumstances surrounding the crime </li></ul>
  22. 22. Collection & Preservation of Evidence <ul><li>Crime scene must be thoroughly documented, photographed & sketched before any collection of evidence takes place </li></ul><ul><li>Physical evidence must be handled & processed in a way that the evidence remains in an unaltered condition, from crime scene to the laboratory- PRESERVATION </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence should be submitted intact- blood, fibres, hairs and soil should not be removed unless necessary </li></ul>
  23. 23. Collection & Preservation of Evidence <ul><li>Compromise of physical evidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breakage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaporation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accidental scratching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bending </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contamination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of evidence </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Collection & Preservation of Evidence <ul><li>Documentation of the evidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collecting person’s initials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Date and time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Description of the evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location of the evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigating agency & reference/case number </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Collection & Preservation of Evidence <ul><li>Chain of custody </li></ul><ul><ul><li>List of persons who came into possession of an item of evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to know what happened to the evidence from the time of its finding to its presentation in court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be required to testify in court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authenticity & Integrity of evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kept to minimum to avoid confusion </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Collection & Preservation of Evidence <ul><li>Equipment used to collect evidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forceps, tweezers, scalpels, spoons etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Packaging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paper containers- packets, envelopes, bags </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vials- unbreakable, leak-proof containers (liquid items) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Airtight containers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unbreakable plastic containers (various sizes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carefully folded paper- “druggist fold/ beechams wrap” </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Collection & Preservation of Evidence <ul><li>Collection of Evidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fingerprints/palmprints/footprints- photograph before making impression, lifting tape/paper attached to tape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questioned documents- suitable container. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibres/hair- small plastic container, folded paper with sealed edges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broken fingernails- paper packet then in a paper envelope </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Collection & Preservation of Evidence <ul><li>Collection of Evidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glass- separate questioned from known. Pack in cotton in sturdy container to prevent further breakage or damage. Label “Fragile” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firearms- firearm safety! Wrapped in a paper & place in cardboard/wooden box. Ammunition & casings should be packed separately in small cardboard pill boxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil samples- collect samples ASAP from immediate crime scene & areas etc. Plastic vial </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Collection & Preservation of Evidence <ul><li>Collection of Evidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid known samples- leak proof vials. Pack in cotton/paper. Refridgerate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid unknown samples- absorb onto sterile gauze and let dry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry stains- plastic vial, keep dry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stained clothing- wrap each article separately. Place in box to prevent shifting. If wet when found, air dry by hanging </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Collection & Preservation of Evidence <ul><li>Submission of Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example 1- blood/ hair from suspect, that can be compared to crime scene evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example 2- buccal swabs from crime scene personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to take samples of environment </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Issues- Contamination <ul><li>Discredits the integrity of the evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Should be avoided </li></ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul><ul><li>Robust evidence recovery procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Secure Packaging </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rigorous examination procedures in the laboratory </li></ul>
  32. 32. Issues- Continuity <ul><li>Chain of custody </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Documented proof that the integrity of an item, that may be submitted to the court in future is intact </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Analysis of Evidence <ul><li>Divided into those that are examined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In-force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>externally by a forensic science provider </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In-force examinations are generally limited to the analysis of impression marks e.g. fingerprints </li></ul>
  34. 34. Analysis of Evidence <ul><li>Fingermarks not visible to the naked eye are called latent marks. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be developed at the scene using powders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May require chemical enhancement (can be done at the scene, although usually done in a laboratory) </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Analysis of Evidence <ul><li>The type of chemical used may include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amido black if the fingerprints have been left deposited in blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superglue may develop fingermarks on a black bin bag </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crime Scene marks are passed to the Fingerprint Bureau where they will be compared to suspects or put on IDENT1(national automated fingerprint identification system) </li></ul>
  36. 36. Analysis of Evidence <ul><li>Other types of Forensic Evidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. blood and hairs are submitted to a forensic provider. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crime Scene Investigators (CSI) may perform presumptive tests at the scene however they must then be sent to the forensic science provider for further analysis </li></ul>
  37. 37. Analysis of Evidence <ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use LMG (Leucomalachite Green) at the crime scene to test for presence of blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If positive – can swab and send to Forensic Science provider to obtain DNA profile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However can sometimes produce false positives </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Laboratory Practice <ul><li>Protection (appropriate to the environment) </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Face mask </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mob cap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lab coat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gloves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foot covers </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. General personal safety <ul><li>Staff are responsible for their own safety and the safety of others </li></ul><ul><li>Always plan the activity to be carried </li></ul><ul><li>No eating or drinking </li></ul><ul><li>Do not apply cosmetics, lick labels, suck pens, pencils or smoke in the laboratory </li></ul><ul><li>Cuts/abrasions should be covered </li></ul><ul><li>Wash hands with disinfectant soap </li></ul>
  40. 40. Laboratory Practice <ul><li>Anti contamination procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wipe down work area with medi-wipes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decontaminate all equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use disposable consumables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use aseptic techniques </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Laboratory Practice <ul><li>Miscellaneous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring equipment on daily basis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health & safety issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always have a professional attitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk Assessments </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Individualisation <ul><li>Depending on the type of evidence can individualise or not </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fingermarks individualise as no two people have been found to have the same fingerprint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA profiles can only be expressed as a statistic </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Interpretation <ul><li>Interpretation is the drawing of rational and balanced inferences from observations, test results and measurements </li></ul><ul><li>Requires training and experience </li></ul><ul><li>Need circumstance of crime when interpreting evidence </li></ul>
  44. 44. Strength Of Evidence <ul><li>Depends on Evidence type </li></ul><ul><li>No support </li></ul><ul><li>Some support </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate support </li></ul><ul><li>Strong/extremely strong support </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusive </li></ul>
  45. 45. Presentation of Evidence in the UK <ul><li>Two different forms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written Statement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be made in person before the court (if required) </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Presentation of Evidence in the UK <ul><li>Two main types of criminal court in England and Wales: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Magistrates Court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crown Court </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Presentation of Evidence in the UK <ul><li>More serious crimes go to Crown Court </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verdict by a jury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judge who determines sentence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If found guilty in Crown Court may be given opportunity to appeal via; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Court of Appeal/High Court/House of Lords (not Scotland) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(later) Criminal Case Review Board </li></ul></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Expert Evidence <ul><li>Mainly evidence of opinion rather than fact </li></ul><ul><li>Court admits and considers on the basis of the knowledge and experience of the witness </li></ul>
  49. 49. Experts in UK <ul><li>Council for the Registration of Forensic Practitioners (CRFP) </li></ul><ul><li>Forensic Science Society- Professional Body </li></ul>
  50. 50. Any Questions?
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