Basdew Rooplal
Pre- feasibility study of a
low grade / sub economic
Iron ore deposit
Contents
1. Introducion
2. Analysis of Given
Information
3. Preliminary
flowsheet options
4. Testwork Program
5. Other fac...
Introduction
• This is a Greenfield project in
the Northern Cape, with an
exploration licence.
• Available information aft...
Aims and Objectives
• To Outline a program
that will take the
project from a
conceptual stage to
the feasibility stage.
Given info – Production / Grade
• Production
– 30 million tons per
annum
– 2.5 million tons per
month
– 100 000 tons per d...
Size Distribution
• Given < 6.3 mm
• > 10 mm subjected to
direct smelting
• Possible upgrade
methods available <
10 mm
• G...
Gravity Separation
• Mineral Densities
• Hematite 5.1
• Magnatite 5.2
• Goetite 4.2
• Siderite 3.8
• Gangue 2.65
• Cut Poi...
Magnetic Separation / Flotation
• Wet / Dry Magnetic
Separators
• High Intensity
• 7 000 – 20 000 Gauss
• Medium Intensity...
Online Elemental Analysis /
Scanning
• Khumani Iron ore
• Elemental Analysis
• Fe
• Al2O3
• K2O + Na2O
• SiO2
• Estimated ...
Flowsheet Options – Elemental
Scanning
ROM Elemental Analyser
On Grade > 65% Fe
Waste < 39% Fe
Off Grade >39 < 65 % Fe
Cru...
Off Grade Beneficiation Option
Crushing / Screening
Jigs / DMS Spiral / Tables
WLIMS / WHIMS
+1 mm - 1 mm
Coarse
Concentra...
Waste < 39 % Fe Option
Tailings from Elemental Scan
Tailings from WHIMS
Tailings from Spirals
Semi Autogeneous
Milling
Flo...
Testwork Program
• Elemental Analysis
• XRF X-Ray florence
spectroscopy
• Necessary to determine
the components of the
min...
Testwork Program
• HyLogging
• spectral analysis
technology for rapid,
automated scanning of
iron ore drill core, chips
an...
Metallurgical Testwork
• 15 metre drop test to
estimate lump/fines ratios
and the particle size
distribution expected from...
Metallurgical Testwork
• Magnetite testing,
including wet and dry
magnetic separation
(LIMS)
• Beneficiation testing -
spi...
Metallurgical Testwork
• Agglomeration including
pellet and sinter testing
• Wet and dry rare earth
drum capacity
• Advanc...
Metallurgical Testwork
• JK drop-weight test and SAG
mill comminution (SMC) test
• Levin open circuit grindability
• Point...
Other Investigations
• Logistics of
transporting of
finished products
• Water management
requirements
• Power and raw
mate...
Detailed Flowsheet
360 – 800 tph WHIMS
Comparison of Underbed / Side air pulsed
Jigs
Conclusions
• Careful consideration
should be given to the
Elemental and
mineralogical Analysis as
this can yield valuable...
Conclusions
• Lab scale testing will
provide sufficient
results for a pre-
feasibility stage
• Process simulation
and pilo...
Recommendations
• Sufficient work should be put into the logistics of
the project.
• Laboratory scale test work should be ...
Pre- Feasibility study of a low grade iron ore http://mineralprocessingconsultant.com/blog
Pre- Feasibility study of a low grade iron ore http://mineralprocessingconsultant.com/blog
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Pre- Feasibility study of a low grade iron ore http://mineralprocessingconsultant.com/blog

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An analysis showing the options available for a low grade sub-economic iron ore deposit 40 - 50 % Fe

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Pre- Feasibility study of a low grade iron ore http://mineralprocessingconsultant.com/blog

  1. 1. Basdew Rooplal Pre- feasibility study of a low grade / sub economic Iron ore deposit
  2. 2. Contents 1. Introducion 2. Analysis of Given Information 3. Preliminary flowsheet options 4. Testwork Program 5. Other factors for consideration 6. Examples of detailed flowsheets 7. Conclusions 8. Recommendations
  3. 3. Introduction • This is a Greenfield project in the Northern Cape, with an exploration licence. • Available information after a year of exploration drilling and conceptual phase results: •  Discovered resource size enough for 25 years at a planned product rate of • 30 000 000 tons product per annum. •  • Low grade ore with a % Fe in resource varying between 40% and 50%. •  Conceptual phase results indicated a possible top size of 6.3mm.
  4. 4. Aims and Objectives • To Outline a program that will take the project from a conceptual stage to the feasibility stage.
  5. 5. Given info – Production / Grade • Production – 30 million tons per annum – 2.5 million tons per month – 100 000 tons per day – 4000 tons per hour • Grade • 40 – 50 % Fe • On grade • > 65 % Fe • Off Grade • > 60 < 65 High • > 39 < 60 Low • Waste • < 39 % Fe
  6. 6. Size Distribution • Given < 6.3 mm • > 10 mm subjected to direct smelting • Possible upgrade methods available < 10 mm • Gravity Separation • Magnetic Separation • Flotation • Online elemental analysis / Scanning
  7. 7. Gravity Separation • Mineral Densities • Hematite 5.1 • Magnatite 5.2 • Goetite 4.2 • Siderite 3.8 • Gangue 2.65 • Cut Point 2.9 – 3.2 • Equipment Available • DMS Cyclones - 120 tph • - 6 + 0.2 mm • Batac Jigs 500 tph • - 30 + 0.5 mm • Spirals 3 tph • -1 + 0.03 mm • Tables 2 tph • - 1 + 0.03 mm
  8. 8. Magnetic Separation / Flotation • Wet / Dry Magnetic Separators • High Intensity • 7 000 – 20 000 Gauss • Medium Intensity • 2000 – 7000 Gauss • Low Intensity • 1000 – 2000 Gausss • Flotation • - 65 micron Fraction • Fatty Acids • Petroleum sulfonate collectors
  9. 9. Online Elemental Analysis / Scanning • Khumani Iron ore • Elemental Analysis • Fe • Al2O3 • K2O + Na2O • SiO2 • Estimated Yields • Ongrade > 80 % • Off Grade High • >65 < 80 % • Off Grade low • > 45 < 60 %
  10. 10. Flowsheet Options – Elemental Scanning ROM Elemental Analyser On Grade > 65% Fe Waste < 39% Fe Off Grade >39 < 65 % Fe Crushing / Screening Crushing / Screening Further Beneficiation Pelletiing Smelting
  11. 11. Off Grade Beneficiation Option Crushing / Screening Jigs / DMS Spiral / Tables WLIMS / WHIMS +1 mm - 1 mm Coarse Concentrate Regrind / Ball Mill WLIMS / WHIMS Tails Tails Tails Fine Concentrate Tailings to Waste
  12. 12. Waste < 39 % Fe Option Tailings from Elemental Scan Tailings from WHIMS Tailings from Spirals Semi Autogeneous Milling Flotation Filteration / Pelletising Thickeners / Slimes Dam TailsFloat Conc
  13. 13. Testwork Program • Elemental Analysis • XRF X-Ray florence spectroscopy • Necessary to determine the components of the mineral and its behaviour during processing • Mineralogy • QEMSCAN, MLA, X-ray diffraction (XRD), HyLogging and optical microscopy • Important in choosing the method of upgrading via comminution, gravity, flotation and/or other beneficiation processes
  14. 14. Testwork Program • HyLogging • spectral analysis technology for rapid, automated scanning of iron ore drill core, chips and powder. • This technology is used for a range of applications from logging and archiving core, mineral exploration, and mine planning, to geometallurgy and mineral processing • The instrument generates digital images and surface spectra which is interpreted by software to produce mineralogical information.
  15. 15. Metallurgical Testwork • 15 metre drop test to estimate lump/fines ratios and the particle size distribution expected from blasting and processing • Lump and fines products - beneficiation testwork or characterisation • iron ore physical testing - Tumble Strength Testing o iron ore thermal testing - Reduction Disintegration Index - Reducibility - Decrepitation Index
  16. 16. Metallurgical Testwork • Magnetite testing, including wet and dry magnetic separation (LIMS) • Beneficiation testing - spirals, up-current classifiers, jigging, WHIMS • Flotation testing - direct and reverse for silica removal • stage pulverized and optimisation tests versus grind size • Magnetic susceptibility • Densimetric testing • Granulometric • Online measurement & Ore sorting technologies
  17. 17. Metallurgical Testwork • Agglomeration including pellet and sinter testing • Wet and dry rare earth drum capacity • Advanced screen • Comminution – Autogenous media competency – Bond abrasion index – Bond ball mill work index – Bond impact crushing work index – Bond rod mill work index – Comparative work index – High pressure grinding rolls (HPGR
  18. 18. Metallurgical Testwork • JK drop-weight test and SAG mill comminution (SMC) test • Levin open circuit grindability • Point load test • SAGDesign (Starkey) • Ultra fine grinding • Unconfined compressive strength • Pilot testing • Bulk crushing and screening • AG/SAG milling • Ball milling • HPGR • Hydrocyclones • Spiral Pilot Rig • Magnetic separation • Dense medium cyclone plant • Gravity separation • Flotation • Scrubbing • Dewatering and tailings management
  19. 19. Other Investigations • Logistics of transporting of finished products • Water management requirements • Power and raw material requirements • Skilled labour manning and training • Waste material storage capacity and management • Opportunity for other value add benefits at the source
  20. 20. Detailed Flowsheet
  21. 21. 360 – 800 tph WHIMS
  22. 22. Comparison of Underbed / Side air pulsed Jigs
  23. 23. Conclusions • Careful consideration should be given to the Elemental and mineralogical Analysis as this can yield valuable design information • Well chosen combinations of gravity and magnetic separation units can provide for successful upgrade methods for a low grade deposit. • Conceptual phase of logistics of ore / product transportation and movement needs to be completed as large volumes are under consideration. • Conceptual requirements for process water to support a Wet processing plant needs to be evaluated.
  24. 24. Conclusions • Lab scale testing will provide sufficient results for a pre- feasibility stage • Process simulation and pilot tests should be carried out during the feasibility stage for more accurate results. • Sufficient Consideration should be given to Elemental scanning techniques at source or at an early stage of the flowsheet as this can reduce the volume to be processed and capital cost.
  25. 25. Recommendations • Sufficient work should be put into the logistics of the project. • Laboratory scale test work should be carried out on process beneficiation techniques using elemental scanning / gravity separation and wet magnetic separation techniques on available material. • More emphasis should be placed on elemental and mineralogical Analysis at this stage of the project.

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