Intrinsic and extrinsic toxins in food

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  • 1. Extrinsic & Intrinsic toxins by, ARPITHA.H.N. BASAVARAJ.G.S
  • 2. This topic covers  Introduction of toxins.  Definition.  Types of toxins.  Their characteristics.  Nature of occurrence.  Effects caused by toxins.  Methods to deactivate or prevent them.  Conclusion.  Reference.
  • 3.    A toxin (Greek: τοξικόν, toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced by living cells or organisms organic chemist Ludwig Brieger (1849–1919) first used the term 'toxin‘. Toxins can be small molecules, peptides, or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact with or absorption by body tissues interacting with biological macromolecules such as enzymes or cellular receptors. Toxins vary greatly in their severity, ranging from usually minor and acute.
  • 4.  Goitrogens: substances that cause goiters, i.e., an enlargement of the thyroid gland.  Tannins: complex plant compounds that are often bitter or astringent.  Phytoestrogens: plant analogues of the hormone estrogen.  Flatus-producing oligosaccharides: carbohydrates of small molecular weight that cause flatulence (gas).
  • 5.  Phytates: which bind minerals preventing absorption.  Saponins: Secondary metabolites.  Antivitamins: Ex: Dicoumarin is chemically related to vitamin K. Dicoumarin acts as an antagonist to vitamin K.  Flavonoids :inhibit enzyme systems in mammals.
  • 6.   Lead: It is found in newsprint, dyes, inks, plastics, glazing of ceramics, petro products . If ingested it is stored in Bones. It can be released into our bloodstream and can cause gastro-intenstinal, renal, neurological symptoms and anaemia. It is a long-term carcinogenic. Dioxin: It is found in plastics and stored in body tissues. It is a known carcinogenic and can cause cancer in the lung, liver and stomach as well as non- Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
  • 7.  Cadmium: It is found in glaze, enamel, plastics. It is stored in the liver, the kidneys and can cause kidney damage, anaemia, lung disorders, hypertension, bile diseases. It is a long-term carcinogenic.  Benzene: It is found in Plastics, rubber, glues, cigarettes. It is stored in body tissues, bone marrow. It can cause blood disorders, including leukemia.  Pthalates: It is found in plastics and stored in body tissues. It can cause liver and lung damage.
  • 8.   Some toxins are produced while processing of food products and affects consumer in many ways. some of them are listed below; Drink beverages such as apple, grape or orange juice that are high in vitamin C to counteract the effects of sodium nitrite. Do not cook with aluminum cookware. Aluminum is a poison to the system. Aluminum from the cookware gradually melts into the food you are cooking and goes into your body.
  • 9.  Don't use plastic food storage containers or bottles as they can put phthalates into your food and cause health issues with pituitary glands, thyroid, adrenal glands, and gonads, especially in children.  Avoid drinks and foods that have bright colors, strong flavors or odors because they typically have the toxin coal tar in them. Bright colors are extracted from coal tar and used for food dye in products.
  • 10.    Meat that can be kept in the refrigerator for long periods of time contain the toxin sodium nitrate which prevents bacteria from growing in the meat. Sodium nitrate mixes with stomach acid to form nitrosamines in the human body and this substance is known to cause many forms of cancer in our organs. Ex : salami, bologna and other meats. Processing is transforming raw ingredients into food in a factory. Most foods are processed with chemicals. A hormone called diethylstilbestrol is found in 85% of all meats sold in the United States. This hormone has been proven to cause breast cancer and cancer of the reproductive organs.
  • 11. Conclusion: By all these information we can conclude that food must be processed to inactivate naturally present toxins and should process in a scientific way that avoid evolution of intrinsic toxins.
  • 12. References: www.wikispot.info www.ehow.com www.wikipedia.org www.beyondveg.com Text book of NIN.
  • 13. Thank you