INTRODUCTION Bread and other yeast-raised bakery foods are widely consumed and desired, because of their appealing ﬂavour and light, porous texture, properties which depend largely on yeast fermentation. Leavening by the action of yeast was known to the Egyptians as early as 2000BC. The role of baker’s yeast (Saccharomycescerevisiae) in producing leavened bread depends on two factors:-the ability of yeast to generate carbon dioxide and alcohol through the breakdown of simple sugars, and the unique ability of wheat ﬂour proteins to form ﬁlms in dough that trap evolved gases.
FLOUR It is the primary ingredient of most bakery foods. It comprises up to 95% of all the ingredients.
YEAST Most of the yeast used by wholesale bakers is available in the form of fresh compressed yeast, granular, or as cream yeast Yeast fermentation leads to gas production which, in turn, leads to leavened dough Most bread doughs are made with 2–3% fresh compressed yeast, based on ﬂour
Continued.. Instant yeast exhibits more activity than regular active dry yeast due to improved drying techniques, and can replace compressed yeast at a rate of 33–40%.
Yeast foods are multifunctional proprietary materials, containing principally an ammonium salt, a calcium salt, and an oxidant.
ammonium ion: serves as a source of nitrogen for the yeast calcium ion: has a beneﬁcial strengthening effect on the colloidal structure of the gluten
Continued.. 3. oxidizing agent: has an improving action in dough
SUGAR It is used in concentration of about 8% Sugar is utilized to modify ﬂavor, to help support yeast fermentation Acts as an contributor to crust color and toasting properties through browning and caramelization reactions. In products requiring greater sweetness, sucrose is preferred.
SHORTENING AGENTS Added to produce tenderness and to perform many other speciﬁc functions in the ﬁnished product. 1.Animal and vegetable fats 2.oils 3.Butter *Fat addition yields a 20% volume increase.
Surfactants are widely used in bread and other bakeryfoods. In breadmaking, surfactants perform as crumb softeners or dough strengtheners
Monoglycerides ethoxylated monoglycerides Polysorbates diacetyl tartaric acid esters of monoglycerides
EGGS Used up to 20%, based on ﬂour, to achieve richness and to inﬂuence color and ﬂavor. Some bakery foods, eg, sweet goods, croissants, and puff pastry, are often washed with egg wash,prior to baking to obtain a rich, golden brown color in the ﬁnished product.
SALT In breadmaking, salt, used at roughly 2% based on ﬂour, provides ﬂavor, moderates yeast fermentation by increasing the osmotic pressure in dough, and toughens gluten proteins
WATER The components of yeast-raised doughs and chemically leavened batters are dispersed in water. Water for dough mixing is generally not softened because the minerals in hard water may be beneﬁcial, tending to strengthen gluten proteins.
ENZYMES Adequate amylolytic enzymes must be present in dough for several reasons The amylase from subtilis, which is relatively heat stable and partly survives the baking process for further starch modiﬁcations, is utilized by some wholesale bakers to slow down the ﬁrming of bread
ENRICHING INGREDIENT Most commercially produced white breads are enriched with added thiamin4.0,riboﬂavin2.4,iron27.5,niacin33 all in g/kg
Hamburger Ingredients 1 pound ground beef 1/2 cup diced onion 2/3 cup chunky salsa 1/2 cup ketchup 1/2 cup packed brown sugar 1 egg 1/2 cup quick cooking oats salt and pepper to taste
METHOD In a bowl mix ground beef, diced onion,ketchup,suger,egg,oats,salt and pepper and fry patties. fry patties for 4-5min.
Hot Dog Buns Ingredients 1 cup milk 1/2 cup water 1/4 cup butter 4 1/2 cups all-purpose flour 1 (.25 ounce) package instant yeast 2 tablespoons white sugar 1 1/2 teaspoons salt 1 egg
METHOD Heat milk,water and butter at 120 F Mix 3/4th cup flour,yeast,suger and salt Mix milk in the flour and add egg Stirr in remaining flour, ½ cup at a time Beat well after each addition Knead the dough untill required consistency Divide the dough in rectanguler shape Roll up tightly Allow it to raise for 20-25min Bake at 200 c for 10-12min
Sweet Roll Ingredients 1/2 cup warm water (110 degrees F/45 degrees C) 1/2 cup warm milk 1 egg 1/3 cup butter, softened 1/3 cup white sugar 1 teaspoon salt 3 3/4 cups all-purpose flour 1 (.25 ounce) package active dry yeast 1/4 cup butter, softened
English Mufﬁns Ingredients 1 cup milk 2 tablespoons white sugar 1 (.25 ounce) package active dry yeast 1 cup warm water (110 degrees F/45 degrees C) 1/4 cup melted shortening 6 cups all-purpose flour 1 teaspoon salt
METHOD Warm the milk in a small saucepan until it bubbles, then remove from heat. Mix in the sugar, stirring until dissolved. Let cool until lukewarm. In a small bowl, dissolve yeast in warm water. Let stand until creamy, about 10 minutes. In a large bowl, combine the milk, yeast mixture, shortening and 3 cups flour. Beat until smooth. Add salt and rest of flour, or enough to make a soft dough. Knead. Place in greased bowl, cover, and let rise.
3.Punch down. Roll out to about 1/2 inch thick. Cut rounds with biscuit cutter, drinking glass, or empty tuna can. Sprinkle waxed paper with cornmeal and set the rounds on this to rise. Dust tops of muffins with cornmeal also. Cover and let rise 1/2 hour. 4.Heat greased griddle. Cook muffins on griddle about 10 minutes on each side on medium heat. Keep baked muffins in a warm oven until all have been cooked. Allow to cool and place in plastic bags for storage. To use, split and toast. Great with orange butter, or cream cheese and jam.
Bagels Ingredients 4 1/2 cups all-purpose flour 3 tablespoons white sugar 1 1/2 teaspoons salt 1 (.25 ounce) package active dry yeast 1 2/3 cups warm water 2 tablespoons margarine 1 tablespoon white sugar 2 teaspoons salt
METHOD Mix together theflour,sugar,salt, yeast, water, and butter in the bread machine. Remove from bread machine. Divide dough into 12 pieces; shape 3 pieces into smooth balls Poke a 1 inch hole in each. Drop bagels into a large skillet with 1 inch water (simmering) with sugar and salt in the water. Cook on medium low heat for 3 minutes, turn and cook 2 minutes; turn again, cook 1 minute more. Drain on towels and Place on greased cookie sheet. Bake at 375 degrees F (190 degrees C) for 20-25 minutes. Remove from sheets and cool.
Pretzels INGREDIENTS 4 1/2 teaspoons active dry yeast 1 teaspoon white sugar 1/2 cup warm water 2 cups warm milk 6 tablespoons vegetable shortening 2 eggs 6 cups all-purpose flour, divided 1 tablespoon vegetable oil 1/4 cup white sugar 1 1/2 teaspoons salt 1/2 cup baking soda 4 cups water 1/4 cup melted butter
METHOD Sprinkle the yeast and sugar over 1/2 cup of warm water in a small bowl. The water should be no more than 100 degrees F. Let stand for 5 minutes until the yeast softens and begins to form a creamy foam. Add milk, shortening, eggs, oil,flour,sugar, and salt. Blend with an electric mixer on medium speed until smooth. Mix in remaining 3 cups of flour by hand, 1/2 cup at a time, mixing well after each addition. When the dough has pulled together, turn it out onto a floured surface, and knead until smooth and elastic, about 5 minutes. The dough will be sticky.
7. Lightly oil a large bowl, then place the dough in the bowl and turn to coat with oil. Cover with a light cloth and let rise in a warm place (80 to 95 degrees F (27 to 35 degrees C)) until doubled in volume, about 1 hour. Uncover the dough and punch it down. 8.Preheat an oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C). 9.Pull off baseball size portions of dough and roll into "snakes" 10.Set each formed bun aside. 11.Mix the baking soda and 4 cups hot water in a bowl. Dip each bun in the baking soda solution before placing on a baking sheet. Brush each bun with melted butter and sprinkle with salt. Bake in the preheated oven until brown, 20 to 25 minutes. Cool on a wire rack or brown paper bag
Croissants INGREDIENTS 1 1/4 teaspoons active dry yeast 3 tablespoons warm water (110 degrees F/45 degrees C) 1 teaspoon white sugar 1 3/4 cups all-purpose flour 2 teaspoons white sugar 1 1/2 teaspoons salt 2/3 cup warm milk 2 tablespoons vegetable oil 2/3 cup unsalted butter, chilled 1 egg 1 tablespoon water
METHOD Combine yeast, warm water, and sugar. Allow to stand until creamy and frothy. Measure flour into a mixing bowl. Dissolve sugar and salt in warm milk. Blend into flour along with yeast and oil. Mix well; knead until smooth. Cover, and let rise until over triple in volume. Deflate gently, and let rise again until doubled. Massage butter until pliable. Pat dough into a rectangle. Smear butter over top two thirds, leaving margin all around. Fold unbuttered third over middle third, and buttered top third down over that.
9.Turn 90 degrees, so that folds are to left and right. Roll into rectangle. 10.Fold in three again. Sprinkle lightly with flour, and put dough in a plastic bag. Refrigerate 2 hours. Unwrap, sprinkle with flour, and deflate gently. Roll to a rectangle, and fold again. Turn 90 degrees, and repeat. Wrap, and chill 2 hours. 11.To shape, roll dough out to rectangle. Cut in half crosswise, and chill half while shaping the other half. 12.Roll out to rectangle. Cut into three squares. Cut each square in half diagonally. Roll each triangle lightly to elongate the point, and make it long. 13.Bake in a preheated 475 degrees F (245 degrees C) oven for 12 to 15 minutes
Danish Pastry INGREDIENTS 2 cups unsalted butter, softened 2/3 cup all-purpose flour 2 1/2 cups milk 1/2 cup white sugar 2 teaspoons salt 4 1/2 teaspoons active dry yeast 8 cups all-purpose flour 2 eggs 1 teaspoon lemon extract 1 teaspoon almond extract
METHOD In a medium bowl, cream together the butter and 2/3 cup of flour. Divide into 2 equal parts, and roll each half between 2 pieces of waxed paper into a 6 x12 inch sheet. Refrigerate. In a large bowl, mix together the dry yeast and 3 cups of the remaining flour. In a small saucepan over medium heat, combine the milk, sugar and salt. Heat to 115 degrees F (43 degrees C), or just warm, but not hot to the touch. Mix the warm milk mixture into the flour and yeast along with the eggs, and lemon and almond extracts. Stir for 3 minutes. Knead in the remaining flour 1/2 cup at a time until the dough is firm and pliable. Set aside to rest until double in size. Cut the dough in half, and roll each half out to a 14 inch square. Place one sheet of the cold butter onto each piece of dough, and fold the dough over it like the cover of a book. Seal edges by pressing with fingers. Roll each piece out to a 20x 12 inch rectangle, then fold into thirds by folding the long sides in over the center. Repeat rolling into a large rectangle, and folding into thirds. Wrap in plastic and refrigerate for at least 30 minutes.
4.Remove from the refrigerator one at a time, and roll and fold each piece two more times. Return to the refrigerator to chill again before shaping. If the butter gets too warm, the dough will become difficult to manage. 5.To make danishes, roll the dough out to 1/4 inch thickness. The dough can be cut into squares, with a filling placed in the center. Fold 2 of the corners over the center to form a filled diamond shape. Or, fold the piece in half, cut into 1 inch strips, stretch, twist and roll into a spiral. Place a dollop of preserves or other filling in the center. Place danishes on an ungreased baking sheet, and let rise until doubled. Preheat the oven to 450 degrees F (220 degrees C). Danishes can be brushed with egg white for a shiny finish. 6.Bake for 8 to 10 minutes in the preheated oven, or until the bottoms are golden brown.
Crackers Ingredients 1 3/4 cups whole wheat flour 1 1/2 cups all-purpose flour 3/4 teaspoon salt 1/3 cup vegetable oil 1 cup water salt for sprinkling
METHOD Preheat the oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C). In a medium bowl, stir together the whole wheat flour, all-purpose flour, and 3/4 teaspoon salt. Pour in the vegetable oil and water; mix until just blended. On a lightly floured surface, roll out the dough as thin as possible - no thicker than 1/8 inch. Place dough on an ungreased baking sheet, and mark squares out with a knife, but don't cut through. Prick each cracker with a fork a few times, and sprinkle with salt. Bake for 15 to 20 minutes in the preheated oven, or until crisp and light brown. Baking time may be different depending on how thin your crackers are. When cool, remove from baking sheet, and separate into individual crackers.
cookies INGREDIENTS 1 cup vegetable oil 1 cup butter, softened 1 cup white sugar 1 cup packed brown sugar 1 egg 2 teaspoons vanilla extract 3 1/2 cups all-purpose flour 1 teaspoon baking soda 1 teaspoon salt 1 cup cornflakes cereal 1 cup rolled oats 1 cup chopped walnuts 1 cup unsweetened flaked coconut
METHOD Preheat oven to 375 degrees F (190 degrees C). Beat butter and sugars until fluffy. Slowly add oil and beat until oil is well incorporated. Add egg and vanilla, beat to mix. In a small bowl, combine flour, soda and salt. Add to butter mixture and stir just until mixed. Combine corn flakes, oatmeal, nuts and coconut and add to cookie mixture; mix just until combined.
4.Use a cookie scoop to produce consistently sized cookies, but you can drop by rounded teaspoonfuls onto an ungreased cookie sheet, if you don't have a scoop. Bake at 375 degrees F (190 degrees C) for 12 minutes or until lightly browned. Since these are so rich, you can chill the individual balls of cookie dough and then freeze them in freezer bags. You can then take them directly from the freezer to the oven, just add a few minutes to the cooking time
BIBLIOGRAPHY ‘‘Bakery Processes and Products’’ inECT 1st ed., Vol. 2, pp. 273–287, by O. Skovholt, Quality Bakers of America. ‘‘Bakery Processes and Leavening Agents (Yeast-Raised Products)’’ inECT 2nd ed., Vol. 3, pp. 41–55, by W. B. Bradley, American Institute of Baking Department of Agriculture; inECT 4th ed., Vol. 3, pp. 876–902, by F. N. Y. Chung, Rhoˆne-Poulenc, Inc; ‘‘Bakery Processes, Yeast-Raised Products’’ inECT , posted by J. G. Ponte, Jr. and J. D. Payne, Kansas State University.
CITED PUBLICATIONS 1. H. E. Jacob,Six Thousand Years of Bread, Greenwood Press Publishers, Westport, Conn., 1970. 2. H. G. Muller,Baking and Bakeries, Shire Publications Ltd., Aylesbury, Bucks, UK, 1986 Fig. 1.Conventional dough process. (Courtesy of Union Machinery Division. American Machine & Foundry Co.)