National Food Security Bill 2013


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National Food Security Bill 2013

  1. 1. The National Food Security Bill 2013…. Seminar - 1 Basavaraj R. Hubballi Snr M.Sc (Agril. Economics) PGS 12 AGR 5742 Major Advisor: Dr. Girish N. Kulkarni
  2. 2. Flow of presentation…. 1. Why NFSB is required? 2. Back ground of FSB…. 3. Summary of NFSB 4. Food grain required for FSB 5. Is the Bill Sustainable? 6. States Food security programs 7. Chattisgarh FSB Vs National FSB 8. Criticism of NFSB 9. Suggestions 10.Conclusion
  3. 3. Why NFSB is required for our country?
  4. 4. India has the largest number of hungry people in the world: 287 million people
  5. 5. Experts call it a silent emergency for the country: Nearly 50% of children under the age of 5 Are Mal nourished
  6. 6. • UNICEF studies reveal maximum undernutrition in the five Indian states: Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, and Orissa.
  7. 7. Situation is worst in rural part of India. women’s nutrition and child caring practices are inadequate Early marraige
  8. 8. India and the global food security index
  9. 9. Do you think that… This worst situation is due to lack of sufficient food grain production? No… not at all !!! Then?
  10. 10. •Rather it is due to govt’s misplaced priorities and mismanagement skills • Food grain is rotting in warehouses, yet million of hungry people.
  11. 11. Strange situation…. Economic growth Poverty situation
  12. 12. Govt has failed to create job opportunites for the people India’s economic growth rate for 2013-14 to plunge to 5% We created thousands of jobs in last 10 years All contract labourers…!
  13. 13. Thus offering food grains to needy families every month at subsidized rates is an important and sensible step.
  14. 14. Back ground of food security movement….
  15. 15. • 1996- Supreme Court declared that the right to live guaranteed in any civilized society implies the right to food. • 2001- the Court ordered the implementation of eight centrally sponsored schemes as legal entitlements. These include Public Distribution System (PDS) Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) The Midday Meal Scheme (MMS) Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) • 2008 - the Court ordered that Below Poverty Line (BPL) families be entitled to 35 kg of food grains per month at subsidized prices.
  16. 16. • Then the National Food Security Bill had a stop-start journey. Here’s a timeline of its... • Oct 2010 - the National Advisory Council (NAC) drafted a National Food Security Bill, proposing legal entitlements for about 75 percent of the population. • Jan 2011 - an Expert Committee set up by the Prime Minister under the chairmanship of Dr. C. Rangarajan examined the Bill and made several recommendations, including reducing the proportion of the population entitled to benefits and computerizing PDS.
  17. 17. • July 2011- A ministerial panel gave its approval to draft food security Bill • Jan 2012- The Bill was referred to the Parliament Standing Committee on Food • Nov 2012- A parliamentary panel sends the draft back to the food ministry to incorporate changes after consulting with state governments. • 19 Mar 2013- Union Cabinet approves an amended draft • 4 June 2013- The Cabinet discussed on approving the food security law through an ordinance. • 4 July 2013 - Cabinet approved the food aid program as an ordinance.
  18. 18. Here comes the major chunks …. • 26 Aug 2013- the bill was passed in the LokSabha • 2 Sept 2013- the bill was passed in the Rajyasabha • 10 Sept 2013- received the assent of the President of India. With this the NFSB 2013 became the Act and gave the majority of those living in India the right to very cheap food grains.
  19. 19. A Summary of NFSB, 2013….
  20. 20. Classified… 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Preliminaries Entitlements Identification of Eligible Households Food Commissions Transparency Provisions PDS Reforms Women Empowerment Obligations of Government and Local Authorities
  21. 21. Preliminaries…. The Bill seeks to provide for food and nutritional security by ensuring access to adequate quantity of quality food at affordable prices to people to live a life with dignity. It extends to the whole of India.
  22. 22. Entitlements…. Public Distribution System:  Priority households are entitled to 5 kgs of food grains per person per month.  2.43 crore Antyodaya households to get 35 kgs.  The combined coverage is up to 75% of the rural population and up to 50% of the urban population.  The Bill will cover around 810 million citizens. (67%)
  23. 23. Children’s Entitlements…. children in the age group of 6 months to 6 years, the Bill guarantees an age-appropriate meal, free of charge, through the local anganwadi. children aged 6-14 years, free midday meal will be provided every day in all schools run by local bodies, government and govt aided schools, up to Class VIII. Children who suffer from malnutrition will be identified through the local anganwadi and meals will be provided to them free of charge.
  24. 24. Entitlements of Pregnant and Lactating Women…. Every pregnant and lactating mother is entitled to a free meal at the local anganwadi (during pregnancy and six months after childbirth). Maternal benefits of Rs 6,000, is given in instalments (maternal benefits to a pregnant woman beyond two live births is denied) .
  25. 25. Identification of Eligible Households…. The Central Government is to determine the state-wise coverage of the PDS, in terms of proportion of the rural/urban population. Then numbers of eligible persons will be calculated from Census population figures. The identification of eligible households is left to state governments. The lists of eligible households are to be displayed publicly by state governments.
  26. 26. Food Commissions… The Bill provides for the creation of State Food Commissions Each Commission shall consist of a chairperson, five other members and a member-secretary (including at least two women) The main function of the State Commission is to monitor and evaluate the implementation of the act, give advice to the state governments and their agencies, and inquire into violations of entitlements.
  27. 27. Transparency Provisions…. Placing all PDS-related records open for public inspection. Conducting periodic social audits of the PDS and other welfare schemes. Using information and communication technology (including end-to-end computerization of the PDS) to ensure transparent recording of transactions at all levels. Setting up vigilance committees at state, district, block and fair price shop levels to supervise all schemes under the act.
  28. 28. PDS Reforms…. Doorstep delivery of foodgrains ICT applications and end-to-end computerisation Using aadhaar (UID) for unique identification of entitled beneficiaries Full transparency of records Preference to public institutions or bodies in licensing of fair price shops.
  29. 29. Women Empowerment…. For the purpose of issue of ration cards, the eldest woman (above 18) shall be the head of the household.
  30. 30. Obligations of Government and Local Authorities…. Central Government : provide food grains (funds) to state governments to implement the main entitlements. It also has to provide assistance to state governments to meet local distribution costs. State governments : implementing the relevant schemes, in accordance with the guidelines issued by the Central Government. They are free to extend benefits and entitlements beyond what is prescribed in the Bill, from their own resources Local Authorities and Panchayati Raj Institutions are responsible for proper implementation of the act in their respective areas
  31. 31. Food Grain Required for the Food Security Bill….  The (NFSB) require of about 61.2 mt of cereals (Figures in mt) Item wheat rice total Requirement for the Beneficiary population (67% of 1.215 Billion people @ 5 kg grain per person) 22.0 26.8 48.8 Additional requirement for AAY (@ 2 kg grain for 2.5 crore household assuming 5 persons per household) 1.4 1.6 3.0 Estimated requirement for OWS 2.9 3.6 6.5 Additional requirement for protecting the average annual offtake of states 1.3 1.6 2.9 Total Annual Requirement 27.6 33.6 61.2 Monthly requirement (Annual Requirement / 12) 2.3 2.8 5.1
  32. 32. Is There Enough Food Grain to Sustain the Food Security Initiative?
  33. 33. Food grain production trend in the country Rice - 104.3 mt Wheat - 93.9 mt Coarse Cereals – 42.01 mt Pulses – 17.21 mt
  34. 34. FCI follows some set of buffer norms… 993
  35. 35. Procurement and PDS sales 1990 Source: website of FCI
  36. 36. Is the Bill Sustainable?
  37. 37.  The Food Bill will cost around Rs 1.3 lakh crore annually which is about 1.1% of GDP.  About 62 million tonnes of food grain will be needed under the food bill.  Even if the grain quantity remains fixed each year, the subsidy cost will keep increasing annually. its sustainability is questioned by many
  38. 38. reality is….. The cost of the bill is likely to be Rs 1.25 – 1.30 lakh crore each year India is already spending Rs 1.16 lakh crore on schemes that are listed as entitlements under the FSB. food subsidy (Rs 85,000 crore), midday meal scheme (Rs 13,215 crore), Integrated Child Development Scheme (Rs 17,700 crore) maternity entitlements (Rs 450 crore). Thus, the additional expenditure is around Rs 8,635 crore, or say Rs 10,000 which is hardly significant in comparison with the GDP numbers. In reality, a much bigger amount is wasted annually by way of rotting food grains stocked under FCI Thus, it is wrong to say that the Food Bill will incur any extra significant expenditure by the government.
  39. 39. States’ Food Security Programs….  Several Indian states have been running their own food security programs.  Tamil Nadu has perhaps the best run system in the country. Most recently, Chhattisgarh has emerged as a model state in terms of running the food program most efficiently.  60 percent of the poverty gap has been wiped out in Tamil Nadu; the figure for Chhattisgarh is 40 percent and nearly 20 percent at the all-India level.
  40. 40. The Chhattisgarh Food Security Bill, 2012 Chhattisgarh became the first state to have its own food security Act It is seen as a model for other states in effectively implementing food bill. The bill covers around 42 lakh families.
  41. 41. Highlights of the CG Food Act….  The Act provides for not just the food grains (wheat, rice etc.) but also gram and iodized salt.  It also covers school midday meals and take home ration for pregnant women and lactating mothers and children under three to provide additional nutrition through the anganwadis.  Free meals for the destitute and homeless.  Ration cards is issued in the name of the eldest woman in a family. (Women empowerment)
  42. 42.  Panchayats and Municipalities will be responsible for implementation of the Act.  Entitlements will be given on the basis of per household and not on per person.  To prevent leakage and corruption a) Computerization of records and publication of all beneficiaries and benefits given to them. b) Gram Panchayats will be allowed to run ration outlets. c) Vigilance committees d) Social audits by the Gram Sabha, etc
  43. 43. Chattisgarh FSB Vs National FSB….
  44. 44. The Chhattisgarh FSB 2012 The National FSB 2013 Food Grain Entitlements : Antyodaya and Priority households 35 Kg Food grain at Rs 1/kg ( Antyodaya households ) Rs 2/kg (priority households) 2 Kg Iodized Salt free of cost 2 Kg Black Gram at Rs 5/kg (in tribal areas) 2 Kg Pulses at Rs 10/kg (in non tribal areas) 35 Kg Food grain to Antyodaya households Type of entitlement Only on household basis Antyodaya on household basis 5 Kg Food grain per person to priority households Priority on per person basis Antyodaya Definition of Antyodaya expanded to include vulnerable groups Only poorest of poor
  45. 45. Population Coverage Offers universal coverage. About 90% population is covered 75% rural population and 50% urban population. Overall about 67% population. Destitute and homeless Entitled to free meals No such provision PDS Reforms use of IT and Communication technology for distribution system. Talks of doorstep delivery to PDS shops and use of technology, etc. But no scope for use CCTV cameras in godowns, internet, GPS tracking etc
  46. 46. Karnataka Food Bill… Our state is providing rice at Re 1 per kg and up to 30 kg per family with a BPL card. Coverage: 98.17 lakh people Cost: Rs 460 crore a year. Food grain requirement: 2.40 lakh tonnes rice.
  47. 47. Criticism of NFSB….
  48. 48. Don’t Need Another Program Only the weakest section of the society needs assistance ICMR norms: adult requires 14kgs and children 7kgs of food grains per month. But the bill provides 5kgs per person per month
  49. 49. No place for pulses and oil in the entitlement, so fails to address the widespread problem of malnutrition . It does not specify any time frame. It will be implemented as and when states get ready No agriculture and production-related entitlements for farmers
  50. 50. No entitlements to destitute, homeless and starving persons No entitlements to the third and onward born child. How to count the beneficiaries?
  51. 51.  Poor States Demand better Treatment  Arbitrary targeting of rural and urban population  Hunger vs Malnutrition  Corruption and inefficiencies of the PDS system
  52. 52. Few practical suggestions for effective implementation of Food Security bill…. A way forward….
  53. 53.  The Food Bill should be linked to the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA).  It could also be linked to education as is done in Bangladesh.  The bill should include subsidized rates for pulses.  Community based agricultural programs and teaching about sustainable farming  Decentralized storage of food grains.  Use of mobile.
  54. 54. Conclusion….
  55. 55. • difference between ordinance an act...... • An Act is a bill that was presented in a State legislative home/Parliament of India, passed by both the houses of the State legislature or Parliament, sent for accent of the State Governor or the President of India, and then it becomes an Act. • Whereas ordinance is a legal order or law made by the State Government or the Union Government when the Legislature or Parliament is not in session, this a temporary arrangement made by the said government with regard to such a law & its implementation in the State or the whole of the country as the case may be. Such ordinance is legal & can be implemented for the time being, but it has to be passed by the State legislature or the parliament within six months & made as a proper Act.